Page images

latifundia. The articles Banken," by Laum, and "Giroverkehr," by Kiessling, give much the best general survey of Greek banking technique that has hitherto been attempted. The backwardness of the Athenian bankers, and the refined procedure of the money-dealers in Egypt, are perhaps the points of chief interest. The difficult question of the relation of Greek banks to the state authorities is discussed by Ziebarth in the light of evidence from inscriptions.


Unlike Beloch, who lays stress on the modernity of Greek economic practice (see p. 24), Bolkestein, Hasebroek and the writers in Pauly-Wissowa-Kroll emphasise its greater primitiveness, and by comparison with the technique of the later Middle Ages prove that in many respects the Greeks lagged behind these. But exception must be made on behalf of Ptolemaic Egypt and Pergamum, whose standard will bear comparison with that of the seventeenth or early eighteenth century. Moreover, Greek economic practice, however rudimentary, travelled well ahead of economic theory. A perusal of M. Laistner's Greek Economics, which contains all the best contributions by Greek writers to the subject, will show that these never outgrew economic babyhood.


(d) Warfare.-Greek battles have been often described but seldom explained. Great value, therefore, attaches to an article by W. W. How3 which traces the laws underlying the apparent inconsequence of Greek campaigns. How formulates his guiding principal as follows under ancient conditions equipment conditioned tactics and tactics determined strategy. This principle deserves to be well tested. It has already been applied with good results to Roman warfare."

1 Zeit. f. Num., 1924, PP. 36-50.

2 London: Dent, 1923; xliii.+204 pp.; 5s.

3 J.H.S., 1923, PP. 117-132.

▲ By Ed. Meyer in Berl. Sitz., 1923, pt. 3.




Histories of Rome and Works of a General Character.

[ocr errors]

In some ways the most noticeable publication of the year is H. Dessau's Geschichte der römischen Kaiserzeit : I-Bis zum ersten Thronwechsel. The task here attempted is difficult, and the author emerges with his reputation as a scholar unimpaired: but it cannot be said that room has not been left for another treatment of the subject. D. stoops to be popular, so far at least as to practise the strictest economy in references to the evidence. There have also appeared The Legacy of Rome —fourteen essays edited by C. Bailey-and The Legacy of the Ancient World, by W. G. de Burgh. With these perhaps may go the late F. F. Abbott's Roman Politics, an attractive little sketch. More serious is M. Rostovtzeff's article La Crise sociale et politique de l'Empire romain au III® Siècle après J.-C. Here the main thesis is that the recruitment of the army from the backward country population transferred power thereto from the inhabitants of the towns, and so produced inefficiency and decay. E. Cavaignac's Population et Capital dans le Monde méditerranéen antique contains some estimates-not always convincing-of the revenues from the provinces.



1 Berlin: Weidmann, 1924, viii.+585 pp.; 23s. 6d.

2 Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923, xii. +512 pp. and 77 illustrations ; 8s. 6d.

8 London: Macdonald and Evans, 1924, xvi. +462 pp. ; 15s,

4 Boston: Marshall Jones, 1923, 177 PP.; 5s.

5 Mus. belge, 1923.

Strasbourg: Lib. Istra, 1923, viii.+163 pp.; 8 francs.










In Nuov. Riv. stor.1 there is a long survey of recent work on La Vita economica nell' antichità classica by C. B(arbagallo). A. Oxé tries again to tackle Hyginus 167-171 (Thulin) in Die röm. Vermessung steuerpflichtigen Bodens. 2 The articles Landwirtschaft (Orth), Leges agrariae (Vančura), 3 Latium (the important part of which is by Gelzer), Legatus (v. Premerstein), Latini Iuniani (Steinwenter), Legio (Ritterling), Röm. Kriegskunst (Lammert) and Kaiserkult (Herzog-Hauser) will perhaps be the most acceptable to Roman historians of those in the new parts of Paul.-Wiss. Not less important than these is U. Wilcken Zu den Edikten, which, besides containing remarks on the edict of Ti. Alexander and on Pap. Fay. 20 (aur. cor.), produces valuable results of a general kind, particularly on the permanence of edicts issued by the praef. Aeg. The second and third sections of Kromayer-Veith's Schlachtenatlas (vide Y.W., 1922–3, p. 35) continue to Actium. E. Meyer's Das Wesen und Entwicklung des. röm. Manipularheeres is an interesting paper; it deals at length with the influence of weapons on formations and with the Polybian army. Not less useful in its way is J. Sulser's Disciplina: Beiträge zur inneren Gesch. des röm. Heeres von Augustus bis Vespasian. There should also be mentioned a serviceable piece of work-A. Köster's Das antike Seewesen. 8



Of great value both for its text and for its many magnificent illustrations is Eugenia Strong's La Scultura romana da Augusto a Costantino-I., which goes down to the Flavians. The work is almost entirely new, and the

1 1921, pp. 653-678.


2 Bonn. Jahrb., 128.

3 23 Halbb. Kynesioi-Legio (Art. Legio is unfinished).


4. Supplb.

5 Zeit. Sav.-Stift. XLII., Rom. Abt.

• Abh, Berl. Akad., 1923.

Dachau: Verlag " Bayerland," n.d.; 4s. 6d.; 72 pp.

• Berlin Schoetz-Parrhysius, 1923, 254 PP.; 12s.

• Florence: Alinari, 1923, xviii.+151 pp., 33 plates and 96 figures

21s. 6d.

two further volumes which are to follow will be eagerly awaited. Le Terme di Diocleziano e il Museo nazionale romano by R. Paribeni1 has appeared in a fourth edition. H. Mattingly and E. A. Sydenham are to be thanked for The Roman Imperial Coinage I. : Augustus to Vitellius-a book which should be of service where the new B.M. catalogue is not to be found. The second volume, which is to cover the period from Vespasian to Hadrian, will be valuable. H. Mattingly has also continued his article in J.R.S., 1917, with The Mints of the Empire: Vespasian to Diocletian.


Les Inscriptions romaines: Bibliographie pratique by L. Perret is a concise guide to the various collections and their present state of incompleteness. Here too may perhaps be mentioned the important finds at Anzio, Palestrina and Ostia. 5 From the first (vide Y.W., 1922-3, p. 106) comes a pre-Caesarian calendar and also fragmentary fasti showing consuls and censors from 164 to 84 B.C. Palestrina produces a new addition to Fast. Praen. which seems to cover 20-24 Oct. and to fix 23 Oct as the date of Philippi. In reaching this result Hülsen has been led to shift the fragment of Fast. Arv. assigned by Henzen (p. ccxxxv.) to 23rd April from that month to October. This and the less interesting calendar from Ostia, together with that from Antium, have been examined by G. Wissowa in Neue Bruchstücke des röm. Festkalenders, which also essays to put the Pannonian

[ocr errors]

1 Rome: R. Garroni, 1922, 318 pp.+20 plates; lire 10.

2 London: Spink, 1923, v. +279 pp. and 16 plates; 15s.

* J.R.S., 1921.

Paris: Klincksieck, 1924, 42 pp.; 2.50 francs.

5 Anzio (Mancini), Pal. (O. Marucchi), Ostia (Calza), all in Not. Scavi, 1921.

• Sopra alcuni frammenti dei fasti Arvalici e Praenestini in Atti della Ac. rom. arch. This I have not seen.

7 Hermes, 1923.

« PreviousContinue »