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description of it, and will further supplement it with details of results, it is not necessary here to refer to it further. One thing, however, should be mentioned. Mr. Coe has had it on the ground ever since the opening of the Centennial, and has exhibited it to hundreds who otherwise never would have had an opportunity of examining such a thing.

While at the Centennial we met many bee-keepers from almost every part of the Union, and made many very pleasant acquaintances, and trust that next year we shall renew these acquaintances as well as make more new ones.

To Mr. Coe, THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL, as well as many bee-keepers, would render thanks for favors and kind attentions. "So mote it be."

E. GALLUP, who for years wrote largely for THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL, as a contributor, writes us as follows: "I am now out of the bee business entirely; not because it did not pay, nor because I did not like the business; but because I have gone into another business that occupies my entire time."

CALLERS.- B. Stover, Winnebago Co., Ill.; he has 130 hives, and reports an excellent yield and increase. — T. S. Bull, Porter Co., Ind., has 400 colonies, and has had a large yield and found ready sale at satisfactory prices. He winters in the cellar of his workshop, gives fresh air to it often, and has not lost a colony for several years.W. J. Ronald, Louisa Co., Iowa, called with a frame and honey box, but as we were away at the Centennial Convention we did not see him. He promises, however, to send samples to this office.-C. Kendig, Dupage Co., III.; had 40 swarms in the spring; has 70 now and has taken 2,000 lbs. of honey, mostly comb. He winters successfully in a cellar, well ventilated and so made that changes of weather cannot affect it. —Henry King of Kalamazoo Co., Mich., has 25 swarms from 6 in the spring; though he has paid but little attention to them, he has received a fair amount of surplus.--We had an interesting visit from James Heddon. To say that he is returning to old box hives is not strictly “the truth." His hobby is a peculiar hive, something like the British "bar hive,” and is more easily manipulated than most persons imagine. Friend Heddon will test it and report, and if he succeeds in showing less expense and more profit, he will deserve the thanks of all beekeepers.-F. Grabbe, who was located in Wilmette, in this county, has gone to Louisiana with his bees, in the interest, we understand, of a gentleman of this city, who contemplates establishing a large apiary there, under the supervision of friend Grabbe. -Miss S. L. Vail, of Keokuk Co., Iowa; who has 75 stocks from 47 in the spring, besides 700 lbs. coinb and 300 tbs. of extracted honey, and reports a good season.

-F. M. Chapman, Morrison, Ill.; he has now only 50 colonies, having run his apiary for increase this year, and found for it a ready sale. His bees are in good order; he winters in a repository built expressly for them.

The Centennial Show, in the language of all visitors, was simply immense; creditable alike to the thousands of exhibitors and the youthful American Republic. As our readers have seen detailed accounts in other papers devoted to “news,” we shall not take up our valuable space to speak of it further than our branch of industry is interested.

As the P. 0. Department now refuse to exchange stamps our friends will please not send stamps of higher denomination than three cents each. Ones, twos or threes are always acceptable for amounts less than one dollar. For one dollar and over send bank bills, postal order, or draft. Don't send "checks” on country banks, as these cost us 25 cents each to get into currency.

es Several valuable communications intended for the present number are crowded out by the report of the National Convention and the prize essays. All will appear in the January number. This will explain to ALL correspondents the cause of delay.

In this number we publish the four essays that were read before the National Bee-Keepers' Convention at Philadelphia. The first (by Prof. A. J. Cook) obtained the prize offered. A careful reading of them all will benefit those who seek light on this all-important subject.

A special arrangement has just been consummated, by which we can supply the following for 1877:

A. B. J. and Novice's Gleanings for $2.25. A. B. J. and King's Magazine for $2.75. All three for $4.00.

We have received an interesting report of the proceedings of the German and Austrian Bee-Keepers' Convention from R. Mayerhoffer, Esq., editor of the Bienenvater in Prague, Austria. It will appear in the January number.

Our Exchanges.

GLEANINGS IN BEE-CULTURE.

LARGE AND GOOD CROP OF HONEY. J. S. Hill, Mount Healthy, O., has a honey crop this year of 10,000 lbs. He commenced in the spring with, I believe, 84 stands. He raised also 6,000 lbs. of machine extracted honey, as nice as anybody has, and you know we feel a little proud of the quality of the honey raised in this part of the country, I bought all of his honey, and I am sure I have never before seen as nice a lot of comb honey as Hill's. There was about 3,800 lbs. in combs weighing from 1/4 to 1% lbs. each. Every comb in the lot was perfect and separate from the rest; it is a model lot of comb honey, and it would do you good to look at it.-C. F. Muth, Cincinnati, O.

MOONS' BEE WORLD.

the

In our last issue we stated that Novice intended to winter his bees out of doors. "Chaff" is his hobby now. He gives the following as his method of

PREPARING FOR WINTER. "A frosty morning is an excellent time to remove a set of section boxes and put on the chaff cushions. Approach the hive quietly,and get your screw-driver under the case of sections, or the upper story containing them, and with a quick movement you can snap all attachments, and get the boxes off before a bee has waked up;, but now comes the time for action.

Have your sheet of duck in readiness, and before a bee can get to the side of the hive, have the cloth tucked closely down all round; put on your cushion, then the cover, and you are all right. If it is an upper story, you can put it back, or another, before you put in the cushion, be sure that you get it all fixed before the bees have time to boil out. They will very likely gather out at the entrance, but don't insult their digpity by walking before them, and all will be well. If you are clumsy, and do not get things fixed expeditiously, you may find hybrids rather worse in frosty weather than at any other time. In fixing our old standard or long hive, we took too much time, and all hands waked up to such an extent that they took entire possession of corn-popper smoker, and came at us like a very young hail storm. Many of the yellow stocks, will hardly stir, when we raise off a whole set of section boxes."

Novice also gives the following as his method of

PREPARING BEES FOR SHIPMENT. Be sure the colony has old, strong combs, not too heavy with honey; the great bulk of stores should be near the top bars. If the combs are all right without breaking the fastenings made by the bees, all the better, and you have then only to make the frames secure as they are. We prefer pushing sticks, sawed to the right length and thickness, between the end bars of the frames; this makes all solid and secure,and yet the sticks can be pulled out without removing the combs. Lay another piece across the frames at each end, and fasten it with screws, and the hive will be safe, even if it should be thrown upside down. If the hive has a portico, cover it with wire cloth and let the bees get out in it if they wish; if it has none, cover the frames with wirecloth, and fasten the cover a little open. If the weather is warm, and the colony very strong, it will be safer to allow them to leave their combs and cluster in an upper story, but ordinary colonies in cool weather may be simply confined with wire cloth. The surface of wire cloth must be large enough so they cannot pack densely over it, or they will be ruined. We have many times seen them, when released, crawl out of their hives in every direction in the dirt, completely demoralized; from insufficient ventilation."

CARNIOLIAN BEES. Ch. Dadant says he received his expected shipment of Carniolian bees, but only three were received alive. He describes them as follows:

“These queens are as dark as common queens, with some narrow strips of dark leather color. But they are very large. Generally after a long journey the queens are small. The Carniolian are as big as good laying queens, of course it is to be presumed that they will enlarge when rested and laying. The size explains the great fecundity attributed to these queens. Yet it is to be regretted that they are so dark, for their color will prevent their introduction among the lovers of yellow bees. These bees are received for experiments and not introduced for sale."

BEE-KEEPERS' MAGAZINE. The November number has among other things the following advice, by the Rev. J. W. Shearer, for

STARTING AN APIARY. “A novice in the business should never attempt to start on a large scale. He should begin with not more than three hives, and increase these as his knowledge and experience increases, by swarming and by procuring from abroad, if thought desirable, after two years experience. The easiest way to get a start is to secure a swarın from some neighbor.

A first swarm is always to be preferred, and if possible from a hive which was known to have swarmed the last year, for then the old queen will be in her second year, vigorous and at her best. A small, late second swarm should be passed by in purchasing. Arrange the frames 13 inch from centre to centre, tilt the hive forward at an angle of 20 or 25 deg., and they will be almost certain to build straight on the comb-guides. If an old hive is purchased let it be a heavy one in the spring with straight comb coining entirely down to the bottom of the hive. Carry it home in your arms or in a spring wagon. Remove it very early in the morning or late in the evening when all the bees have returned home, that none be lost. Blow a little smoke under it, reverse, cover with a piece of cloth which may be fastened by tacking a string around it or strips on the ends, place it on straw in a wagon with the comb running lengthwise the vehicle, drive slowly home and there is Warren Co., Iowa, Nov. 1, 1876.—I had 9 colonies last spring, increased to 31, and extracted 1,400 tbs. of honey. They are now in good condition. I use the Langstroth hive."

D. E. BRAUGTT.

no danger. Handle carefully, and transfer into a movable comb hive, and you are ready to study the mysteries of bee-keeping. Sometimes a start is obtained more easily by taking on shares from a neighbor who already has them in iniproved hives. They should always be moved at least a mile

else many will return to the old stand and be lost. Sometimes bees may be captured from the wood by alluring into an empty hive, entrapping and furnishing a queen as already described. Hives may be increased by having nuclei with fertile queens in the fall and extra combs filled from strong colonies, and increasing to the proper size by“ taking up” hives for your neighbors who work on the old plan, and uniting them with the nuclei in the manner heretofore recommended. Be car ful to insert combs having pollen into each hive thus made."

Le This number contains “Title page and Indexes” which will be found very convenient for binding the year's numbers. Taken as a whole the volume for 1876, now complete, contains much valuable information.

Le H. F. WALTON, Grant County, Wis., writes that he has received Vol. I. of THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL, and that he is very much interested in its perusal. Those who have never read it should procure it, as there are now but a few copies left, and those few fast getting fewer.

J. P. Bruck, our popular friend and president of the county bee-keepers' association, is still at the Los Angeles hotel, in our city, in quite feeble health. Mr. Bruck has done much for the advancement of the apicultural interest in this portion of the State, and we trust that he may be spared for many years of usefulness in the hive of industry. --Los Angeles (Cal.) Herald.

RE: From 1,500 to 2,000 of our annual subscriptions run out with this number. We trust all will be prompt in renewing. We intend to make the next volume better than any that has ever preceded it.

Our Letter Box.

Pointe Coupee, La., Oct. 30, 1876.-"Nice and warm weather, and bees gathering honey from aster."

W. B. Rush. Fairfield Co., Conn., Nov. 13, 1876.-"My bees have yielded 1,000 lbs. of comb and extracted honey this season, besides increasing from 23 to 34 colonies. They are now all in good condition for winter.""

S. W. STEVENS.

Santa Clara Co., Cal., Nov. 1, 1876.—“I use the Langstroth hive, with shallow frame, 7 inches deep. The honey-producing season in this part of California has been very good; I have taken from 3 swarms 670 tos. of extracted honey, and could have taken 100 lbs. more; have increased to 9. Lost by fire in the first season 17 swarms.”

S. S. BUTLER. Hamilton, Ontario, Nov. 13, 1876.-“This has been a grand year for honey in this section. I have extracted, on an average, 100 ibs. per hive, and my bees are in splendid order for winter, with 40 tbs. each, more honey than they will use in my cellar this winter."

“I was much disappointed when arriving at the Centennial on the 6th of Oct. to find an industry so important as that of beekeeping so poorly represented. But had I not been called away on the 22nd, I might have seen more, as the 25th was the day for a special show. The show of honey in small glass boxes was grand, from Capt. Heatherington of N. Y.; and Mr. Coe's Bee House, which I am not yet convinced is much improvement, though Mr. Coe takes great pleasure in showing all its good qualities, and any other information in the business. He seems to be the only bee commissioner there."

W. G. WALTON.

The National Convention. A goodly number of bee-keepers met at Coe's House Apiary on the Centennial grounds, Philadelphia, at 10 A. M., on Oct. 25th, and organized temporarily as follows: R. Bacon, President; J. H. Nellis, Secretary, and J. P. Moore, T. G. Newman, J. S. Hill, J. S. Coe, and R. Bacon Committee of Arrangements. Adjourned to meet at the Atlas Hotel at 7 P. M.

The committee arranged the following programme for the evening meeting-topics for discussion:

Introducing, Queens-opened by Dr. E. Parmly, of N.Y.

Uniting, Weak Colonies--G. W. Zimmerman, of Ohio.

How to Control Swarming-R. Bacon, of NY.

How to Produce the Largest yield of Honey per Hive-J. S. Coe, of N.J.

How to obtain the most Industrious Bees -J. P. Moore, of N. Y.

How can the Interests of the National Bee-Keepers' Association be best Promoted -J. S. Coe, N. J.

On Thursday evening, the grand topic for discussion was "Wintering of Bees," and the reading of prize essays, followed by discussion.

WEDNESDAY EVENING.

INTRODUCING QUEENS. Dr. E. Parmly (N.Y.) remarked that in introducing queens there had been successes and failures in every method published. He had had many years experience, and was usually successful. He took a piece of wire gauze 3 or 4 inches square, and bent it into a cage, taking out several wires one way, and placed the cage containing the queen over the hatching brood, to get heat from below.

Pres. Bacon (N.Y.) said he had not been successful, and wanted light.

as

J. P. Moore (N. Y.) said he placed the cage between the brood combs for 48 hours, and was generally successful.

J. H. Nellis asked if caging queens did not sometimes result in their starving. He recommended that when caged, food be put in isolated position, from which the queen could feed. When bees are intent on rearing a queen from their material, they sometimes refuse to feed the queen in the cage.

G. W. Zimmerman (0.) had introduced queens in cages from 36 to 48 hours, (if bees Clinched the cage, it was not safe); he then inserted a piece of filled honey comb into the cage and when they had eaten through this, it was safe to let her crawl out into the hive. He thought it advisable to cage the queen always, for sometimes the bees hug her to death.

J. H. Nellis remarked that he would not cage a weak queen.

T. B. Parker (N. C.) had caged a weak queen 60 hours, that had been out 14 days, and she did well. He said queens were often released too soon.

J. S. Coe (N. J.) had caged a weak queen with no workers, that had been injured by a fall. She was fed by the bees, and did well.

T. B. Parker often let a queen loose outside the hive and let her run in.

G. W. Zimmerman had removed black queens and liberated Italians in that way.

A. L. Stanton (N. Y.) pinched the old queen to get the scent; this he rubbed over the Italian queen and immediately released her. He always selected his best queens and introduced 4 out of 6 successfully in that way. Rearing queens wasted too much valuable time in the busy season.

UNITING WEAK COLONIES. G. W. Ziinierman had made up 40 to 60 full colonies from weak ones, and 7 colonies from nuclei, and wintered them all safely. He filled them with liquid sweets, supplied them frames of comb a little before sundown, when it was a little cool; caged the queen between the frames, and shook the bees down and left them till morning, when thev would be all ready to work.

H. L. Leonard (Vt.) asked Mr. Z. if he took the gueens away?

G. W. Zimmerman answered that he removed both queens, but introduced one at once. If done late in the season they would create heat by clustering, before morning. He disorganized the stronger colony and put in the weak one with it-and had always done it successfully.

J. L. Beal (Pa.) asked if Mr. Z. confined them in a dark room? G.W. Zimmerman-Yes; when necessary.

J. L. Beal said he confined and took them to a dark room and united-and after 48 hours to 3 days there was no danger of their returning to their old stands. He let them destroy one of the queens.

Mr. Bradley (Mass.) had doubled 20 or 30 weak colonies. He removed the queens and shook them up on a cloth and let them run into the hive. He found they did not quarrel. He always caged the queen from 12 to 24 hours.

N. N. Betsinger (N. Y.) practiced removing the queens and then throwing them together.

T. B. Parker (N. C.) united colonies successfully by putting a board between them, with a hole in it, late in the evening, and closed the hole for 24 hours, then opened

the hole and let them crawl through to the other colony.

Jas. Williams (Tenn.) united successfully late in the fall. The hives being twenty to thirty feet apart are moved nearer every 2 or 3 days, till they are close together. He then removed the queens, took a fresh hive and put in the middle frames from each hive alternately, and then gave them a queen.

Mr. Crane (Vt.) said that it may be a good way, but it is tedious.

He took away the queens and stores from weak stocks and let them realize that they were robbed of all but their hives, and then fed them with honey and put them together.

HOW TO CONTROL SWARMING. R. Bacon (N. Y.) had tried and found how difficult it was to prevent swarming. When they had the fever on, it was hard to get it off. His best plan was to open the hive. after the first swarm came out, and destroy all the queen cells in the frames, and then hive the swarm in the old hive. He had no failures by this plan, and it was an important matter in getting a large yield of box honey.

J. . Nellis (N. Y.) remarked that it was essential to have one swarm. Then it would be well to have "cool headed bees." Some lazy Italians like to swarm, but all preferred cool, industrious bees! He found that they did not swarm as much when a loosely-fitting frame was used. He kept them at work by piling on boxes, and cutting out the queen cells.

J. S. Hill (0.) said that the swarming fever varied with the seasons. He controlled swarming by adding box room needed. He provided a fertile queen, destroyed all their queen cells and kept them at work in boxes.

G. W. Zimmerman had 175 colonies, but never saw one of them in the air. He kept them shaded, and by keeping the brood chamber cool'he prevented swarming.

Jas Williams (Tenn.) had his hives painted a different color on each side-red, white, blue and gray-with a movable alightingboard on each side, which he could so manipulate in the middle of the day as to control swarming by having the hive with four divisions, and compelling those flying out to return to any compartment desired. He let them use the different entrances for ten days at a time, and thus by rotation entirely controlled swarming. He had 300 colonies.

HOW TO PRODUCE THE MOST SURPLUS. J. S. Coe said that the point was how to produce the largest yield of honey for a term of years – how to make the most money from the bees as a regular income. If swarming can be controlled and colonies can be successfully carried through the wiater and spring, an average yield can be depended upon. Healthy, strong colonies in the spring, full of brood, and in condition for gathering when fruit bloom comes, were indispensible. This state could be obtained only by feeding early in the spring; and thus having them ready when fruit bloom came to gather it in.

L. C. Root (N. Y.) remarked that it was absolutely essential to have colonies strong in the spring, in orper to be profitable.

HOW TO OBTAIN INDUSTRIOUS BEES. J. P. Moore (N. Y.) remarked that the only way he knew was to get good queens

and as hybrids were the most industrious he had taken 10,271 lbs. of honey from 119 bees, he should say-hybridize.

colonies. Mr. Crane (Vt.) found that many colonies The committee reported, and the followwere unproductive, and that bees differed ing were duly elected officers of the Nationin constitution and industry. The safest al Association for the current year: W. J. way was to breed from the most vigorous Andrews, Tenn., President. N. N. Betcolonies and increase to strong stocks. singer. N. Y.; J. S. Coe, N. J.; R. R. Jur

L. C. Root (N. Y.) had received 60 untest- phy, Ill.; G. W. Ziminerman, O.; J. Vaned queens from H. Alley, and all were very dervoort, Pa. Vice Presidents; J. H. superior. The way was to breed up, and Nellis, Secretary; J. S. Hill, Treasurer. avoid breeding in and in. He felt sure that New York City was selected as the next several were breeding very carefully and place of meeting, and the third Tuesday of with a large percentage of pure Italian bees October, the time. J.S. Coe was instructed of industrious, prolific character.

to make all necessary arrangements. THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION,

The Secretary was instructed to issue an

address to the bee-keepers of AmericaJ. S. Coe (N. J.) remarked that the Na- earnestly advising them to organize, and tional Association should be supported. protect their interests; and also to send one The chicken interests supported its nation- or more delegates to the next National Conal association and took means to perpetuate vention, instructed as to how it can best adthe organization. Each State should be re- vance the individual interests of bee-keeppresented by delegates. The State organiz- ers at large. ation should be composed of delegates from Some desultory conversation was then county bodies-and they from township indulged in by those present, and then à societies. The great questions of how best

vote of thanks was passed to the proprietors to dispose of our honey, belong to such

of the Atlas Hotel *for so liberally placing bodies. We should study to bring producer its comtortable parlor at the disposal of the and consumer together.

Convention. Dr. Parmly (N. Y.) said that chickens The essays, for which the N. E. Bee-keepwere gotten from all parts of the world- ers' Association had offered a prize, were and we should get bees not only from Italy then read. The prize being already awarded but Africa, and all parts of the world, to im- by the committee to the essay of Prof. A.J. prove our stock. The National Association Cook, of Lansing, Mich. should import, experiment and find out L. C. Root (N. Y.) remarked that one of what to use and what to discard.

the principal points for successful winterJ. H. Nellis remarked that by organiza- ing was perfect quietude. If the bees were tion we could do many things that now was in good condition he never opened his deimpossible. The plan mentioned by Mr. pository from Nov. 15 to May í. He kept a Coe was the best way. Delegates should thermometer suspended through a hole in be sent and their expenses paid. They the floor above, and the temperature did not could be instructed to have various themes vary all winter only between 45 to 50 deg. discussed, and if a fund was provided, After some further discussion the Conprizes could be offered to bring out the best vention adjourned to meet in New York on intellect in the country, and thus perfect thefthird Tuesday in October, 1877. the science of the apiarist,

[Owing to the wonderful grandeur and exR. Bacon remarked that noney was not tent of the display in the Centennial Exhisecond to poultry in importance, the world bition it was deemed prudent only to hold over. If a proper stand be taken we can sessions at evening. This, together with sustain a successful National, as well as the natural pressure of business, makes this State, county and township organizations. report rather brief.] J. H. NELLIS, Secy. THURSDAY EVENING.

For the American Bee Journal, The Association met and as the first business was the election of officers for the

The Prize Essay. coming year, they appointed a committee to nominate them.

The centennial committee of the NorthWhile the committee were in session, Eastern Bee-Keepers' Association appointThomas G. Newman remarked that one of ed as the committee of judges on the esthe great questions now agitating the minds says: J. P. Moore, of New York; H. Alley, of bee-keepers was-" How to dispose of of Mass., and J. S. Hill, of Ohio. honey to advantage." He said that the The judges convened and performed their price asked was no doubt a fancy one, and duties on Thursday evening, Oct. 26. that the sooner it was lowered, the sooner Four essays were presented, all very use honey would be taken from the list of ful and instructive papers. The gentlemen "luxuries” and be brought into general de- who sent the essays are Rev. E.C. Briggs of mand. Now, only the rich and extravagant | Iowa; Dr. W. B. Rush, of La.; Wm. II. S. used much honey for the table-but the Grout, Esq., of New York, and Prof. A. J. time was not far distant when it would be Cook, of Mich, used by families of moderate means, and After due consideration, the committee take its place beside that of butter, cheese awarded the prize to Prof. A. J. Cook, of and cream. If bee-keepers would create a Mich. home (leinand for their honey, by offering it This seemed a worthy dhcision. We can at a reasonable price, they would still get only regret that low finances restrained our as much as they now do, and save the com- giving a prize to each worthy competor. We inissions of middle men, and at the same can but hope that the unsuccessful may aptime be vastly increasing its consumption. preciate their reward in the good done the

L. C. Root rewarked at some length upon mass of apiarists who have failed hereto his movie if treatment. He said that he fore in wintering their bees. permitiei - warming just as little as pos

J. H. NELLIS, sible. and prevented the desire to swarm; ! Sec’y of North-Eastern B. K. Association.

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