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early in the seventh century. Greek Economics are also treated in a little book by M. L. W. Laistner,1 who has collected a large number of passages dealing more or less closely with economic theory. With the exception of the treatise Tεpì róρwv the extracts are mostly slight and unconnected, but the author has done well with unpromising material.

We may disagree with some of Professor Goodell's " opinions on dramatic art, and refuse to accept his canons; but he writes with knowledge and insight of the fundamental ideas of Greek tragedy, and we cannot but recognise his appreciation both of the artistic qualities of individual plays and of the characters which he describes and analyses. Egill Rostrup treats the drama from the historical point of view, with little regard to Greek Tragedy as a living thing. He has some new theories as to its origin and the meaning of its name.

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Addenda Scenica, by R. J. Walker, contains discussions on Greek Tragedy, Satyric Drama and Comedy. The author claims to have established "the development about 350 B.C. of a satiric type of Satyricism, the ultimate source of Roman Satire." The essays on Dithyrambic Developments and on "Archaism" in the Alcestis and the Bacchae are the most interesting part of the book. Here, as in all his works, Mr. Walker displays great learning and ingenuity, but conservative scholars still regard him with suspicion.

Several minor pieces of work shew that the tragedians can still provide scholars with much material for their labours. D. S. Robertson tries to determine the ending of the Supplices trilogy of Aeschylus,' and suggests that the real intention of Aeschylus was to exalt the dignity of

1 London: Dent, 1923.

2 Athenian Tragedy: a Study in Popular Art; by T. D. Goodell Yale Univ. Press and Oxford Univ. Press; 21s.

3 Attic Tragedy; London: Constable, 1924.

4 Paris: Leroux, 1923.

5 Class. Rev., 1924, 3.

womanhood. The culminating scene in the last play may well have contained the institution of the festival of Thesmophoria. A. H. Krappe finds in the lost Alcmaeon of Euripides the original of the plot of the Apollonius Romance; 1 Miss M. Andrewes points out a large number of Euripidean echoes and quotations in Menander.

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I. Errandonea continues his observations on the part played by the Sophoclean chorus, having dealt recently with the Antigone, Electra, Philoctetes and Ajax. Th. Zielinski writes on the "posterior Thebaid" of Euripides, i.e. the Oenomaus, Chrysippus and Phoenissae, calling attention to the double tradition of the Oedipodea. Textual emendations in small quantities are published by E. Harrison, who banishes the word vonynths from the text of Sophocles, by Postgate and Vollgraff' (on Sophocles); and in greater bulk by N. Wecklein, whose book contains some sound emendations, but many that are unnecessary and undesirable. G. Italie's Hypsipyla includes criticisms on the papyrus and some attempts at the reconstruction of the text and elucidation of the plot.

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Of Aristophanes, Radermacher's excellent edition of the Frogs, 10 published in 1921, has, I believe, not been mentioned before in these pages. The Introduction contains a theory of the origin of Comedy, which the author considers to be a purely Athenian product, free from all Sicilian influence. Texts, with translation by V. Coulon, of the Acharnians, Clouds and Knights appeared in the Paris Les belles lettres series last year.

1 Class. Quart., 1924, 2.

3 Mnemos, 1923, 2, 3; 1924, I, 3.

5 Class. Rev., 1924, 3.

7 Ibid., 1923, 4.

2 Ibid., 1924, I.

4 Ibid, 1924, 2.

• Mnemos, 1924, I.

8 Textkritische Studien zu den Griechischen Tragikern; München : Bayerische Akad. der Wissenschaften.

Euripidis Hypsipyla; Berlin: Ebering, 1923.

10 Aristophanes' Frösche; L. Radermacher; Wien. Akad. der Wiss..

The First Greek Anthologist, by A. D. Knox,1 is a dissertation on three papyrus fragments published by Gerhard of Heidelberg in 1909. The text, which contains only 106 lines, is assigned by Mr. Knox to Cercidas, who made an anthology, used by Gregory of Nazianzus, in the latter half of the third century B.C. This Cercidas is identified with the author of the Meliambi (Pap. Oxyr. 1082). The remains are not of any literary interest. The literary history of the poems of Anacreon is the subject of a book by Prof. L. A. Michelangeli, who traces the cult of Anacreon through ancient and modern times. It is unfortunate that no quotations are given from the original though the work is freely illustrated by translations into Italian verse. Mr. E. M. Cox in the Poems of Sappho gives the text of the most important poems with a prose translation, and adds many verse translations. Some of the latter are intended to be in the Sapphic metre, but the omission of many of them would improve the book; they appear to have little concern with either metre or rhythm according to ordinary standards. Mr. Wright, who translates Meleager, is more satisfactory from the English reader's point of view because he has avoided the pitfall of classical metre and been content to produce simple and tuneful modern verse. *

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T. R. Glover's Studies in Herodotus 5 is a series of lectures delivered in America. These were addressed to a general audience, and must have been excellently suited to their purpose. The treatment is pleasant and sympathetic, and Mr. Glover has contrived to give the book a unity which is sometimes lacking in such reprints of lectures. Mr. Wells in his Studies in Herodotus goes somewhat

1 C.U.P., 1923.

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2 Anacreonte e la sua fortuna nei secoli; Bologna: Zanichelli, 1922.

3 London: Williams and Norgate, 1924.

The complete poems of Meleager of Gadara; F. A. Wright; London :

S. Birch, 1924.

5 University of California Press, 1924.

• Oxford: Blackwell, 1923.

deeper than Glover; he has much of new theory, cautiously propounded and carefully supported. He is on the whole conservative in his scholarship and thoroughly sound in his methods.

Very few scholars have spent so long in reading and carefully studying Aristotle as Mr. W. D. Ross, and his new book1 gives us a summary of his own wide knowledge. It is a somewhat austere work, for Mr. Ross wishes not to amuse but to instruct. To give in a single volume a clear idea of an author who touched and adorned practically all branches of knowledge is a great task. Mr. Ross must be given credit for keeping the proportions right and for making the best of a very difficult subject. W. L. Lorimer in The text tradition of the pseudo-Aristotle de Mundo prepares the way for a critical edition of the treatise which he hopes to publish shortly. The present volume is very thorough. An appendix contains the text of the mediaval Latin versions. Lane Cooper has reconstructed what Aristotle might have said about Comedy. Professor Cooper finds in the tenth century treatise of the de Coislin Collection at Paris a theory of Comedy which may well have been derived from Aristotle; he supplements the tractate by taking what Aristotle actually says about Comedy and what may be inferred from his expressed views about other forms of literature and art.

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Karl Kunst gives us a careful edition of some not inconsiderable fragments of rhetorical papyri in a very fair state of preservation, containing part of a speech written for Leptines and a dialogue between Demades and the Corinthian Dinarchus at Pella; Vorndran discusses the political motives underlying Demosthenes'

1 Aristotle; London: Methuen, 1923.

2 St. Andrew's University Publications, 1924.

3 An Aristotelian Theory of Comedy, with an adaptation of the Poetics and a translation of the Tractatus Coislinianus; New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1922.

• Rhetorische Papyri; Berlin: Weidmann, 1920.

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in Aristocratem, especially in relation to the party of Eubulus. A. Boulanger makes a study of Aelius Aristides, a Sophist who, though revered down to the fourth century A.D., fell into a well-deserved unpopularity from which even M. Boulanger cannot rescue him. The book contains an interesting account of the change in the position of the Sophists under Nerva.

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H. M. Hubbell has undertaken a difficult task in the Rhetorica of Philodemus, of which he gives a translation, or rather an abridged paraphrase. The commentary, which consists of rather short notes, might well have been more copious. Most of the work is based on the edition of Sudhaus.

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The Life of Pythagoras by Diogenes Laertius has been edited with a commentary by A. Delatte. Other essays and notes to be recorded are those of M. Engers on the fragments of Hecataeus of Abdera, i.e. the fragments contained in Josephus and Diodorus and relating to Jewish history; A. J. Kronemburg's notes on Plutarch's Moralia; M. N. Tod 6 on Appian ; and a more comprehensive work on the text of Julian by F. Boulenger.

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Wilamowitz' Lesefrüchte cover a vast amount of ground, from Sophocles to Julian, and discuss the interpretation and text of numerous authors between these limits.

Two further instalments of the Corpus Medicorum

1 Rhet. Studien herausg: von Dr. E. Drerup; die Aristokratea des Demosthenes als Advokatenrede und ihre politische Tendenz; by Dr. Liborius Vorndran; Paderborn: Schöningh, 1922.

* Aelius Aristide et la Sophistique dans la province d'Asie au IIme siècle Paris: Boccard, 1923.

3 New Haven, Connecticut, 1920.

• Brussels: Hayez, 1922.

6 Ibid., 1924, I.

5 Mnemos, 1923, 2.

7 Class. Quart., 1924, 2.

• Revue critique sur le texte de l'Empéreur Julien; Facultés Catho

liques de Lille, 1923.

• Hermes, 1924, 2.

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