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The meetings had always been very in. teresting, and were largely attended. Mr. Waite thought it would be a good idea to revive this association.

Col. Colman asked if Mr. Waite thought October the best time for bold. ing such annual meeting. Mr. Waite thought so from the fact that there were 80 many farmers in the city at that time.

The chairman differed from Mr. Waite. When people came to the Fair they didn't come to atiend horticultural meetings or meetings of any kind.

Mr. Guy, of Jefferson Co., did not be. lieve in the feasibility of reviving the old society. New men could organize much better than revive an association. The speaker was also in favor of holding the annual meetings at some other time than during Fair week.

Mr. W. G. Smith offered the following resolution, which was adopted:

Resoloed, That this meeting now proceed to organize an Association to be known as the Mississippi Valley Bee Keepers' Association, and that we proceed to the election of a President, VicePresident, Secretary and Treasurer, who shall hold their office for one year, and until their successors are duly elected and qualified.

In accordance with this resolution the following officers were elected for the ensuing year:

President-Norman J. Colman; VicePresident-E. A. Riehl; Secretary-W. G. Smith; Treasurer-L. C. Waite.

Upon motion of Mr. Guy, the officers were constituted a committee to draft a constitution, to be published as soon as prepared.

Upon motion of Mr. Smith, it was de. cided that when the association adjourns, it adjourn to the first Tuesday in April.

Free discussion being now in order, Mr. Riehl gave a brief narration of his experience in bee-keeping for the past year. He kept twenty-five or thirty hives. Tried to prevent swarming as much as possible. The past season has been un. favorable to bee-culture. He thought the extractor prevented swarming. Of course he clipped one wing of the queen, and this was a great preventive.

Mr. Smith said his experience with bees had been merely experimental. He used the Longstroth hive, so arranged as to use either story, sometimes one story at the top and again the other. In arti. ficial swarming he left it as near as pos. sible to nature. The past season had been a favorable one to bee-culture in St. Louis county.

Mr. Waite said that the past year had been a most prosperous one in this local. ity, as well as some distance south of here. There was no doubt that in keeping bees, frames of some kind should be used in

the hives. Keeping bees meant hard work. He favored Italian bees. Had kept, some seasons, 150 stems of bees. He instanced, in arguing, that bee culture would pay, that he had had one hive that put up 250 lbs. of honey in one season. Mr. Waite recommended the Queen hive as the best for all purposes. He had been keeping bees fifteen years: knew, that properly attended to, they would pay at least one hundred per cent. The fault seemed to be that farmers were too apt to neglect their bees.

Mr. J. T. Colman said he had noticed his bees during the past week lighting upon the buds of the maples.

Col. Colman said he had kept bees for twenty-five years. He thought the secret of success in their cultivation was to keep the swarms strong.

He said he was a convert to the movable-frame hive, for the bees could be then handled like stock of any kind. Hives can be equalized and saved by its use. He preferred the Queen hive. He explained in detail the advan. tages offered in the Queen hive.

In concluding his remarks, Col. Colman congratulated the Association upon their organ. ization, and pledged himself to do all in his power to further their interest.

Mr. Guy objected to the use of smoke about the hives: he recommended to those fearful of being stung, a fine wire mask and rubber gloves.

Mr. Smith thought there were times when smoke was absolutely required.

Col. Colman said he had found honey an excellent remedy for chills.

Mr. Smith referred to the vast quantities of adulterated honey on the market, and this called out a random and desul. tory discussion upon the subject. the sense of the Association to procure the passage of a law rigorously punishing all persons guilty of manufacturing and vend. ing adulterated honey.

Mr. Tilden, of Jasper county, having come in after the meeting had advanced somewhat, was called upon to state somewhat of the progress of bee-culture in his section of the State. He briefly stated that in the remote past, apiaries had not done well in Jasper county, but during the past year bee-culture had met with gratifying results.

There ensued a brisk discussion upon the proper construction of hives, partici. pated in by Messrs. Cordell, Smith, Col. man and Monteith. There was consider. able difference of opinion. Mr. Riehl took the President to task for having said that the culture of Lees was an easy task and could be safely entrusted to children.

Col. Colman said Mr. Reihl had misrepresented him. He (Colman) had said that to insure success in bee keeping, the utmost care and unremitting labor were necessary. He had said and still contend. ed that women and children were just as

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well qualified to take care of the apiary. most, and ever will justice be done,” as Col. Colman then proceeded to inject a long as production of honey costs as female suffrage stump speech into the much as at present. We do hope to com. belly of his argument.

mand more " fabulous prices" than those Mr. Monteith congratulated Col. Col. I quoted in our last convention. man upon the stand he had just taken I would ask Messrs. King and Slocum upon the woman question. He doubted if they would be benefited if each honey not that woman had the potentiality in producer would sell each of his three her for doing the work referred to. So nearest neighbors one-fourth of his apifar as the speaker's experience was con. cerned, he had found the women well This question answers itself. Would qualified for the conduct of bee culture, it be to the apiarist's interest to do so ? as soon as they could overcome their tim- (So does this one.) Again, would they idity.

like an apiary on every square mile in Mr. Reihl desired to set himself right America ? Honey producers, would we! with Col. Colman. He had misunder- Why did the California bee-keepers peti. stood the gentleman. However, he still tion Congress to grant them each a large insisted that the culture of bees necessi. area of land? We petition all men and tated hard work.

women to show up both sides of the subProf. Riley asked the following ques. ject when they write or talk upon beetions: Do the bees make or gather honey? | keeping, even if their wares do go off Does the queen bee meet with the drone a slower. second time? Would the gentlemen pres. “To be successful one must keep large ent, when they come upon white bees, apiaries,” etc. please preserve them for the speaker ? Who are the successful” ones? Whose

Mr. Waile was positive that bees gath. pictures are centrally located in Root's ered honey.

He had fed his bees on Medley? syrups and found that they deposited the Have these men succeeded syrup unchanged in the hives again; the Do they “keep large apiaries "? honey, all knew, was frequently flavored “This branch of industry has been negwith buckwheat, etc., etc.

lected.” “ Thousands of pounds of honey Prof. Riley disagreed with Mr. Waite. are yearly going to waste." Thousands He was satisfied bees made honey, other- of pounds of tannin goes to waste during wise man could mancfacture honey as the clearing of our oak forests, and probawell as bees.

bly always will, so long as the drug stores The Secretary and Treasurer were in. are well filled, and the cost of gathering structed to solicit essays upon practical it twice exceeds the market price. subjects to be read at the next meeting. The difference between “agriculture, Prof. Riley consented to speak upon the

stock raising, etc.," and bee-keeping, is subject of “Do bees injure fruit,' illus.

that stock and grain gain their sustenance trating his remarks by diagrams.

from the land their owner owns. But no The meeting then adjourned to the 4th

more so with bees than with the fisherof April, at 10 o'clock, A. M.

man, berry-picker or merchant. What

farmer cares how much his neighbor For the American Bee Journal.

produces. What salesman does not care “ Whom the Gods would Destroy, they

how many“ opposition stores” set up in

his town? first make Mad.”

Oh? we are different from other folks—we raise queen cages, tin cor

ners, kettle feeders, $5 bee hives and big MR. EDITOR:—Having good reason to

stories, for sale. (“Send stamp for circu. believe that the columns of the “ Old Re.

lar.”)

“ English Journals have no paid liable” are open even to the “ heretics contributors.” That is nice. and infidels," and having received let- We too will give away to every one who ters from bee-keepers asking me why I do may happen to open a book, our best, not defend myself, I will, with your per- hard-earned discoveries, if they will in mission, answer a few of the charges turn support us in luxury, as they do in brought by Bros. King and Slocum. England. If farmers only could raise While I recognize the fact that “jang- honey for 1142 cents per lb. at retail, what ling" is neither wise nor profitable to any a nice thing it would be, wouldn't it? concerned, still it does seem as though a But here again the laws of nature say few “remarks back” were at this time called for. What intelligent apiarist can “ Mixed farming" is becoming less and imagine for one moment that he alone is less the order of the day in this section. going to so reduce the number of bee- Whether I loaded ny gun heavy or keepers, as to secure fabulous prices for light, it seems that I made the fur fly, if I his honey?" Supply and demand, cast didn't kill out-right. off production, etc., will attend to that. I do not know what K. and S. mean by Put truth and error together and agitate "progressive bee-keepers,” unless it be them, and “truth will ever come upper- those who have “progressed” out of real

“no.”

For the American Bee Journal, Economize their Labors.

production into the more ethereal realms of salaried situations (please send in money to pay expenses”). If I have in. sulted any one, wouldn't it be better if K. and S. would not repeat the insult by tel. ling them of it, as though they would not find if out alone? From the tone of letters I have received and the conversation of all I have talked with upon this subject, I am not afraid of any“ contempt," except from contemptible sources. Now Bros. King and Slocum, don't begin to “cud. dle" up to Gleanings so soon; all the attaches to apiculture are not going back on you. Only the few who are trying to support their families by the production of honey and bees, are going to wake up to their interests, as the Californians have done, and help to skim off the froth and get at the real substance of the pursuit. All those fellows who form a double-line gauntlet, which nearly every one of us have run, and been bled there. by, will stick to you as long as you will float them by advertising their wares and capturing new victims for them.

No matter how much money may be made in vending worthless apiarian supplies at high, unreasonable prices, if there is not a living to be found in the real production of honey and bees, I, for one, am ready to break ranks and seek some other way of bettering the condition of my family and the world. We expect many who have no adaptability to apiculture, and who have been led to its adoption by one-sided reports, "garbling," etc., together with the big delusive stories told by supply venders, will noiselessly drop out of the business, while new ones will embark in it.

What we want is "free and accepted" bee-keepers, and honesty follows. Those who have carefully weighed both sides, and whose natural adaptability to the business, tells them to stem the current. To such, and all honey producers, do we extend the right hand of fellowship. If all those who have lost, and given up in disgust, would SPEAK OUT, the clamorers would drown the hum of all the bees in the world. We want a Bee Journal. One will do-one not run to the interest of hives or other fixtures - one that welcomes every new comer as one of our little squad slowly trudging up the hill, but seeks to proselyte none-ONE DEVOTED TO THE INTEREST OF THE HONEY PRODUCERS OF AMERICA. Jas. HEDDON.

Dowagiac, Mich., Feb. 5, 1876.

MR. EDITOR:-No doubt but thousands are situated like myself in respect to beepasturage. We have white clover in abundance, but little basswood. We have also a pretty good fall pasture. What honey we get comes in fiirts, and is of short duration.

And now comes the question: How shall we work our bees so as to take ad. vantage of their labors? If we build up powerful colonies, either natural or arti. ficial, by the time we get them well started to work in boxes, they send out swarms, and

our nice calculation is spoiled. Messrs. Langstroth and Quinby tell us, and all experience corroborates the truth they state, namely, that newly hived swarms work with more energy than old stocks, and will accumulate stores much faster. Now if this be a fact, shall we not take advantage of their labors and have them store their honey for us in nice neat glass boxes or small frames for market, instead of having them filling new hives with brood combs ? I have been testing a plan, more or less for two seasons, and am very much pleased with it, and will hereafter work my entire apiary upon it. I like it, first, because I can run my apiary of sixty colonies with but a small increase of stocks, no matter how much they may be disposed to swarm; and, secondly, because I get a great deal more honey and in better shape.

I will now give a description of the plan. For example, I have 60 swarms to commence the season with. I shall work 40 for box or small frame honey, as combhoney is our hobby; in 20 swarms I want to build combs and furnish brood. The brood I want to keep up the strength of honcy-storing stocks. Now, then, natural swarming is what I practice, as it's the only plan that will succeed this way. As soon as a swarm is on the wing I take from a b c d of my reserved stocks and fill the hive to be used, all but one or two combs; allowing them to build them in the center; all those combs must be well filled with hatching brood. Now cover the entire top with boxes or frames and hive your swarms, then compel them to go into the boxes, as all below is full and every day those stocks are growing stronger, from hatching brood. Such swarms are very strong and must be well ventilated by raising the hive up, so as to make a passage for bees all around. If honey is plenty boxes will be filled in 6 or 8 days, but of course this time will depend on the flow of honey, but in the course of twenty days you must overhaul these swarms, remove all frames from hives that are nearly filled with honey, and fill in with hatching brood to keep up

Mr. Walker, a Cincinnati scientist, has allowed himself to be stung once a day for three weeks by bees, to ascertain the effect. He says that after about the tenth time the pain and the swelling were slight, the body seeming to become inocu. lated with the poison.

in February number of the AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL for 1872. On doubling stocks we still practice this plan more or less, and have found nothing better. On this plan we have more than trebled on our surplus.

We have united hundreds of swarms in this way, and in but a very few cases had to resort to scenting them with peppermint or anything else.

In conclusion, we sometimes think it would be better if writers would say more on the subject of “ Honey, and how to obtain it," not extracted alone, but nice comb honey; but few articles appear di. rectly on this one subject, the most important of all, I confess I keep bees for one object and no other-dollars and cents.

J. BUTLER. Jackson, Mich., Feb. 3, 1876.

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the strength of stock. But some judgment must be used not to crowd the queen too hard for room to deposit more or less eggs, or she will go above to surplus boxes. Some one will want to know if we can keep such stocks from swarming: We answer, no; if the season is a good one for honey, you will get a swarm from them about the first of August, but not till they have filled two or more sets of boxes, and if they do swarm we will find some place for them to fill some more boxes, as we can unite them to any swarm in the yard that has room for them.

We now propose to consider how much increase is wanted, and if but a small number is needed, and surplus is the object, we shall proceed as follows: From seven to eight days (and here let me say that date of swarming should be made on each hive) will be the right time. There are now no eggs or larvæ for the bees to construct queen cells from; overhaul any such stock; shake off all the bees, cut out every queen cell -be sure you get every one, for this is important; now remove all combs from the hive that contains the most honey, fill in with capped brood, put on your boxes, and run into this hive a big swarm. Do it in this way: Hive your swarm to be united and set it close to the one to be run into; leave it till nearly dark, then raise hive one inch in front on blocks, bring on your platform and shake down swarm eighteen or twenty inches in front; they will travel in just like any other swarm, and your job is done. Now we have a stock stronger than it was before, Casting its swarm. Now, if the flowers are yielding honey, you will get some. Follow up this plan until you have returned a big swarm to each hive. But should swarming continue you may have to make some more new swarms.

What shall we do with the combs that are removed from time to time containing honey! Extract and give to your brood stock, or keep them in reserve, as they may be wanted later in the season. Sup. pose I should hive ten or fifteen swarms in August, and I have but two empty hives, I will use them and return all the rest, after removing all queen cells; but do not run a swarm back to its own hive, as in many cases it does not satisfy them, and often comes out again.

Some may be disposed to inquire what is gained by this method.

We answer, first, that we have but a very small amount of drone comb built, as all our brood stocks built worker combs; and secondly, that our stocks are all very strong, and all receptacles are filled very quickly, so that the honey has a much cleaner and finer appearance. And lastly, we are satisfied that a much larger amount of surplus is the result.

Another plan given by us can be found

As I have been using the Star Bee Hive for some time, and as it is very simple and easily constructed and gives very satisfactory results in yield of honey and increase of stocks, and combines all the good points necessary in a bee hive, and leaves out all the bad points, useless ap. pendages, etc., I will endeavor to give in. structions for making it. For the body of the hive take two boards, 1574 inches long and 1112 in. wide for the ends, and two boards 18 inches long and 1112 inches wide for the sides; the latter to be rabbited one-half inch wide and one-half inch deep; and if a deeper rabbit is desired, the boards must be as much wider as the rabbits are deeper. Then nail these boards up solid with several nails at each corner, letting the side boards in a little at the top, just so the top bar of a frame will fit in a littte loose; this will make the body of the hive a little wider at the bottom than it is at the top, so that if any frame is a little out of square, the bottom corner will not be so apt to touch the side of the hive and be glued fast. The bottom board should be 1544 inches wide and 30 inches long; and should be nailed on tight, letting it be even with the back end of the hive and projecting ten inches in front of the hive for a lighting board. The entrance should be one-fourth inch high and about four or five inches long Ventilation should be made by boring a number of one-inch holes in the front end boards and kept closed up tight, except when it is necessary to open them, or a part of them, to prevent the bees clustering on the outside of the hives in hot weather. The cap should be about two or three inches high, and large Sixth Annual Convention of the North

Eastern Bee-Keepers' Association.

enough to fit down over the body of the hive and rest on strips about one inch square, nailed on the body about threefourths of an inch below the top. The lid to the cap should be about 18 inches wide and three or four inches longer than the cap, and let it project equally at both ends. This hive can be made of green lumber, just as well as dry, by allowing enough for shrinkage, except top and bottom boards, which must be dry.

A board should be laid on top of the cap to prevent the sun checking the lid. The quilt should be about 23 or 24 inches long and about 18 or 19 inches wide, and should

be laid over the frames, under the cap. The upper story is made just like the lower one, but without bottom board or entrance. The upper story can be used for a set of frame or honey boxes. If used for boxes, a strip 14 inch thick and 1% inches wide should be laid across each end of the frames and along each outside frame in the lower story for the boxes to rest on and to prevent the bees getting up outside the boxes.

I sometimes use a long hive, holding 20 combs instead of a two-story hive, for surplus honey in the combs, or for the extractor. The frames are constructed of five pieces: One top bar, 1 by 4 inch and 14 inches long. One bottom bar 12 by 4 inch and 124 inches long. One guide bar %2 by 14 inch and 12 inches long, and two side bars 1 by 14 inch and 10 inches long:

To nail a "frame together, first take two side bars and drive a nail through each one, 4 inch from the end, and into the ends of the guide bar. Second, nail on the bottom bar. Third, nail on the top bar with four nails, driving them through and into the top ends of the side bars. Thus you have a light and durable frame, 12 inches wide and 10 inches deep in the clear, with the exception of the little space occupied by the guide bar. This guide bar is just as good, in every respect, as if brought down to a sharp edge. It also acts as a brace to the frame. For these frames I use 24 inch finishing nails. As lightness in frames is very desirable, especially in surplus combs for market, the frame is much preferable to some, I have seen in use with timber enough in the top bar to make the whole frame. I order my frame bare sawed at a planing mill or sash factory, from straight grained pine lumber. They cost me 30 cents a hundred. I think this size and shape of frame is as good as any for all

For a one story-hive, exclusively, I think I would prefer a frame two inches deeper; but for two stories that would be objectionable, as it would be too far for the bees to travel to get to the top of the upper story. I use 12 frames in a hive, 18 inches long.

S. K. MARSH.

The Northeastern Bee-Keepers' Associ. ation was organized to promote the scientific culture of bees, by means of the mu. tual interchange of views and by co-oper. ative experimental investigation. Its members consist of prominent apiarists in New England and the State of New York. According to announcement, the society met at Stanwix Hall, Rome, N. Y., Feb. 2, 1876. Notwithstanding the inclement weather, the attendance was large. The meeting was called to order at 2 P. M. by the president, Capt. J. E. Hetherington, of Cherry Valley. The Secretary, J. H. Nellis, of Canajoharie, read the minutes of the last meeting, which were duly ap. proved.

The Treasurer not having arrived, his report was deferred.

The committee appointed at the last meeting to provide for a suitable representation of the bee industry at the Cen. tennial Exposition, presented a report of progress, and further time was granted, during which a plan will be perfected.

The committee whose duty it was to present a bill to the State legislature, for the prevention of adulteration of honey, reported that for several good reasons, which had not been properly weighed at the convention, the committee con. cluded pot to act.

The President's address was then heard. The president paid an eloquent tribute to the memory of Moses Quinby of St. Johnsville, whose labors in the promotion of advanced agriculture, and especially in the field of bee-culture, made him fam. ous. He further criticised the practice of exaggerating the profits of this business and ignoring the failures and unprofitable seasons. Four out of five who enter the business fail because they are not adapted to it. The chief need now is a greater knowledge of wintering, and scientific observation. A vote of thanks was tendered the president for his able address.

(Will forward the President's address soon.)

A number of members were enrolled, after which balloting for officers was in order.

Capt. Hetherington was unanimously re-elected, but positively declined on account of private duties.

Balloting then progressed, with the fol. lowing results: President, Reuben Bacon, of Verona; Vice-President, I. L. Scofield, of Chenango Bridge; Secretary, J. H. Nellis, of Canajoharie; Treasurer, L. C. Root, of Mohawk; Honorary VicePresidents, N. N. Betsinger, Onondaga county; C. R. Isham, Wyoming county; W. E. Clark, Oneida county; and G. M. Doolittle, Onondaga county.

The correspondence of the Association

uses.

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