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and the hives were well filled with brood when the old bees went to the sorghum mill.

J. E. GADSEY. Willianson Co., Tenn.

Do Bees Make Honey? Prof. Riley, who asserts that bees do not simply gather but actually make honey, is met with the following from a correspondent of the Scientific American. He says:

Is it not astonishing to find that professors of this day state that bees make honey? A good common stand of bees, having but short distance to travel, will increase their stock of honey from one to two pounds in twelve hours fair work. What chance is there here for a digestive process? Place three pounds of loaf sugar syrup within easy reach of such a stand at 8 P. M.; it will all be taken up and stored away before sunrise next morning. I once thus experimented: After feeding to about forty hives, nine barrels of Cuba honey, upon examination I found no difference between that in the comb cells and that in the barrels, only the former was clearer from dirt. The honey becoming exhausted, I then fed the bees during the rest of the fall with loaf sugar syrup: Upon examination next spring, I found the comb cells filled solidly with well-grained loaf sugar, precisely like that I had dissolved to feed the bees with. Other comb cells were partly filled with Cuba honey and partly with ground loaf sugar.

For the American Bee Journal. A Sorghum Mill Death to Bees. On the first of September (last month) I had 165 strong stocks of native bees, full to overflowing, and from one quart to a hatfull lying around the entrances of each hive. They were populous colonies with full stores.

A neighbor, within a quarter of a mile, put a sorghum mill in operation. The third day a person told me that the mill would soon use up my bees. I took no notice of it, as I thought if it did kill 8,000 or 10,000 it would not matter, as I had plenty, and to spare. On succeeding days the news came to the same effect. At the end of the first week since the mill was started, I noticed that my bees were all gone inside the hives or elsewhere. I examined them and found 48 stocks had only about a pint of bees left, and the remaining 52 contained about a quart each.

On going down to the mill, I discovered that the destruction had been immense during the previous week. Two barrels, holding 61 gallons of juice each, were covered with coarse sack or gunny bag cloth, for straining the juice. On one side was a hole as large as an egg, where my bees had entered almost en masse, and about two good swarms were drowned in these barrels every three or four hours. On one side of the boiler is a tub to receive the boiling scum or foam; this attracted the bees, about as much as the barrels, and thousands perished by scalding every hour.

The workmen had to be protected, as they had been stung by the bees,and their hands, arms and feet were much swollen. I suppose there is no help for it-as this is a free country.

If I had only a few stocks I could move them, but it is quite a task to move so many, and it is hard to see them murdered in this way.

In Quimby's Mysteries of Bee-Keeping, he says:

“For a man to see 100 stocks of bees starving at one time is rather discouraging to a sensitive mind. It will be well for him to lay up a stock of fortitude in prosperous times, large enough to last him through such seasons of discouragement.' This suits my case; though mine were not starved but murdered, it needs just as much fortitude to last through this season of discouragement.

I have used my honey market-boxes for feed boxes. I had a number of them made of tin. I cover the bottoms about one inch deep with syrup and put in small laths as floats.

I have tried a new way of feeding my bees. I made a scaffold, laid tight, 8 feet wide and 20 feet long, under cover. On this I spread out every morning about 2 inches thick of fresh ground apples and sprinkle with a garden sprinkler a solution made from 4 lbs. of sugar to ? gallons of warm water, each morning and noon. My bees seem to like this kind of food.

My bees have always made me a good living as well as enough for themselves. My hives are crowded now with full stores, but my object in feeding is to stimulate them to keep breeding to replace those destroyed at the sorghum mill. Will it do to feed through Nov. and Dec. for that purpose?

At the time of writing this, it appears to me that my bees are improving in numbers,

For the American Bee Journal. Keeping Bees over the Winter. Again winter is upon us, and bee-keepers look forward with anxiety to its results in reference to his pets.

Having very good success in wintering bees of late, I thought I would append a few notes in the way of giving my method of preparing for winter.

First, I raise the hive from the bottom board by placing a frame three inches in depth, and the size of the hive, between the hive and bottom board, which gives a space for filth, dead bees, &c., to remain without coming in contract with the combs. I am now making hives with a tight bottom, and giving a space of two-and-a-half inches under the frames. My reasons have been given in the back numbers of THE JOURNAL.

Second: I do not extract honey at the close of a honey harvest, as I have found invariably, that the bees will fill up empty combs with pollen to an injury to the colony for winter, as pollen is more susceptible to dampness, and will sour sooner than honey.

Third: I strive to give my bees honey that is gathered in warm weather.

Fourth: I give no upward ventilation, as I have found that the mortality was greatest with those hives that the honey board did not shut tight. If I had upward ventilation I should close the lower, as the bees in a hive are more susceptible of change in temperature where there is a draft through the ħive. am now making hives with the top perfectly tight. For the last two years my bees in tight-top hives have swarmed, from

two to four weeks earlier than in a shallow top opening hive.

Fifth: I winter bees in a repository, and try to have the temperature as near 35 deg. as possible, if in cold weather I keep at the above temperature, I can keep it cooler in very warm weather, so that it becomes more even in temperature than if kept at either extreme.

Now, Mr. Editor, I have given some of my notions in regard to wintering bees, and if it does any good I shall be very thankful as I owe THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL for nearly all. I know about bee-keeping, aside from experience.

I do not know that the bee-keepers of the country, are any nearer agreed as to " what ails the bees” than ever; but it is time the circle grew smaller. I believe every beekeeper should be sort of naturalist and philosopher, and unless we are, we shall not succeed in this age of improvement. So I think Mr. Editor, that the question of "how shall we winter our bees successfully” will be overcome, as well as all others essential to success.

C. C. A. Rice Co., Minn., Oct. 13, 1876.

Notes & Queries.

When do bees stop breeding in the fall?

G. HUNT. When all kinds of forage give out, then breeding will cease.

Hickman, Ky., Sept. 23, 1876.–Please tell me, through THE JOURNAL, the name of the enclosed plant.

G. ILISCH. The fragment of a plant sent by G. Ilisch, of Hickman, Ky., is a species of Thoroughwort, and as nearly as can be determined from the specimen, it is Eupatorium serotinum. A very near relative is known as White Snakeroot.

C. E. BESSEY. State Agʻl College, Ames, Iowa.

Owensboro, Ky., Sept. 24, 1876.—“DEAR EDITOR: Enclosed you will tind a sample of the top of a plant that appears to yield a vast amount of honey. It commences flowering in August and bids fair to continue until frost. The main stem attains the height of 6 or 7 feet, and near the ground is about % or % of an inch in diameter, and square-fluted on the sides; the flowers are purple, with only one petal, and that only on the top side of the flower pod. The bees visit it by thousands from early morn till night. Will you please to give it a name in the columns of the JOURNAL. I also send you a few pods of ripe seed from the same.

G. M. WOODWARD. The plant enclosed by Mr. Woodward is Scrophularia nodosa, called also figwort. It is abundant on low ground throughout most parts of the country. Not only is it interesting from Mr. Woodward's standpoint, but its mechanism is very curious, and has long been an object of study to the botanist.

C. E. BESSEY State Agl College, Ames, Iowa.

“Is there not some fear that we shall soon stock the world with honey, and that it will become a drug in the market?"

John EMERSON. No! The market has not yet been developed to one-tenth of its capacity. Every locality should be worked, till this wholesome article of diet shall find a place on every table. The price will come down, but there is no doubt that it will become a staple article like sugar, at no very distant day; and there will be more made than now by the raiser. The law of supply and demand will regulate that.

Please tell me which is the best time to commence bee-keeping? Is it not as well to buy now, when bees can be obtained cheap?

JOSEPA SCAMMON. No. It requires skill and care to carry them through the winter, and you should prepare yourself by "reading up" the subject of bee-culture during the winter, and then in May you can safely begin bypurchasing one or two hives. Go slow. Understand that to be successful you must study the subject well, and thoroughly. If you cannot get the larger works, procure a copy of the first Vol. of this JOURNAL, and one of the manuals, as advertised elsewhere and you can from them get sufficient information to commence.

Pointe Coupee, La., Oct. 10, 1876.-"I send you a specimen of a fine honey plant. I never saw but one stock of it. The bees have been on it from sunrise until sundown for over a month, and to-day it seems only just begun. They just swarın on it. It grows six feet high, the top from this

one root is i feet in diameter."

W. B. Rush. It is Eupatorium serotinum, a common plant in alluvial ground; it is a relative of bone-set and also of white snake-root. Ames, Iowa,


Which is the best hive for all purposes?

W. LAMB. The Langstroth hive is more in favor than any other, and we think that the nearer you come to it, the better. There are a few things that may be improved a trifle, but they are not essential.

I want some good works on bee-culture; what would you recommend me to get? Please state the prices. C. DODGE.

Langstroth on the Honey Bee, $2.00; Quinby's Mysteries of Bee-Keeping, $1.50; Vol. I American Bee Journal, $1.25, and the "manuals” as advertised in this JOURNAL, are among the best things to be obtained.

How far should the frames be apart?

JOSHUA COLEMAN. · From centre to centre, these should be about 1/4 inches.

Our Letter Box.

Chautauqua Co., N. Y., Oct. 10, 1876.-—“I commenced with 9 swarms; have realized 1120 tbs. surplus and 21 new swarms. They have gathered ample stores for winter from buckwheat and smartweed. Have wintered bees successfully 4 years in chaff hives outdoors."

W. H. S. GROUT. Tompkins Co., N. Y., Oct. 12, 1876.—“It has been a very poor honey season here, and bees have worked very little in boxes. I wintered 15 swarms, increased to 25, and took 410 fbs extracted and 74 of box honey. I use the Langstroth hive and have black bees. We have but little good honey in this vicinity. What we have is gathered mostly in the fall from bone-set and buckwheat.'

JOSEPH SINTON. Jefferson, Wis., Oct. 15, 1876. — “My method of wintering is the same as that pursued by the late Adam Grimm, of this place. Where I use my straw cover, I give only a little ventilation on strong stocks and none for weak ones. I use strips between hives. My colonies are in a poor condition to winter; several are queensess, and quite a number have not enough stores to winter on-none have any to spare. I found one hive starving to-day: It was a swarm that I put in a hive full of comb, in basswood time. Even hives not disturbed since spring have not honey enough to winter on. I never had as poor a season as the past has been, and I shall be obliged to let my bees out next season where there are not as many bees kept as there are near here. All field crops here have failed, more or less. I hope for a better season next year.”


Wayne Co., N. Y., Sept. 28, 1876.-"I have 60 stocks, and have this year taken 900 tbs. of honey from them, and doubled the number I had in the spring. They are all in fine order for winter. This has been a poor honey season."

D. M. KETCHAM. Breakabean, N. Y., Sept. 20, 1876.-“ Last fall I had 39 stocks and 700 lbs. of honey, but this fall I have 66 good stocks and 1,500 ibs. of surplus. My bees are all in good condition for wintering.” W. B. BURGET.

Dakota Co., Minn., Oct. 3, 1876.—"The first part of the season was poor for bees, while the latter part has been the best I ever saw. I have over two tons of honey, for which there is not as ready sale as last year. I am selling extracted at 15c., comb, 20c. I can give you my experience for the last two years, during which time I have lost but one swarm each year. I had 48 swarms last year and 76 now.” W. DYER.

[Shall be glad to have you describe your plan of wintering for THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL.-ED.]

Owensboro, Ky., Sept. 24, 1876.-—"My bees have done well this season. I have increased from 9 to 23 colonies; have them all in two-story Langstroth hives. I use an extractor and hardly think I would keep bees without one. Honey sells well here; could sell several hundred pounds at 1274 cts. in large lots and 16%cts. in small lots; purchaser furnishing packages. Comb honey, is worth 25c. at retail and 20c. in large lots."

G. M. WOODWARD. Louisa Co., Iowa, Oct. 5, 1876.-"Our bees have done well; had 4 stands in the spring, increased to 7; extracted 180 lbs. of honey, besides some in boxes, and the hives are full yet. Our bees are much stronger than ever before.”

MRS. A. B. WINDER. Warren Co., III., Oct. 6, 1876.—“Bees have done splendidly here this year; giving us a magnificent yield of white clover. I tried to keep them from swarming but could not wholly prevent it. I find no trouble now in getting comb honey. The secret is to get the hive full of bees then make their brood chamber smaller, and thus crowd them up to the boxes. I found no need of extracting brood combs, as they kept them nearly full of brood. I have had no success with the Rocky Mountain bee plant, silver hulled buckwheat, lophanthus, or alsike clover. I have tried them all, except the silver hulled buckwheat, several times, and failed. The buckwheat I sowed on a low ground, beside the black, which also failed, this year."

L. C. AXTELL. Clinton Co., III., Oct. 11, 1876.—“My bees have done nothing but swarm this season. I shall have to double more than half of my young swarms, and a good many of my old swarms have not enough to carry them through the winter. I did think they would get some honey in September, but it was so wet and cold, that they could fly but little."


Lima, O., Oct. 17, 1876.— "I keep bees for pleasure, not for protit, but from 24 colonies I have this season taken 400 tbs. of box honey besides 75 gallons of extracted."

J. E. RICHIE. Butler Co., Pa., Oct. 6, 1876.-"As the late Adam Grimm was one of the most successful bee-keepers in wintering, can you give us a description of his manner of packing and ventilating for wintering in bee-house or cellar? I believe much depends on the manner of preparing colonies for wintering. I have put mine in the cellar and bee-house for the past five seasons, and have lost not over two per cent. I have packed the cap full of hay and ventilate in the cap."

JACOB PATTERSON. [It was Mr. Grimm's custom to remove the cover from the hives, slide the honeyboard % of an inch forward, or put 7% of an inch splits on the rear end, under it, and then pile the hives 4 to 6 high in rows, leaving space to pass between them. His cellar was ventilated by two pipes 4 to 6 inches in diameter-one near the bottom and the other near the top of the cellar.-ED.]

The Rev. W. F. Clarke expects to be at the Centennial Meeting.

The North Missouri B. K. Association will meet in Mexico, Mo., Nov. 9, 1876. Communications and a piarian supplies as samples will be thankfully received.


American Bee Journal.

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No. 12.

The Centennial Honey Show. It is not very flattering to the bee-keepers of the United States to say that the only exhibits of honey at the Centennial, were those of Capt. J. E. Hetherington, of Cherry Valley, N. Y., and Mr. J, S. Harbison, of San Diego, California.

The Cherry Valley apiary, of Capt. Hetherington, made a fine display of excellent white clover comb and extracted honey and beautiful cakes of wax.

The exhibit of California honey, from Mr. Harbison's apiary, was tastefully arranged in a neat case, containing beautiful specimens of comb honey.

With the display of “California Produce” by Mr. Joseph Newman, we noticed some comb honey, also from the apiary of Mr. Harbison

The largest display of apiarian supplies was that of Messrs. George Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St., London, England. It comprised their cottage hive, observatory hive, cottage frame-hive, divisional super, sectional boxes, feeders, wax guides and plates for making them.

An examination of these was very interesting to one familiar with our American inventions. The “Cottage hive” is of rustic appearance, and neatly made of straw, strengthened with hoops, fitting closely to the wood. It is a two-story observatory hive. It has three windows in the lower story, with a thermometer to indicate the temperature; showing the bee-keeper when to open the three entrances to the upper story, over which there are three large bell glasses to be filled with surplus. The upper story fits over these glasses and may readily be removed for inspection. The bottom board is hinged to the lower story.

The "frame hive” has movable frames fitted with staples to keep them at regular distances, resting on a zinc ledge above.

The "frame unicomb hive” is a novelty which must be seen to be appreciated. It is constructed with glass sides (for observation) and protected with Venetian blinds.

The "divisional super” is very much the same as our sectional boxes. It contains 7 sections or frames; the entrance being

through perforations in a sheet of zinc, large enough to admit workers, but not the queen or drones.

The other things exhibited by this enterprising firm were well worth the attention of bee men, but we cannot further particularize.

In other parts of the building we noticed the following:

A model of the Dzierzon-Belepsch observatory hive, containing frames.

The “Centennial bee hive" of Dr. Worrell, West Chester, Pa.; a double-story observatory hive, with iron frames.

The "Champion bee hive” of C. E. Bost, of Davidson College, N. C. It is a peculiar invention, and one not easily described.

C. C. Van Deusen, Sprout Brook, N. Y., exhibited his bee-feeder and other apiarian supplies.

R. R. Murphy, Fulton, Ill., had his extractor on exhibition, as well as F. M. Chapman, Morrison, III. These are practically the same machine.

A. C. Attwood, of London, Ontario, also exhibited his Canadian extractor.

C. F. Lane, of Koshkonong, Wis., made a good display of the seeds of honey-producing plants and trees, as well as field, flower, tree, grass, and other vegetable seeds. His is said to be the largest establishment of the kind in the world.

East of the Agricultural building, we noticed D. Latchaw's "Union-section extension hive,” which contained a strong colony of Italians. Mr. L. was "on the spot" manipulating this colony and showing the advantages claimed for this hive. The frames are the hive proper, having closely-fitting sides and observatory ends. A close inspection of any part of the hive being readily made at any moment, it is fully under the control of the bee-keeper.

On the last day of our visit to the Centennial we were to have met friend Andrews, of Columbia, Tenn., and with him and friend Coe together, inspect Coe's apiarybut alas for all human calculations, through a misunderstanding about the place of meeting we did not find one another, and so did not examine the House Apiary. As friend Coe has already given our readers a

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