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modern “apiators," Keys had an intense
Our Premiums for Clubs. curiosity to procure a complete view of an intercourse between a queen and a
A. G. Hill has sent us one of his Gas Pipe drone, but alas! he died without the Extractors to be presented to the person sight. By confining a queen and a drone sending in the largest club of new subscribunder a glass tumbler, he had "several ers to THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL betimes been witness to those amorous pre- fore January 31, 1877. The Extractor is ludes recorded by Reaumur.” The queen light and extremely simple. We will pay would caress the drone, frequently re
the express charges, so that it shall be peating such wanton gestures as would
“without charge” to the recipient. stimulate a torpedo, or any other male
D. A. Pike will present one of his beautibut a drone !" He repeatedly witnessed
ful Albino Queens-whose progeny will be "a royal duel,” under a tumbler glass be
one-half Italians and one-half Albinos-to tween two queens taken from different
the getter up of the second largest club of hives, which always “terminated in the death of both." Describing a bee-dress,
subscribers. The Albino will be sent, posthe says among other things, "an apron
paid, May 1, 1877. before will be useful to prevent these
We will add the following: prying insects from tickling the belly.”
For the third largest list, we will send a
tested Italian queen in May, 1877. He adds, “Women should not meddle
For the fourth largest list, we will send with bees, without this bee dress; nor 500 young tulip trees (4 to 8 inches high) in then, without the addition of a man's April or May, 1877. coat, and I had almost said, breeches For the fifth largest list, we will give a also,"
copy of THE AMERICAN BEE JOLRNAL for
1877, post-paid. It will be highly unfair to conclude For the sixth largest list we will send, from the above extracts that the book as post-paid, a copy of Vol. I. of THE AMERIa whole is comical and laughable. On CAN BEE JOURNAL, bound. the contrary, it is wonderfully stored! See our club rates on page 296 of this iswith good, sound, practical advice about sue. Names and money can be sent in as bee-keeping, and some parts of it show received, mentioning that you wish to comthat we have not made such prodigious pete for the prizes, and we will open an acadvances in the art, as we are sometimes count accordingly. Work should be comprone to flatter ourselves. But this article menced at once. is already quite long enough, and we must reserve a further notice of this old bee-book for a future number or num
Bee-Keeping in Utah. bers.
W. F. C.
The editor of the Utah Pomologist gives
his experience in practical bee-keeping in New Zealand Clover and Bumble-Bees the following language:
Seven years ago we obtained a hive of The following is an item that has been
bees, and from this colony have produced "going the rounds" among the newspapers over four hundred colonies. of this country:
Last year we had no swarms, and this
year but one, from 150 hives. At the An interesting experiment has been made swarming time we looked for queen cells in the shipment of two nests of bumble- and found none for these two years, though bees from Plyinouth, England, for Canter- the hives were full and in good condition, bury, New Zealand. The principal object so we concluded that they had been so aimed at in the introduction of these insects widely propagated by division that their into the antipodes is the fertilization of the instinct for swarming had disappeared, and common clover, the pollen of which the no queen cells are formed in spring as common bee is generally unable to collect, usual. while the bumble-bee, liaving a longer pro- Our bees did splendidly all the early part boscis, and being much stronger, is able to of the season and filled up very handsomereach sufficiently deep into the flower to ly, but when the dry weather came, few collect the fertilizing dust.
blossoms were left, and they produced little Incidentally bees do fertilize plants, by
nectar, the bees fell upon broken and injur
ed fruit, and laid up but very little honey. scattering the pollen that adheres to their
We must plant our bees in a five acre lot of legs from the flowers they work on. But mignonette, and then we shall not look in what can "two nests of bumble-bees" do for
vain for plenty of sweets all the season. the salvation of the clover of so extensive a country as New Zealand? Surely it must es Out of 40,000,000 people in this counbe in a direful condition if it is dependent try, about 70,000 are bee-keepers and these upon “two nests of bumble-bees" for its send to market about 15,000,000 pounds of prosperity!
honey and wax yearly, representing in
value $3,676,763 for the former, and $189,388 Read our list for Clubbing papers. for the latter.
The Cause of Foul Brood.
More than two thousand years since, Aristotle described this terrible plague; it is, therefore not of modern origin. This disease, causing larvæ to die in the cells, and creating a foul stench which permeates the hive, bringing death to its inhabitants, has been a subject for discussion for many years; and anything that tends to throw light upon it will be of interest to the readers of THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. Dr. Schonfield, of Germany, has lately made a variety of experiments with it, and we present our readers with the following extracts from his paper, which has been translated by Mr. J. S. Wood:
Dr. Dzierzon proposed, by the wish of the editor (of Bienen Zeitung), at the last (Vandreforsamlingen) exhibition at Saltsborg, the following question: "What is to be looked upon as decided relative to foul brood, both as regards theory and practice, and what remains now undecided?” But, although he laid all his views and his name's influence in the balance in favor of the correctness of the Preusziske theory, he must still acknowledge that the incontestable proof was wanting, as at the conclusion of his answer he declared, "If also the theory brought forward by Dr. Preusz should prove correct, yea, even if it is the most probable, so is yet the questioncause, the sickness's real nature-even now enveloped in obscurity.” Thus we stand in relation to the problem which I previously stated:
Firstly. It must incontrovertibly be proved that the spores of the fungus leave the dried-up foul brood, and they must, inasmuch as they float in the air, be able to be caught.
Secondly. It must next be shown that such fungus spores, that are caught in the atmosphere, when placed on healthy larvæ, can grow and increase to an uncountable number, until at last they kill the brood, and so prove themselves the cause of the sickness.
Although the problem appeared difficult, I went even confidently to the work. wrote immediately to Herr Locher, in Sigmaringen, and asked him for a little foul brood. The 18th of June I received, enclosed in a letter, so much as I could form into a ball about the size of a pea. The substance was very dark, nearly black, moist, and tenacious, and its odor was exceedingly disagreeable. A careful examination under the microscope proved the presence of fungus of the same form as Micrococcus. Had first to show that the spores could escape through the fly-holes (entrances) of hives containing foul brood, it would have been necessary for me (in order to have obtained such a híve) to dissolve the infectious substance in water, and therewith sprinkle a comb containing healthy brood. It is most probable that such a proceeding would have failed, as the bees would most surely have cast out the dead larvæ and pupæ before the artificially produced sickness had had time to develop itself fully, and infect the whole hive. In every case there would have gone
a much longer time by that means before I had arrived at the result. I had not, however, in the mean time the opportunity, as I already wished to discuss my experiment at Halle. I, therefore, immediately made the experiment to catch the spores that were escaping, and were floating in the atmosphere, from the infected substance that had been sent me, and thereafter use them for infecting healthy brood. For this purpose I constructed the following apparatus: On a smooth-planed board I placed a bellglass, in the top of which was a round hole; in this I fixed a glass tube two feet long; there was also fixed a similar glass tube in the board. In the top of the uppermost tube was fixed a plug of cotton-wool, as also in the under end of the bottom tube, and the wool was not pressed tight, but so that the air could circulate freely through both tubes.
The foul brood substance that I had received from Herr Locher, was now placed under the bell-glass on the 21st of June, and left to dry slowly. If, then, the assertion that the spores escaped in the air when the substance was dry was correct, then it was only necessary for me now and then to place the apparatus by the window in my study, and expose it to the full influence of the sunbeams, as if the air in the bell-glass, by the power of the sunbeams, was warmed up to 40 deg., it must, by a well known physical law, escape through the uppermost tube, while the cooler air from the floor of the study must enter the bell-glass through the bottom tube, and at the same time it was quite as certain that therewithal the spores of the fungus, that were carried by the upward currant of air, would be caught in the wool above.
On the 5th of July, on which day the substance was quite dry, until the end of the month, I got four plugs of wool, each of which had served as the top plug for about eight eays; besides these I had two pads of wool, each of an area of about four square inches, which I had placed inside at the top of the bell-glass.
Had the spores from the substance really been escaping? and had the wool caught them as they were coming out into the world? All rested on the answering of these questions; and examination gave the following results:
When quite a small portion of the wool was washed in distilled water, and thereafter a drop of this water placed under a microscope, it showed a considerable quantity of fungus Micrococcus.
2. If a plug, of wool, as large as a pin's head, was laid dry on a piece of glass thereafter moistened with distilled water, and placed under the microscope, the Micrococcus could be seen partly in the water, and partly adhering to the threads of wool.
3. If the wool was examined dry it was difficult to see the Micrococcus, and it could only be seen by aid of the strongest lens, and through three objectives.
4. Of gun-cotton, of which I had two plugs, which were prepared with water as sub. 1 and 2, Micrococci were to be seen in still greater quantities than in the ordinary wool, probably because the one is finer and better suited to retain the spores.
Thus,by a practical method, I have solved the first part of my problem; and it is without a doubt proved, though in an unequal degree, that the spores of the fungus from the dried-up matter escape, and are borne away by the atmosphere.
Therefore there cannot be the slightest doubt of the fact, that in consequence of the bees ventilating so strongly as they so often do, that the spores must be driven out of a severely infected hive in very large quantities.
When V. Molitor-Muhlfeldt, in order to refute this assumption, declares that there is no circulation of air in a bee-hive, but that, owing to the motionless air, the spores must sink down, and not pass from cell to cell, it sounds almost as if he had no idea of ventilation being caused by the bees, and as if he had not read paragraph 3 of Von Berlepsch's Der Biene. When Gunther has succeeded in working a small windmill of paper by placing it at the entrance of a hive containing a strong stock, then it is evident that the circulation of air produced in the hive by the bees must, in proportion, be a much stronger hurricane for these light spores than any such hurricane Von Molitor-Muhlfeldt has witnessed on the earth. And when the same opponent declares on the whole that the atmosphere cannot be the bearer of the infection, so has that invalid assertion been so thoroughly refuted by Dr. Ulde, of Halle, that I will not waste a word on the subject.
It is quite certain that it is not over all, and at all times, that the atmosphere will contain such a quantity of seed-germs; and Dr. Preusz goes too far when he declares that the atmosphere is everywhere loaded with these germs. If such was the case, foul brood infection would appear in every district where there are bee-keepers; but there can be shown many districts where this disease is quite unknown; as in my district, up to the present time, it has not appeared.
I certainly succeeded in producing a whole combo of dead rotten and stinking brood; but although I experimented with this comb in the most various ways, placed it at the fly-hole at the open door, and exposed to the sun's warmth and the atmospheric currents about my pavilion, I, after examination, found no more fungus than Fischer, who never had anything to do with foul brood.
Where there is no fungus present, there can never arise infectious fous brood.
Herewith we have approached nearer to the solution of the second part of my problem.
It next requires to show and afterwards to prove that pure fungus collected from the atmosphere by means of cotton wool, has the power to kill larvæ, and by so doing cause foul brood. To do this, I took, on the 30th of July, a comb with brood from a first swarm, brushed off all the bees, and covered about 100 larvæ with wool, which was made fast by means of some thread. The comb was hardly replaced again before the bees attacked the wool, and commenced casting it out in small pieces. On examination of the comb on the 1st of August, it showed that all the larvæ that had been covered with the wool were cleared away by the bees. Three larvæ above the previously closed cells died shorty after the bees had sealed the cells which they were in. The bell-covers were sunk, and the well known small hole was in the centre.
After this, about 100 other larvæ were covered with wool; but again, as also a
third time, the larvæ and wool were torn out. I had nearly lost my patience, and I had only now two plugs and one of the squares left, which should be used for other experiments.
I now, rather anxiously, for a fourth time covered a brood-comb, and this time, fortunately, the bees let most of the brood remain in the cells. After an interval of four days, 7 larvæ died. An instantaneous and conscientious examination, by aid of the microscope, revealed the presence in their bodies of immense numbers of Micrococci.
Unfortunately, I was obliged now, on the 12th of August, to defer my experiments, as I could not postpone for a longer time a Bath tour on which I should have started at the beginning of the month. I forgot now to slide in a wire netting to prevent those larvæ that remained being torn out by the bees, but on my arrival at home from the Baths I found all in the best order.
Still the fact that Microccoccus possesses an enormous power of infection, and that it also attaches itself to perfectly, healthy brood until it kills them, cannot longer be denied. As incomplete (which I myself acknowledge) as the above proof turned out, owing to the scantiness of material that I had at my disposal, and the haste with which I was compelled to operate, as strikingly and as unrefutably have I succeeded by another process to prove it.
As I at once saw beforehand that under the circumstances before mentioned, and the well-known strong propensity of every strong hive of bees to remove as quickly as possible every sickly or dead larva from the hivé, it would be extremely difficult to arrive at a complete and satisfactory result, so the idea occurred to me to try the experiment of infection on the larvæ of other insects, which it would be possible to observe without obstruction.
As specially adapted for the purpose of this experiment, it occurred to me that the larvæ of the blow-fly would be the best, as these larvæ especially possess an extraordinary vitality, that, notwithstanding, its voraciousness, it suffers hunger and thirst, and in defiance of its nudity, can withstand cold and heat most astonishingly; and besides the above, this insect resembles the bee in its development, insomuch as it is as larva 14 days, and it is as pupa about the same length of time. I could, without difficulty, procure and nourish these larvæ, and, what at that time was of most importance, I could take them with me to Johannisbath, and there comfortably observe them under the ordeal.
I, therefore, on the 11th of August, laid a juicy piece of meat in the window, and a fly of metallic lustre, desirous of laying, soon deposited a heap of eggs on it. The next day about 100 were hatched, and these grew with their well known rapidity. The second day of my stay at Johannisbath, to where, of course, besides these larvæ, I brought my microscope, some of the wool that contained the fungus, and also a few bell-glasses, under which latter I placed three separate sets of larvæ.
The first and second had each ten, and the third the remaining larvæ. The larvæ under the first bell-glass on the same day, together with the meat which was their resort, were covered with wool. Six days after this the larvæ attained their normal size, and this without my being able to
detect the slightest unhealthiness; on the reality every larva that is seized by infecsame ten larvæ, under the same bell-glass, tion, finds itself in an extremely sickly and on the top of the wool, I laid a fresh state, which may be traced to another piece of meat, which, together with the cause. wool, was well saturated and smeared with In general, the larva dies soon after the the excrement of the larvæ.
cell is closed, and before it envelops itself Two days afterwards, seven of the larvæ as a pupa; during the time that the larva were dead; some lay on their backs, others changes itself to a pupa; not alone the skin on their sides, but all were stretched out. of the larva decomposes, but the larva, cerThe others lived and transformed after one, ! tainly as the result of the natural metamortwo, or three days' interval.
| phosis, finds itself in a sickly condition, and A very careful microscopical examination to every deadly, attack peculiarly and the next day of a dead larva showed that specially adapted for infection. the whole surface of its body was covered
We could, therefore, if we might allow with Micrococci. I might wash any portion
Muhlfeldt's assertion a little attention, very of the larvæ and examine the water; I
easily say at the sickening time of preparamight place the minutest piece of skin un- tion for transformation, and during transder the objective and then moisten it, but formation, the dying and decomposing skin always the same result-Micrococci in in- of the larva is the very best and most suitnumerable numbers.
able condition for the support of the fungus' As the remaining six larvæ soon decom- growth so that it multiplies at a rapid rate, posed, three of them were dried on a piece
and kills the larva before transformation is of wadding so that they could at a satter
at an end. Therefore, since Dr. Preusz and date be used for experiments of the same
Vog at Saltsborg, have given the decided kind. Again, two were examined while de
assurance that there are always found Micomposing, and were found full of uncount
crococci in foul brood, and since I have able Micrococci; and these last were spread
practically proved that healthy brood can on a piece of meat and given as food to the
be infected by Micrococci, so can there no ten larvæ in the second bell-glass, which,
longer be doubt that where fou! brood apup to this time, had not shown signs of pears as an epidemic, there the infection is transformation. While we for the present
produced and carried' to effect by Micrococleave these ten unfortunate victims to their fate, let us turn to the three pupa, which, to all appearance, fortunately have trans- The Situation of an Apiary. formed, and whose cocoons gradually get of a darker color. Our first closer examination convinced us
It is two thousand years since Columella that they were dead, as the cocoons here lived and penned his thoughts about bees. and there were sunken in. Two of them
The following is his advice for the situation that I cut out of the middle in the direction of the length revealed such large quantities
of an apiary, and it will be interesting to of Microccoci fungi, that they, without a the many readers of THE AMERICAN BEE doubt, must be acknowledged as the cause JOURNAL. of their death. The third pupa, like the three before
It were desirable that it face the south, mentioned larvæ, was reserved for future
and be situate in a place neither too hot nor experiments.
too much exposed to the cold. That it be When I to the above add the ten larvæ in a valley, in order that the loaded bees from the second bell-glass died berore trans
may with greater ease descend to their formation, after a few days' interval, being
homes. That it be near the mansion house, the result of having eaten their fungus
on account of the conveniency of watching containing sisters-that one larvæ that I
them, but so situated as not to be exposed examined before its death already contained
to noisome smells, nor to the dim of men or an enormous amount of fungi, and that all
cattle. That it be surrounded with a wall, the others after death proved to be full of
which, however, should not rise above three fungi inwardly-more especially in the in
feet high. That, if possible, a running testines-while the larvæ in the third glass
stream be near them; or, if that cannot be transformed and came into existence as
that water be brought near them in troughs flies, that I for many days bent over the
with pebbles or small stones in the water microscope, and had examined more than a
for the bees to rest on while they drink; or hundred pieces; so there can be no longer
that the water be confined between gently doubt of the fact that Micrococcus also in
declining banks, in order that the bees may fects perfectly healthy larvæ, and in the
have safe access to it, they not being able end kills them.
to produce either combs, honey, or food for This result, willingly and without opposi
their maggots without water. That the tion, will be accepted by the scientific, as
neighborhood of rivers or basins of water there is nothing to find therein that is op
with high banks be avoided, because winds posed to experience or research.
may whirl the bees into them, and they canHerr Molitor Muhlfeldt rightly enough
not easily get on shore from thence to dry declares in answer to my earlier articles,
themselves. And that the garden in which
the apiary stands be well furnished with that no fungus-spores can take root on the
such plants as afford the bees plenty of undamaged skin of healthy animals, be
good pasture. The trees in this garden cause the main principle-the suitable un
should be of a dwarf kind, and their heads derlayer-is only found when the animal is
bushy, in order that the swarms that settle unhealthy, or when about and unnoticeably has already begun to decompose or dis
on them may be the more easily hived. solve; and this assertion does not allow of scientific proof. And even if it were cor
Mrs. Tupper has been released from rect, Dr. Preesz's theory is by no means re- custody at Davenport, having given bonds futed thereby, or even threatened, as in for $800 for her appearance at court.
The Dzierzon Theory.
the power of using the muscles connected with the spermathéca, so as to be unable to
impregnate the passing egg,she will thenceDEAR EDITOR:- I am but a beginner in forward lay drone eggs only. bee-keeping, and I see in THE JOURNAL TWELTH.-As some unfecundated queens that you often speak about “the Dzierzon occasionally lay drone eggs, so also, in theory." Will you oblige me and others by queenless colonies, no longer having the giving a synopsis of that theory in The requisite means of rearing a queen, common JOURNAL? JULIUS JOHNSON. workers are sometimes found, that lay eggs
from which drones, and drones only, pro
ceed. These workers are likewise unteThe “Dzierzon theory” was by the Baron
cundated; and the eggs are uniformly laid of Berlepsch formulated into thirteen pro- by some individual bee, regarded more or positions, which are as follows:
less, by her companions as their queen.
THIRTEENTH. -So long as a fertile queen FIRST.-A colony of bees in its normal is present in the hive, the bees do not tolercondition, consists of three characteristi
até a fertile worker. Nor do they tolerate cally different kinds of individuals-the
one while cherishing a hope of being able grones. workers, and (at certain periods) the to rear a queen. In rare instances, how
ever, exceptional cases occur. Fertile SECOND.-In the normal condition of a workers are sometimes found in hives imcolony, the queen is the only perfect female mediately after the death of the queen; and present in the hive, and lays all the eggs even in the presence of a young queen, 80 found therein. These eggs are male and long as she has not herself become fertile. female. From the former proceed the drones; from the latter, if laid ir narrow cells, proceed the workers or undeveloped
Bee Products in the U. S. females; and from them also, if laid in wider, acorn-shaped, and vertically suspended, so-called royal cells, lavishly sup
The census of 1870 returns only 136 apiarplied with a peculiar pabulum or jelly, pro- ists-meaning of course that there were ceed the queens.
only that number who gave that as their exTHIRD.-The queen possesses the ability clusive business. to lay male or female eggs at pleasure, as the particular cell she is at any time sup
The bee products as returned by the cenplying may require.
sus, was 14,702,815 pounds of honey and Fourth.-In order to become qualified to lay both male and female eggs, the queen
631,129 pounds of wax in all the United must be fecundated by a drone or male bee.
States. The States producing over 50,000 FIFTH.—The fecundation of the queen is pounds of honey are as follows: always effected outside of the hive, in the
390.674 open air, and while on the wing. Consequently, in order to become fully fertile,
294.36 that is, capable of laying both male and female eggs, the queen must leave her hive at
30,884 least once.
610,677 Sixth.-In the act of copulation the gen
Indiana. italia of the drone enter the vulva of the
Iowa.... queen, and the
853,213 simultaneously Kansas..
110.827 perishes. SEVENTH.-The fecundation of the queen
.1,171,500 once accomplished, is efficacious during her
118,938 life, or so long as she remains healthy and vigorous; and she never afterwards leaves
280.325 the hive, except when issuing with a
199,581 swarm. EIGHTH.-The ovary of the queen is not
.1,156,144 impregnated in copulation; but a small
56,944 vesicle or sac situated near the termination
New York of the oviduct, and communicating there
896,286 North Carolina,
1,404,040 with, becomes charged with the semen of the drone.
703,134 NINTH.-All eggs germinated in the ovary
66.859 of the queen, tend to develop as males, and
796,959 do develop as such, unless impregnated by
.1,039,550 the male sperm while passing the mouth of
Texas... the seminal sac or spermatheca, when des
142,932 cending the oviduct. If they be thus im
505,239 pregnated in their downward
passage which impregnation the queen can effect
376,997 Wisconsin ..
299,341 or omit at pleasure) they develop as females.
Illinois, it will be seen, stands first in TENTH.-If a queen remains unfecundated, she ordinarily does not lay eggs. Still,
the order of honey-producing States, the exceptional cases do sometimes occur, and next largest being North Carolina, Kenthe eggs then laid produce drones only. tucky, Missouri and Tennessee, each of
ELEVENTI.-If, in consequence of superannuation, the contents of the spermatheca
which produced over 1,000,000 pounds. Only of a fecundated queen become exhausted;
these, and six other States, produced over or if from enervation or accident, she loses 500,000 pounds.