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of that; for it is mind that always governs. When it comes to dry understanding, man has the better.”
“The little volumes entitled Respublicæ, which are very well done, were a bookseller's work."
“ There is much talk of the misery which we cause to the brute creation ; but they are recompensed by existence. If they were not useful to man, and therefore protected by him, they would not be nearly so numerous." This argument is to be found in the able and benignant Hutchinson's Moral Philosophy. But the question is, whether the animals who endure such sufferings of various kinds for the service and entertainment of man, would accept of existence upon the terms on which they have it. Madame Sevigné, who, though she had many enjoyments, felt with delicate sensibility the prevalence of misery, complains of the task of existence having been imposed upon
her without her consent. “ That man is never happy for the present is so true, that all his relief from unhappiness is only forgetting bimself for a little while. Life is a progress from want to · want, not from enjoyment to enjoyment."
“ Though many men are nominally intrusted with the administration of hospitals and other publick institutions, almost all the good is done by one man, by whom the rest are driven on, owing to confidence in him, and indolence in them.”
“ Lord Chesterfield's Letters to his Son, I think, might be made a very pretty book. Take out the immorality, and it should be put into the hands of every young gentle
An elegant manner and easiness of behaviour are acquired gradually and imperceptibly. No man can say, • I'll be genteel. There are ten genteel women for one genteel man, because they are more restrained. A man without some degree of restraint is insufferable ; but we are all less restrained than women. Were a woman sitting in company to put out her legs before her as most men do, we should be tempted to kick them in."
No man was a more attentive and nice observer of behaviour in those
in whose company he happened to be, than Johnson; or, however strange it may seem to many, had a higher estimation of its refinements. Lord Elliot informs me, that one day when Johnson and he were at dinner in a gentleman's house in London, upon lord Chesterfield's Letters being mentioned, Johnson surprised the company by this sentence : “Every man of any education would rather be called a rascal, than accused of deficiency in the graces." Mr. Gibbon, who was present, turned to a lady who knew Jobnson well, and lived much with him, and in his quaint manner, tapping his box, addressed her thus: “Don't you think, madam,” looking towards Johnson, " that among all your acquaintance you could find one exception?" The lady smiled, and seemed to acquiesce.
“I read," said he,“ Sharpe's Letters on Italy over again, when I was at Bath. There is a great deal of matter in them.”
“ Mrs. Williams was angry that Thrale's family did not send regularly to her every time they heard from me while I was in the Hebrides. Little people are apt to be jealous: but they should not be jealous ; for they ought to consider, that superiour attention will necessarily be paid to superiour fortune or rank. Two persons may have equal merit, and on that account may have an equal claim to attention ; but one of them may have also fortune and rank, and so may have a double claim.”
Talking of his notes on Shakespeare, he said, “I despise those who do not see that I am right in the passage where as is repeated, and asses of great charge' introduced. That on · To be, or not to be,’ is disputable e.”
A gentleman whom I found sitting with him one morning, said, that in his opinion the character of an infidel was more detestable than that of a man notoriously guilty
e It may be observed, that Mr. Malone, in his very valuable edition of Shakespeare, has fully vindicated Dr. Johnson from the idle censures which the first of these notes has given rise to. The terpretation of the other passage, which Dr. Johnson allows to be disputable, he has clearly shown to be erroneous.--BOSWELL.
of an atrocious crime. I differed from him ;- because we are surer of the odiousness of the one than of the errour of the other. JOHNSON. “Sir, I agree with him ; for the infidel would be guilty of any crime if he were inclined to it.”
Many things which are false are transmitted from book to book, and gain credit in the world. One of these is the cry against the evil of luxury. Now the truth is, that luxury produces much good. Take the luxury of buildings in London. Does it not produce real advantage in the conveniency and elegance of accommodation, and this all from the exertion of industry? People will tell you, with a melancholy face, how many builders are in gaol. It is plain they are in gaol not for building; for rents are not fallen.-A man gives half a guinea for a dish of green peas. How much gardening does this occasion ? how many labourers must the competition to have such things early in the market keep in employment? You will hear it said very gravely, "Why was not the half guinea thus spent in luxury, given to the poor? To how many might it have afforded a good meal ?' Alas! has it not gone to the industrious poor, whom it is better to support than the idle poor? You are much surer that you are doing good when you pay money to those who work, as the recompense of their labour, than when you give money merely in charity. Suppose the ancient luxury of a dish of peacock's brains were to be revived, how many carcases would be left to the poor at a cheap rate? And as to the rout that is made about people who are ruined by extravagance, it is no matter to the nation that some individuals suffer. When so much general productive exertion is the consequence of luxury, the nation does not care though there are debtors in gaol; nay, they would not care though their creditors were there too.”
The uncommon vivacity of general Oglethorpe's mind, and variety of knowledge, having sometimes made his conversation seem too desultory, Johnson observed, “ Oglethorpe, sir, never completes what he has to say.”
He on the same account made a similar remark on Patrick lord Elibank : “Sir, there is nothing conclusive in his talk.”
When I complained of having dined at a splendid table without hearing one sentence of conversation worthy of being remembered, he said, “ Sir, there seldom is any such conversation.” BOSWELL. Why then meet at table ?” JOHNSON. “ Why to eat and drink together, and to promote kindness; and, sir, this is better done when there is no solid conversation : for when there is, people differ in opinion, and get into bad humour; or some of the company, who are not capable of such conversation, are left out, and feel themselves uneasy. It was for this reason sir Robert Walpole said, he always talked bawdy at his table, because in that all could join.”
Being irritated by hearing a gentleman ask Mr. Levet a variety of questions concerning him when he was sitting by, he broke out, “Sir, you have but two topicks, yourself and me. I am sick of both.”—“A man,” said he, “ should not talk of himself, nor much of any particular person. He should take care not to be made a proverb; and, therefore, should avoid having any one topick of which people can say, ' We shall hear him upon it.' There was a Dr. Oldfield, who was always talking of the duke of Marlborough. He came into a coffee-house one day, and told that his grace had spoken in the house of lords for half an hour. • Did he indeed speak for half an hour?' said Belcbier the surgeon.— Yes.'— And what did he say of Dr. Oldfield ?— Nothing.'—Why then, sir, he was very ungrateful; for Dr. Oldfield could not have spoken for a quarter of an hour without saying something of him.'
Every man is to take existence on the terms on which it is given to him. To some men it is given on condition of not taking liberties, which other men may take without much harm. One may drink wine, and be nothing the worse for it: on another, wine may have effects so inflammatory as to injure him both in body and mind, and per
haps make him commit something for which he may deserve to be hanged.”
“ Lord Hailes's Annals of Scotland have not that painted form which is the taste of this age ; but it is a book which will always sell, it has such a stability of dates, such a certainty of facts, and such a punctuality of citation. I never before read Scotch history with certainty.”
I asked him whether he would advise me to read the Bible with a commentary, and what commentaries he would recommend. Johnson. “To be sure, sir, I would have you read the Bible with a commentary; and I would recommend Lowth and Patrick on the Old Testament, and Hammond on the New."
During my stay in London this spring, I solicited his attention to another law case in which I was engaged. In the course of a contested election for the borough of Dumfermline, which I attended as one of my friend colonel (afterward sir Archibald) Campbell's counsel; one of his political agents, who was charged with having been unfaithful to his employer, and having deserted to the opposite party for a pecuniary reward-attacked very rudely in a newspaper the reverend Mr. James Thomson, one of the ministers of that place, on account of a supposed allusion to him in one of his sermons. Upon this the minister, on a subsequent Sunday, arraigned him by name from the pulpit with some severity; and the agent, after the sermon was over, rose up and asked the minister aloud, “What bribe he had received for telling so many lies from the chair of verity.” I was present at this very extraordinary scene. The person arraigned, and his father and brother, who also had a share both of the reproof from the pulpit and in the retaliation, brought an action against Mr. Thomson, in the court of session, for defamation and damages, and I was one of the counsel for the reverend defendant. The “liberty of the pulpit' was our great ground of defence; but we argued also on the provocation of the previous attack, and on the instant retaliation. The court of session, however-the fifteen judges, who are at