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fresh and wonderful some item of bee The Future of the N. B. K. Society. lore may be, do not raise a flourish of trumpets over it as a discovery, until you We were greatly relieved to find from the are sure old Keyes knew nothing about

December munber of the A. B. J., that the

N. B. K. Soc. is to live on in some form, it. And remember that after all, success

and we hope it will be with growing in bee-keeping, like many other things,

strength and prosperity. A note from Presdepends on a regard to principles old as

ident Andrew's forshadows a scheme to the hills. It is often the case that what

make the Society a beneficiary one, like is new is not true, and what is true is not

that of the Locomotive Engineers. At our } W.F.C. i suggestion and request, he embodies his

views in an article in this issue, which will Le Some of the wrapping paper we used no doubt elicit the opinions of the bee-keeplast month had been spoiled in printing ing fraternity, and we hope result in the Centennial Advertising Cards. It contained adoption of a course that will be satisfacthe "faces" of all the candidates for presi- tory to all. What is needed is a bond of dential honors. A friend who happened to sympathy and union, a method of co-operaget one not agreeing with his political faith, tion, opportunity for discussion, and comwrote to ask us if we intended to bull-doze bined action for the promotion of a common him? Certainly not! We only intended a interest. We shall gladly go in for any gentle "bee-doze.” Wrappers are only in- ' scheme that meets general approval, and tended to protect the journals while passing hope to be in a position shortly to do more through the mails, and should not be ex- for the advancement of apiculture, than we pected to bear intelligence other than the have been able to attempt for some time address of the subscriber.

past.

W. F.C.

We have received from friend Becktell a sample of the foundation he purchased of Novice, and he wishes us to state our opinion of its purity. We have not been able to detect anything in it other than pure beeswax, though it seems to be much softer than the pure article. Some tallow may have been mixed with it, as Novice intimates, by an oversight. Whatever may be said of foundation—when made of pure beeswax-all unite in pronouncing it a general nuisance when it contains paraffine or other ingredients.

Friend Murphy has sent the superbly-finished Extractor he had at the Centennial Exhibition, to this office, where it can be examined by all our callers who did not see it at Philadelphia. It is a real beauty. Mr. Murphy says: “I do not pretend to get up a very stylish extractor, but for ease in operating, durability, and for doing the least injury to the comb, I do not think it can be beaten; and as to the honey knives, I have not seen anything that will compare with mine for convenience in operating upon straight or uneven combs."

December was a cold month. From 10 to 26 deg. below zero in the Northern States, and at zero to 10 deg, below in the Southern States. Fortunately, the bees were in winter quarters before the "cold snap" came; else it may have done much damage.

Friend Muth of Cincinnati, O., is doing a good work in trying to introduce the use of honey where, heretofore, grape sugar has been used exclusively. Brewers, wine producers and liquor manufacturers use millions of pounds of grape sugar annually. To convince them that honey is better adapted to such uses, will be to find a new market for millions of pounds of honey annually. The time is coming, no doubt, when honey will be used by TONS where now pounds only are demanded. Brewers will be the principal consumers of the above classes, but all, and others too, will yet find it to be to their advantage to use honey in abundance.

It is expected that our friend, CLARKE, the former editor of this paper will take up his permanent residence in Chicago soon. As we have already made arrangements to have him “office' with us -THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL will receive some of his attention. As to how much, let the next issue tell. Suffice it to say that we expect to make the numbers for 1877 surpass all that have preceded them.

em It will be noticed with pleasure by all, that this issue is enlarged and improved. Its beautifully white paper vieing with the neatness of its cover in making an attractive appearance.

We send THE AMERICAN BEE JOU'RNAL and the Bee-Keepers' Magazine for 1877 for $2.75--a little over the price of one.

Our Exchanges.

it all thus for comb honey; but for the brood chamber, we believe the dark wax to be equally good.”

Our Letter Box.

BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. Friend Abbott has removed to Southall, and there proposes to start a School of Api

Columbiana Co., O., Dec. 24, 1876,-" This culture, which he thius describes:

has been the best honey season for years, "It comprises nearly four acres of pad- and the honey was of extra quality. Bees dock, orchard, lawn, garden, and premises;

gathered it almost the whole summer, and and being almost surrounded by open pas

till frost came."

Jos. HUESTIS. ture-land, orchards, and gardens, we hope i it will serve as a m-ans to illustrate every

Ingham Co., Mich., Nov. 24, 1876. “Last phase of bee-keeping. It is proposed to season was a poor one, though I wintered build a light, movable tent, with gauze

51 colonies without loss, and received 75 front, in which nervous visitors may view

new swarms, and 3000 lbs. comb honey, and any and every kind of manipulation in per

about 500 of extracted.” John L. DAVIS. fect safety, yet be so close to the operators that every word of explanation shall be Montgomery Co., Ind., Dec. 23, 1876.audible to those whose hearing is not defec

"The honey season was good till July. tive."

Since then bees gathered no surplus. The

bee business is on the increase here. I am BEE-KEEPERS MAGAZINE.

building up a home market for my extract

ed honey at 2c. I was troubled considerAfter remarking upon the very slim honey ably with fertile workers.” show at the Centennial, friend King says :

ISAAC SHARP. ** Capt. Hetherington, an uncommonly

Crawford Co., Pa., Nov. 22, 1876.—“I am busy man, visited the Exhibition in September and was so struck with the lack of en

trying to make bee-keeping pay, but I never

could do anything great with a large number terprise exhibited in this department, that he went straight home and at considerable

of colonies; but with a small number, I

have realized $35 per hive. That is doing expense shipped and put up in fine style in the centre of the large Agricultural Hall,

very well, but why cannot that be done with about 3000 pounds of his nicest wliite clover bees, extractor, frame live, and foundation

from 100 to 200 colonies? I have the Italian box honey, and for this act of pure patriotism, he deserves and will receive, not only

comb, and can manipulate bees in any way the premium from the Centennial Commis

I please,--practice artificial swarming in sion, but the lasting gratitude of every

part. I also have a number of works on American bee-keeper. We understand he

bee-culture, and read all the journals."

J. M. STEPHENSON. is now preparing his 1600 colonies for win

Chickasaw Co., Iowa, Nov. 20, 1876.-" In GLEANINGS IN BEE-CULTURE.

the fall of 1872, I had 59 stocks of bees; lost

all but 9 during the following winter ; inHOW TO PREPARE WITH CHAFF.

creased, during 1873, to 31 stocks, and lost Novice remarks that “in using chatf for

all but I during the winter. In 1874, in

creased to 11, and lost all but 5 wintering. out-door wintering, it is well to have a va

In 1875, increased to 11 again, and succeeded cant space above the chaff under the roof;

in saving them all, in perfect condition, and the roof or cover must not be too close

through last winter. I have now 31 stocks fitting, or you will have frost and dampness

in fine condition for winter, and have taken collecting on its under side, that may run down and wet the chaff packing. If you

during the past season about 100 lbs. of honwill take a look at the under side of the

ey, mostly extracted. Was troubled by late

swarming, having two first swarms come cover after a freeze, you will get the idea. To carry off this dampness, the air must be

off on September 2, nearly a month later

than usual. It will be seen by the above allowed to circulate to some extent above brief account of my bee keeping experience the chaff; raising the cover a little, or having

that I have made an almost total failure of holes covered with wire-cloth just under the

wintering for several winters, until last eaves, will answer. Be sure you keep the

winter, and of course I am very much inchaif dry, and that none of your covers are

terested in learning how others manage, leaky:

who have been successful; and I judge that ('OMB FOUNDATIOX.

a large number of the subscribers of the “MR. DOOLITTLE brought us a cake of JOURNAL are interested as much as I am. yellow wax to be made into foundation, -5 I would suggest that your subscribers be cells to the inch for brood combs-that for asked to send you brief reports from time beauty and purity, goes considerably ahead to time to enable you to tabulate and publish of any furnished us heretofore. When ques- such tables as the one sent you by the tioned he said it was purified with vinegar, North Eastern B. K. Society last spring, as given in Quinby's book. On turning to and published on page 74 of your March the page we find:

number. Such persons who may report 'By adding an acid to the water in which extra good success can be requested to give the wax is melted, it may be separated much their management more in detail." more readily. A quart of vinegar to a gal

0. 0. POPPLETON. lon of water, or a small spoonful of nitric

[We should be glad to have such “reacid is sufticient."

Such wax makes beautiful yellow founda- ports ;" believing that it would be a very tion, and it will without doubt pay to treat interesting table.-Ed.]

ter,"

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Henry Co., Ind., Dec. 6, 1876.-" I am a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church in active service as a Presiding Elder, and keep bees as a recreation, and for the help they afford in making up the deficiencies in my salary. I have been, i think, quite successful and have found the employment profitable. My bees have paid me not less than $200 over all expenses this year, not counting the value of 14 hives increase. I obtained 1,500 tbs. of choice honey. I have now 51 colonies of Italian bees, nearly all pure, and in good condition for winter. I always had a liking for the handling and managing of bees, and to my enthusiasm in the matter I attribute my success."

M. MAHIN.

Clifton, Tenn., Dec. 4, 1876.-"As there was no surplus honey the past season here, bees are in a very poor condition for wintering.”

C. WEEKS. Putnam Co., Ill., Dec. 1, 1876.--"My bees made honey very fast until July 20; having then made 400 four-pound boxes of honey. There was then nearly 1,000 boxes partly filled, which they have since emptied.'

OTTO HALBLEIB. Stephenson Co., III., Dec. 14, 1876.—"I had 11 stands of bees in the spring. I increased to 29. Got 1,17142 Ibs. of box honey. My best swarm gave 126 Pbs. surplus."

ROBERT JONES.

Fredonia, N. Y., Nov. 8, 1876.-" In May last I had 49 stocks of bees, which increased to 106, giving 1800 tbs. of box_honey. The fore part of the season, from June 1st to the middle of July was very fine, but about that time the drouth came on, shortening the honey season about two weeks. The most of our honey is produced from white clover, and baswood. Will Mr. --, the great Minnesota apiarian give his method of wintering, &c., through THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL?”

P. MILLER.

Waterbury, Conn., Dec. 11, 1876.—“I feel exceedingly indebted to the bee journals for almost all of the knowledge I possess on bees, although I think there is much ehaff amongst the grain, and I do not know where the most of it can be found unless it be on the subject of Wintering; because so far as my experience goes both wintering and springing are very simple-long-winded orations to the contrary notwithstanding. My practice has been to shelter from the north and west, give upward ventilation, have 114 inch hole above the packing on top of the hive and in both ends of top. This will winter a pint of bees if the hive is contracted and the entrance made in the vacant end of the hive and under the division board. I thank our old friend Gallup for the hint on entrances. But if I should not be as successful this winter as I have for the last 16, I may have to follow suit and fill my garden full of well curbs, as some seem desirous of doing. Seven of my hives have glass on all sides, 2 panes 92x14. and two, 9x9, and when these are packed between the glass and shutter with an old newspaper, I believe will winter quite as well as the rest. I do not think so much of large colonies as most bee-keepers seem to, as my small colonies seem to do quite as well in spring as the large ones. To be sure they need earlier attention, earlier feeding, but then a small stock does not eat much, and you have the fun of feeding and fussing over them after the long respite of winter and when there is little else you can do. I think it the very quintessence of enjoyment tinkering up a little swarm, and with a good queen it is astonishing how fast they will breed up to strong stocks. I use the Gallup frame, 12 and 14 frames in a hive. Being out of health all last summer, I could do but little for my bees and they in consequence did but little for me. I am now in readiness for next year's work."

WM. H. KIRK.

Allegan Co., Mich., Dec. 18, 1876.- “Two years ago I bought a black swarm in a box hive, and in the spring, after they had swarmed, transferred them to what we call the Johnson hive, which is a modification of the Langstroth. Both swarms wintered well, and this last summer I made 10 swarmıs of them, and all have their hives (9 frames) well filled. I have 132 lbs. of box honey. This I think is good enough for a beginner.”

HENRY BIRD, Jr: Bureau Co., Ill., Oct. 23, 1876.-—"This summer, while crossing the pasture to the harvest field, I was about to pull up a bunch of weeds, but my attention was called to the number of bees at work on them, so I let it stand. Afterwards I thought them honeyproducing plants, and would gather the seed and Sow it. I found them to be catnip. So I followed the hedge fence where I thought most likely to find it; cut it off with my knife (got pretty well

' scratched), dried and rubbed it out. It is a small seed, an ounce will sow quite a patch.".

E. PICKUP.

Noble Co., Ind., Dec. 16, 1876.-—“ September was wet and cold, and as my bees could not gather honey, they destroyed their brood. As I was sick in bed I could not feed them; so now I have none but old bees, and they are dropping off fast. I have some packed in sawdust, some in buckwheat chaff, some in large bins (one holding 26 hives, entrance free to all, so that they can fly out at pleasure), some in store boxes, and some in a "dug out," leaving the front open. I had 27 stands in the spring; increased to 75, but obtained only 300 lbs. of extracted and box honey. I have kept bees ever since 1845."

F. R. DAVIS.

Fulton, Ill., Dec. 18, 1876.—“I commenced the season with 50 swarms, 15 of them very light; have increased by natural swarming and division to 80; have sold $415 worth of honey and beeswax (only made wax from the uncappings from extracting), and have on hand and given away and used in family about $50 worth. The honey was all gathered from white clover, in about 3 weeks, except about 400 lbs. of late honey. The fall of '76 was the nearest a failure of any since 1862 here. The extracted honey I sold at 124.c. per Ib., and comb from 16 to 20c. per lb.; all in my home market. I use the Langstroth hive and Italian bees, and for convenience in handling, for extracted or comb honey I have not seen a hive its equal in my estimation; and as to bees I would not have black bees while I can get Italians, as the Italians are more gentle, more prolific and better workers; or at least they are for me. I have 3 imported queens in my apiary

Correspondence.

now, and I think that a crossing of the bees
by raising queens from one importation and
drones from another, will produce better
workers than raising queens and drones
froin the same stock of bees."
R. R. MURPHY.

For the American Bee Journal.

When and How to Change Queens. Orange Co., N. Y.-"Last spring I had 20 hives, have now 32, and have obtained about I find it profitable about once a year to 578 pounds of honey in four-pound boxes and overhaul and cliange queens.

When a have about 100 pounds in frames. The hives queen is 3 years old, even if a very good one are now all in good order with more than in the spring of the 4th summer she will enough honey for wintering. The honey probably begin to fail, 4 out of 5 will do so. here is of superior quality, being made from We change our queens about from July locust blossoms and white clover ; there is 1st to 10th. Just when the white clover beno buckwheat raised about this section, con- gins to fail to secrete honey, at that time sequently have no dark-colored or strong the swarming fever is nearly over. We rehoney stored in boxes. Being made from move an old queen or separate a full colony such flowers, it is the finest flavored honey from a good stock of workers and start as produced anywhere. My apiary at New many queens cells as possible, and on the Windsor Nursery is composed of Italian, ninth day after, remove a good cell and put hybrids and black bees, but I find the Italian one in each hive, in the honey boxes on top. far ahead, especially in times of scarcity of Don't disturb the old queen; as soon as the honey. I had one swarm of Italians that young queen hatches, she will crawl down stored in boxes 66 pounds the last three into the hive, and at once the bees will acweeks of June, and have since made 22 cept the young queen. The old queen will pounds, also in boxes. Others have made soon be disposed of. Do not throw her out, 50 to 40, and so down to 10 pounds each. I for if the queen larvæ is 2 or 3 days hatchuse a movable-comb frame hive of my own ing, they will start other cells, and throw getting up, and it has thus far proved å com- out the young queen. Put them in a top plete success. While some with common honey box,and the bees will hardly ever cut box hives and the old fashioned way of keep- them out, and in this way an apiary can be ing bees have very little honey or hives, I supplied with new queens very readily. now, after three years' practice, have more

ALFRED CHAPMAN. honey and bees than I know what to do Hancock Co., W. Va. with.'

MARCUS D. DuBois. San Buenaventura, Cal., Dec. 4, 1876.—

For the American Bee Journal. ** The large quantities of honey produced Northern Minnesota Apiaries. in South-western California and deposited mainly in San Francisco is being rapidly

The season of 1876 was rather a poor one sent off to all parts of the world, and 'sale's

for bee men in Northern Minnesota; the are becoming more easy at higher figures ; yet the risks of sending comb-honey long

spring was cold and windy. From the 20th

of May to the middle of June honey was distances is making the demand for ex

more plenty; then dry, hot weather set in, tracted honey greater ; thus bringing the

and honey was scarce till July 25, when price of the two nearer together. This

basswood came into bloom; then honey was county, Ventura, young in the bee business,

abundant for 2 weeks. The weather was is one of the best in the state, and is rapidly fine and the bees stored honey rapidly. increasing in its number of colonies, and

From Aug. 10 to Oct. 1 we had very unour bee-keepers' conventions assist much in perfecting their management. We have had

favorable weather for honey gathering; it

was cloudy or raining full one-third of the one shower of rain since last March, and ex

time. Honey and pollen was plenty all pect some more sometime this winter, although it is now as warm and sunshiny as

through the fall, although we had a heavy in July.”

R. WILKIN.

frost on Aug. 26 and Sept. 1; after that the nights were cold, and bees could work but

a few hours each day. Nov. 9 and 10, my Nazareth, Pa., Dec. 4, 1876.-"I was at the bees stored 2 or 3 tbs. of honey to the hive; Centennial at the time of the honey exhibi- but what they found to gather honey from tion, though too late to be present at the is a mystery to me; everything looked dead Convention. I was pleased to meet the and as dry as a chip. greatest apiarian in the world, Mr. Harbi- I commenced last spring with 3 stocks; son, who has 3,000 stand of bees, and who when I took them out of the cellar, I transbrought in from California 100 tons of ferred them from box hives into the “North honey comb. He kindly drew a sketch of Star” movable frame hive, with only good his hive, and explained his mode of pro- comb enough to fill 5 or 6 frames to the ceedure and the arrangement of his surplus hive. I run them for increase of stocks. boxes, and cheerfully answered the many Now I have 12 strong stocks in winter quarquestions asked him, for which he deserves ters, in good condition. I got enough surthe sincere thanks of those of us who were plus box honey to more than pay me for all present. I was also pleased to see Mr. my trouble. Latchaw, of Barkeyville, Venango Co., Pa., Honey-plants are plenty here. In the exhibit his Union Section Extention bee spring we have first the willow, poplar, hive; he took the sections apart, showing gooseberry, wild currents, plum, cherry, the combs with the adhering bees and june-berry, prickly ash, black and red haw, queen. It was a real pleasure to see so raspberry, with many wild flowers; then many of our apiarian friends at the Centen- bass wood and buckwheat, golden-rods, asnial. Accept my best wishes for you and tors, starworts, and many other frost the continued success of THE AMERICAN flowers.

A. J. HANEY. BEE JOURNAL."

WY. CHRIST. Todd Co., Minn., Nov. 29, 1876.

For the American Bee Journal.

Honey in Frames. I have been keeping bees for 7 years, and in that time have taken all my surplus in frames, and like it the best. The frames of my hive are 12 inches from front to rear, which I think a very good size. The frames for surplus honey are 12x625 inches outside measure, and contain from 3 to 4 lbs., according to the thickness of the comb. If I want to extract the honey, which I generally do, these small frames are very convenient, and can be removed and returned without disturbing the brood nest. If I wish to sell the honey in the comb, I find the small frames much more convenient than boxes. The bees are easily shaken and brushed off, while a good deal of skill and patience is required to get them out of boxes. Honey in such frames as I have described is easily handled, and sells very readily at good prices. If to be shipped, cases can be made which will hold the frames in such a position, and with such firmness that with careful handling there is no danger of injury to the combs.

I use no honey-board between the brood department and the frames for surplus honey. If I desire comb honey exclusively I would use a honey-board, as the queen would be less likely to deposit eggs in the upper story; but as I use the extracter largely, if a comb is blackened by having brood raised in it, no great harm is done. I frequently cut drone comb out of the frame in the brood chamber and put it into the small frames. It is better for the extractor than worker comb, as the honey is more easily thrown out of large cells than small ones.

When starting bees to work in the frames for surplus, it is important to give them two or more frames filled, or partially filled with comb. They are more likely in that case to build straight combs. While comb building it is necessary that they should be looked after occasionally as they will sometimes build from the bottom upward, and do very crooked work. I think Italian bees are more apt to begin at the bottom than black bees are. I do not wish to be understood as disparaging Italian bees. I think them much better, in more respects than one, than black bees; and I keep my Italians as pure as possible.

M. MAHIN. Newcastle, Ind., Dec. 14, 1876.

honey, of about 5 tys. capacity tach; 40 boxes in the aggregate, a little inore or less at pleasure, placed in close comection with the body of the hive; each directly accessable to the bees.

3. With these boxes, placed early in the season, before the queen has made any arrangement for swarming, by preparing queen cells, they will give alunost certain if not perfect security against the issuing of a swarm, and will in a good season give the 40 5-th. surplus boxes full of surplus honey, more or less; depending upon the field and the season.

4. To be secure against swarming it will be requisite to have the colony of bees well shaded from the sun. Great heat, or the presence of enemies may drive them out, whatever room they may have for their operations or in whatever shape it may be.

5. This will not be a very beavy expense. Glass boxes will be paid for in the sale of the honey; 200 tbs. of honey would sell for from $40 to $50. If no market, it would be very convenient to have 200 lbs. of first-rate honey for use in the family.

6. The expense of this annual income would be for one colony of bees say $8, and one hive say $5, amounting to $i;. This whole expense is more than doubly paid the first year, and all the after products in coming years clear gain. To secure the fullest success let them send for THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL and read it carefully.

Woodstock, Vt. JASPER ILAZEN.

For the American Bee Journal. Chips from Sweet Home. I lately had the pleasure of visiting the apiaries of Putman, at Galesburg, and Cramer and Kellogg, of Oneida, Ill. The former apiary consists of 80 or 90 hives, located in an orchard in the city of Galesburg. I saw a lot of his honey, which was choice white clover. This bives were very leavy and too full of honey for their future wellfare. He has no slinger and in this he saw the need of one. He has also a lot of sertions partly filled which should be emptied, the comb saved for spring. His hives and yard were neat. I found him a talkative gentleman willing to impart and receive knowledge. Jie thonght "the disease" was caused by a draft of air through the hive in cold weather; but this is a mistake, for we had the disease in the cellar as well as outdoors, and hives all grades of ventilations, He winters ont-doors, cuts off all upward ventilation, or rather wants to; in taking off his honey boxes, which were set next the frames, and then putting on the honeyboard, he must necessarily leave open space around the top.

Friend Kellogg was not at home, but I found Cramer, found him a full match for me in talk, he is a live bee-keeper. His apiary, as also Kellogg's, showed care and attention. K's honey slinger is liked very much, but would prefer the Sweet Home; but his is a home-made one, and I think it a better one than any advertised. Kellog and Cramer sling all their honey and find sale at good prices. In company with Cramer we visited several small bee-keepers, and next morning before daylight he kindly saw me on the train.

D. D. PALMER. Mercer Co., III, Dec. 11, 1876.

For the American Bee Journal. Important Points in the Construction

of Bee Hives. The farming community own most of the honey fields of our country; and the business of honey gathering and the management of the gatherers should be as simple and as clearly understood by them as possible. It is also desirable that it should be free from needless manipulation.

1. The shape of the hive is a question worthy of some consideration. A low, flat hive will not be as safe for wintering as a taller hive with narrower front, back and side boards. There is very little danger in the wintering of bees in hives, thus shaped, on their stands if only covered from wet.

2. A very important consideration with me is an arrangement of boxes for surplus

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