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For the American Bee Journal. “ Scientifico Talks to the Washing. ton Co., N. Y., Agricultural Society.

MR. PRESIDENT:—A few years ago the New York State Agricultural Society extended to apiarians the privilege of discussing their avocation at one of their evening sessions. This recognition of their position as one of the great industries of the State, was a subject of con. gratulation among bee culturists, and was of much benefit for the future development of the business.

In like manner the bee keepers of this county are encouraged by the invitation extended to them for the first time to appear before this society, and I come before you as a representative of this class to present a few facts and ask a few favors.

We are well aware that the thrifty farmers of this county who own their broad acres and improved stock, and who come before this society annually with their varied and substantial productions, usually look upon the art of bee cultivation as of trifling import; but if we compare our stock with theirs we find we trace the pedigree of our industrious in. sects to the remotest periods of antiquity, and while your grades of domestic stock are made profitable in proportion to their dependence upon the hand of man for their daily food, our insects are endowed with almost human wisdom to lay up stores of food for their own sustenance, and a generous surplus for the use of the fortunate owner.

From the time when Sampson found

can

secm too high, let us deduct one half for poor seasons, and then the 850 square miles of our county would produce over 200,000 pounds. To those unacquainted with our honey resources, these statements may seem to be overdrawn, but we have at hand figures from various localities in our State and in other States, where the annual production has been over one thousand pounds per square mile, while California, noted for its wonderful productions, has localities where there seems to be no end to the flow of this abundant sweet.

Here, then, we have in our nation bil. lions of pounds of this healthy substance actually going to waste for the want of these willing laborers to gather it.

We send our hard-earned dollars to other States and countries for our sweets, while our broad fields of clover, our forests of linden, and countless varieties of beautiful flowers by the wayside, are every day in their season making the air fragrant by the evaporation of this usefól substance,

In view of these facts is it not, then, of great importance that we should extend the necessary information to parties of either sex who may be endowed with the peculiar talent for this branch of rural economy? With a wider dissemination of these truths and their intelligent appli. cation, competition would arise, with competition lower prices, and with lower prices greater consumption, and article that is now considered a luxury would come into every day use upon our tables and in our cookery.

We do not propose, Mr. President, in these remarks, to occupy your valuable time by details of management, or of methods to overcome the disastrous ef. fects of our winters, but will state that in comparison to dairying or other farm operations where large capital is invested and labor expended, bee.culture shows profits far in advance of any other rural pursuit; but to be successful requires close attention and untiring watchfulness, and persons that suppose a fortune is in store for them by merely purchasing a swarm of bees and having no love for the occupation, had much better stick to their productions, from a patch of potatoes at twenty cents per bushel.

This society which has already done so much for the development of our agri. cultural resources, could do much to further encourage the science of beeculture.

Our interests would be greatly promoted by offering us more liberal premiums.

Encourage us to display all of our appliances and give us additional premiums to get the greatest yield from a single colony, and instead of crowding us into narrow and obscure quarters, give us

the

the bodynor the right

he had previously

slain converted into a bee-hive, there have been practiced various methods of obtaining the fruits of their labors; but not until our own progressive century came to add its enlightenment, has bee culture become a science equal in importance to other industries of the age. And now, owing to the application of the movable comb principle, the honey extractor, arti. ficial honeycomb, and the introduction of improved stock from foreign countries, this branch of rural industry is enlisting the attention of thinking people in all portions of our country, and in our own county the business is being rapidly developed by the application of these new discoveries.

When we examine into the statistics of the production of honey, it is no wonder that intelligent people should favor this pursuit. We are surprised at the amount that could be obtained had we the indus. trious workers at hand in the proper season to obtain it.

From careful observation and from the experience of others it is safe to say that an average of five hundred pounds of honey could be obtained from every square mile in this county, but if these figures

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room to display to advantage our various manufacture of a medicine called the operations, and we assure you that the Russian Asthma Cure; but I can't com. bee-keepers of this county will add a mence business without some 'oney. I just novel and interesting feature to your an. heard you tell that gentleman that you nual exhibition.

were all out, so I suppose it will be of no
We have here presented to you but a use to talk about that.
few points of our business, and trust our Dr. K.-Well, no sir. I am not troubled
honeyed remarks will not fail to be fruitful with much of that article. I find it is
of good results.

about as much as I can do to get along
and provide for my family. But about

this Asthma Cure. Have you tried it
For the American Bee Journal.

in enough cases so that you are satisfied What about that Honey?

that it will really cure asthma ?

Mr. B.-Yes, sir. It will knock asthma The following, although more amusing and dyspepsia higher than a kite. I have than instructive, will, perhaps, do for one tried it in a hundred cases without a sin. of the winter numbers of the JOURNAL. Its gle failure. I cured my own wife with truthfulness makes it all the more amus. it, though she had it so bad that I have ing.

been obliged to carry her to an open winDr. K. and Mr. A., who are transacting dow many a time in the coldest nights of some business, are interrupted for a mo- a Canadian winter, that she might get her ment by a stranger, Mr. B., who is ad. breath. But to make it I must have some mitted to the office. Mr. A.-Well, now, 'oney. I don't care how old or how black let's see about that honey: How much did it is, provided it is perfectly pure. that amount to?

Dr. K.-(Thinking, perhaps, he didn't Dr. K.-Let me see: I will have to look understand him) What did you say? that up. How many jars did you have Mr. B.-I say I don't care how old or the last time?

how black it is, provided it is perfectly Mr. A.–Ten, I believe.

pure. Dr. K.-I had an idea it was a dozen. Dr. K.-(Musing, That is queer talk. Ah! here it is. You are right. Ten jars, suppose the gentleman must have heard at 75 cents, including the jars, would be of our Rag Baby, and hasn't a very favor. $7.50, which, with $5.40 for the first lot, able idea of it having come from a land makes $12.90.

of hard money. He speaks of it as black. Mr. A.-Have you any more of that Let's see. Slavery was the cause of the granulated honey. I would like two jars war, the war was the cause of the rag of it for a preacher I have with me in the baby, therefore the rag baby, must have wagon.

been of negro origin, and therefore black. Dr. K.-(Leaving the room with Mr. A.) Perhaps that is his line of argument.) Really, I have but one jar left, having re- How much do you want? stored it all to its former condition by Mr. B.-A hundred pounds, at least, to heating it to about the temperature of begin with. from 150 degrees to 168 degrees. It sells Ďr. K.-(Musing. Let me see.

That better in that condition at the stores, they would be about $500. I guess he tells the tell me. I warmed some up to that tem- truth about coming from Canada, for he perature last spring, and sealed it hermet- talks about pounds and shillings yet.) ically, and I have some of it now,-not a You say you have some acquaintances at jar showing any signs of granulating. Forked River. Perhaps you might get When thus treated the flavor is not in. some money there. jured, as I can see; but is just about Mr. B.-But there isn't any there. spoiled if brought to the boiling point. Dr. K.-Oh, my dear sir, you are mis

Mr. A.-Well, give me the jar that is taken. There is Mr. Falkinburg, Mr. granulated, and two others. Now let me Parker, Mr. Holmes,—there is plenty of see how we stand. $4.85: that leaves that money at Forked River. you owe me. Haven't you some money Mr. B.-Ah, but you didn't understand so that you can settle it now?

It is honey I want. I happen to Dr. K.-Really, Mr. A., I am just about have money, and will pay cash for your entirely out: it would take all I have honey, if you have any. Ha, ha, ha. got, if I did, and I don't think I could Dr. K.-Ha, ha, ha; ha, ha, ha. Why, settle it to-day, possibly.

my dear sir, I thought you was talking Mr. A.–Well. good morning.

about money all the time. It was money Dr. K. (entering the office.)— Well, Sir, I told Mr. A. I was out of. Ha, ha, ha. we have been having some pretty cold Mr. B.-So then you have honey, have weather.

you? As I said before, I don't care how Mr. B.-Yes Sir: but they are having it old or how black it is, if it is only pure. colder than this where I came from.

For the information of bee keepers, I Dr. K.-Ah, where is that?

will say, I soon disposed of what little Mr. B.-Montreal, Sir. I have just set- extracted honey I had at 20 cents. tled at Forked River, to engage in the Ocean Co., N. J. E. KIMPTON.

me.

For the American Bee Journal. Santa Barbara.

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This country is located on the sea coast in the southern part of the state near a group of islands of the same name, and has become noted for its equable climate, attracting thousands from their frozen homes to spend the winter where Decem. ber is as pleasant as May. Since Dr. Lo. gan, President of the U. S. Medical Association, recommended Santa Barbara as the best sanitarium on the continent, our hotels and private houses have usually been crowded to their utmost capacity by the throng of invalids who were seeking an extension of their lease of life.

CLIMATE.-Our summers are mild and pleasant; the mercury ranging from sev. enty to eighty, and seldom reaching ninety. The evenings are pleasant, and the nights always cool. Our winter months are warm and genial, like May and June of the East; frost is seldom seen, and every breeze is freighted wfth fragrance from our flower gardens.

SOIL.-In this portion of the State the soil varies from black clay, called adobe, to a light sandy loam, formed from de composed Tertiary rocks, of which our mountains are composed, and is remarkably productive, yielding sometimes won. derful crops of corn, barley, wheat, and alfalfa.

WATER.—The water is generally pure, not so cool as in higher latitudes, and easily obtained from wells, springs, or mountain streams. In flat land on the coast near the level of the sea, it is sometimes brackish, but in all such cases pure artesian water is usually found at reasonable depths.

IRRIGATION.—In this and the adjoining valleys we have learned that deep and thorough cultivation, so as to save and economize the usual fourteen inches of rain fall, is better than flooding, the surface. Eventually, underground irrigation through wooden pipes for horticultural purposes, will be popular.

FUEL.—There is a plenty of wood for present purposes, but if our population continues to increase at its present rapid rate, within ten years there will be very little natural timber, and people will have to use the prunings from their vines, fruit and ornamental trees, or burn petroleum which flows from springs so abundantly that hundreds of barrels are running daily to waste.

HOT SPRINGS.-There are a number of hot springs in the mountain canons that have become quite noted for their healing qualities, and are usually thronged to the full capacity of their hotels. Senator Morton, and thousands of others, have bathed' there, and recommended their mineral waters.

TITLES.-Land titles are generally set

tled and founded on U. S. patents which have been issued to confirm old Mexican and Spanish grants.

SOCIETY ought to be good, for the la. mented Rev. Dr. Thomas stated that it was composed of the cream of other communities.

CHURCHES.—The Congregational, Pres. byterian, Methodist, Baptist and Episcopal denominations each have an elegant church edifice, and an able divine to occupy the pulpit.

SCHOOLS. -Santa Barbara boasts of a fine young American college, with build. ings that cost sixty thousand dollars; a Spanish Catholic San Franciscan college, in a flourishing condition; a St. Vincent school for young ladies, an excellent system of public schools, and an able corps of experienced teachers.

HOMESTEADS. - In this vicinity, and about all other promising towns in this part of the State, small farms are held at from one to three hundred dollars per acre, according to quality, location, size and improvements.

CHEAP HOMES.--Recently several col. onies have been formed, and one is now forming, for the purpose of purchasing new land in beautiful little valleys near the coast, where unoccupied ranches, as good as any that have yet been settled, cau be purchased at from five to ten dollars per acre, on long time and at a low rate of interest, with a view of subdividing and settling the same, as Vineland has done, making their own towns, schools and churches, so that one thousand dollars will go as far as two or three usually do in securing a new home.

PRODUCTIONS.—This and the adjoining valleys are well adapted to the production of apples, pears, peaches, plums, nectarines, apricots, pomegranates, alm. onds, olives, English walnuts, oranges, lemons, limes, figs, grapes, wheat, barley, corn, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, and honey. Full grown almond trees should yield from seventy-five to one hundred pounds of nuts, worth from twenty 10 twenty-five cents a pound. One hundred trees are usually planted to the acre. At this rate one acre should yield from fifteen to twenty-five hundred dollars worth of fruit per annum, in a good season and when they are in full bearing. Oranges, lemons and limes do quite as well.

FENCES.—The law restrains stock, and crops require no fencing.

LUMBER.-Rough lumber in town usually sells at $27 per M., and other grades in proportion.

WAGES.-Labor is well rewarded in all departments, especially house servants, who usually receive from twenty-five to thirty, dollars a month, and cannot be re. tained long, even at that price, for the rich old bachelors are sure to promote

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them to the position of housewives. Me. chanics receive from three to five dollars a day, and farm hands from twenty-five to forty dollars a month.

Tools, wagons, etc., cost about twentyfive per cent. more here than in the East.

We have no chinch-bugs, few grasshoppers, no mad dogs, no fly-nets for horses, no mosquito-bars for our beds, no light. ning-rods, no fever and ague, no poor. houses, no deaths from sun-stroke or tor. nadoes, no snow storms, little frost, no ice to cool our lemonade, no sleigh-bells, no sleds for the boys, no woolen mittens, and no skates.

We do have fresh vegetables, new pota. toes, ripe strawberries, and ripe fruit fresh from the garden every month in the year, and always an abundance of spring chickens and beautiful flowers.

Those coming to this coast should bring only what they cap pack solid, can. not dispose of for two-thirds of its value, and will need after they get here.

Persons desiring especial information should write their address distinctly, and enclose postage stamp.

O. L. ABBOTT.
Santa Barbara, Cal.

He describes their employment, “They breed, they brood, instruct and educate, And make provision for their future state.'

What visions of our youth arise, as we read the following: “But when thou seest a swarming cloud arise, Then melfoil beat, and honeysuckles pound; With these alluring savours strew the ground; And mix with tinkling brass the cymbal's droning

sound." What is the use of movable comb frames, or pon-swarming apparatus when oue can bring out the old tin pans or employ a modern brass band ?

He next describes a fight, when two pretenders strive for empires : “They challenge and encounter, breast to breast, Till only one prevails--for only one can reign."

And though the air may be full of . charging squadrons and combatants, “Yet all these dreadful deeds, this deadly fray, A cast of dust will soon allay, And undecided leave the fortunes of to-day."

He thinks one of the monarchs should then be killed.

Does he mean Italian, when, in line 149, he says: “The better brood, unlike the bastard crew, Are marked with royal streaks of shining hue."

We had supposed that the idea of clipping the wing of the queen was of more recent date, but he says when the bees are disposed to leave their empty hives and stay, "The task is easy-but to clip the wings of their high-flying, arbitrary kings; At their command the people swarm away, Confine the tyrant, and the slaves will stay.'

He next speaks at length of a swain of his acquaintance who kept bees and prospered:

“ He supped at ease And wisely deemed the wealth of monarchs less; The little of his own, because his own did please, And pressed the combs with golden liquor

crown'd." Which one of our patent men stole Virgil's patent extractor?

In speaking of the nature of the bees,

For the American Bee Journal. Virgil and the Bees.

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he says:

The bee, we find, figures largely in classic poetry. Virgil has devoted a whole book to the subject. He was born near Mantua, Italy, 70, B.C., and we may learn from his writings the degree of bee cul. ture in that age. He says: - The gifts of Heav'n my following song pursues Aerial honey and ambrosial dews,' “Their arms, their arts, their manners I disclose And how they war, and whence the people rose.'

Some, perhaps, may learn from the fol. lowing:

"First for thy bees a quiet station find,

And lodge them under covert of the wind." He thinks they should be far away from cows and goats, and the painted lizzard and birds of prey, the titmouse and Procne with her bosom stained in blood. " These rob the trading citizens and bear The trembling captive tbrough the liquid air." " But near a living stream their mansion place."

In line 27 he calls the queen the youth. ful prince, and advises that trees should be planted along the stream "That when the youthful prince, with proud alarm, Calls out the venturous colony to swarm.'

In line 47, we learn how to construct the hive, “ Whether thou build the palace of thy bees With twisted osiers, or with barks of trees, Make but a narrow mouth, for as the cold Congeals into a lump the liquid gold."

He says, in line 60, bees are found " In chambers of their own, beneath the ground; That vaulted roofs are hung in pumices And in the rotten trunks of hollow trees.

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“The bees have common citics of their own
And common sous; beneath one law they live,
All is the State's; the State provides for all.
Some o'er the public magazines preside,
And some are sent new forage to provide.
Some nurse the future matron of the State;
All with united force combine to drive
The lazy drones from the laborious hives;
Some employed at home, abide within the gate,
To fortify the combs, to build the wall,
To prop the ruins, lest the fabric falls,
But late at night, with weary pinions come
The lab'ring youth, and heavy laden, home."

Some time since a correspondent asked your JOURNAL, “Do bees sleep?” Virgil answers : " Then having spent the last remains of light, They give their bodies due repose at night; When once in bed, their weary limbs they steep, No buzzing sounds disturb their golden sleep

Tis sacred silence all." Though he points out the monarch as

the one ruler, yet it seems that it was not a round sum to have all of his colonies as known at this time that the ruler was a good as the best! I have been able to get female, and that she laid all the eggs. In. an average of nearly three-fourths as much deed, his ideas of their reproduction is clear through the apiary, as the best hive exceedingly amusing,

would produce, and without losing a sin. * But (what's more strange) their modest appetites gle colony, either during winter or spring. Averse from Venus, fly the nuptial rites,

The most important part is queen rearNo lust enervates their heroic mind, Nor waste their strength on wanton woman kind;

ing. Most apiarists know how to rear But in their mouths reside their genial powers;

queens; but good ones are the object to be They gather children from the leaves and flow'rs." aimed at. To rear the best queens, plenty In describing their sting, he says:

of honey and pollen, and enough bees "And through the purple veins a passage finds; of all ages, are necessary; but above There fix their stings and leave their souls behind." all things, select your queen to breed

There is much more exceedingly inter from, and one which has given the best esting and amusing in his descriptions, but satisfaction the previous season. Always we close with a bit of advice that we all bear in mind that “ Jike produces like,” in may take. Line 365,

bees as well as animals, there being "But since they share with man one common

but few exceptions; and by breeding carefate,

fully from the best stock, for a few genera. In health and in sickness, and in turns of state Observe the symptoms."

tions, the careful breeder can produce

exactly what he desires. It is of almost What bee keeper who has listened for

equal importance to use drones from none the sound of a hive which has run down and become weak, will not at once recog

but the best colonies, allowing no drones

to be reared, except in the choicest col. nize the following:

onies. The apiarist should remember "Soft whispers then, and broken sounds are heard,

that infinitely more depends on a judi. As when the woods by gentle winds are stirred, Such stified noise as the closed furnace hides,

cious selection of stock, and carefully (XOr dying murmurs of departing tides.

cluding all others, than on any particular He thinks honey, then, should be in- method of queen rearing. It is needless fused into the hives by hollow reeds, and to say that if every colony has a queen as gives a recipe for a sick colony, consisting good as the best, and not too old, enough of wine, raisins and a certain yellow bees, and plenty of stores, and all flower.

other necessary conditions carefully atIf others find half as much amusement tended to, the result cannot fail to be sat. as I, they will be well repaid in reading

isfactory. the whole book, Dryden's Virgil Georgics

E. C. L. LARCH, M. D. iv. S. S. WEATHERBY.

Boone Co., Mo. Baldwin City, Kan.

For the American Bee Journal.
For the American Bee Journal.

Experience of “Six.”
How to obtain the largest yields of
Honey.

Apiculture is on the back-ground here;

from the questions asked one would supIn this short article, I will have to omit

pose they never saw bees. Mr. C. Parmany items of considerable importance.

lange is still going ahead. July 30th he In the first place, the bees must be well

had 40 barrels of honey, which would wintered, and have plenty of stores to last

average 43 gallons per barrel. I let my till honey comes again. Bees that are

101 alone (except the six swarms I have badly wintered, and sick, will not give

here) until June 27, when my machine arsatisfaction. Secondly, we must have

rived, (the Queen City Extractor, and

there is no better or more convenient in good colonies to winter, and in the best condition possible. On this I might

use, and I do not except any), I was devote an entire chapter, but will have to

three days in getting started. I extracted omit it for the present, and pass to the

78 hives and obtained 318 gallons of fine most important subject, that of improving

honey. The rest of the hives were in bad our bees. They are as susceptible of

condition, and the old box hives, too. I

took a swarm from each one. As soon as improvement as any other stock, and yet most sadly neglected. The chief object

I had once extracted, I went over them aimed at, has usually been to produce

again, and up to July 20th, had taken 470 three-banded yellow bees, under the im. pression that nothing more was needed. My bees are all black and most miserWho has not noticed that one hive, or ably cross and mean, but I will try and a few hives, would far outstrip-often have all Italianized in October. I am on double and even quadruple the rest ? It a stand whether to buy dollar queens or is not

uncommon to hear of single rear them. I want 250, and it will require hives often producing three hundred, five some help, and I cannot get it here, and hundred, and even seven hundred pounds owing to the state of society Northerners in one season. Who would not give quite do not like to venture. I can raise queens

gallons.

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