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ventilation. During the past two winters I have given my winter repository both upward and lower ventilation; have ventilated some hives, others had none, but it makes no difference. Neither does the kind of food they have to eat; some of mine had all basswood, others all flowers, never saw any difference in results. What kills our bees is a disease which I know little of, save that it is intestinal. Can save more bees when they are diseased by keeping them at a uniform temperature. Keep the temperature at the point the bees call for the degree of heat in which they are almost perfectly quiet. Two years ago my bees were satisfied with 42; last winter they insisted on 32. The past season I saved swarms that had been sick for two months-not in good conditionthough by using combs that were employed last year in raising nine cent extracted honey. I increased fifty stocks to one hundred and five, to raise twenty-five cent box honey with another season. When the bees are a little sick, good care will save them; but if badly affected saltpeter won't do it.
Pres. BALCH-Prof. Cook carefully tested the ventilation theory some years ago. A hive was heremetically sealed up in the fall and allowed to remain so all winter. When spring came the bees were all in good condition except Balch's that could'nt be resurrected. But the bees were not dead, only in a semi-dormant condition, and proved to be worth more than any three of the others. What produces the disease is upward ventilation; it makes bees eat-they can't void their faces-they die of dysentery.
JAMES HEDDON-'Tis an epidemic and not contagious. Four years ago when my bees all died, I brought in a box hive from the country in midwinter and placed it in the center of the cellar, surrounded by other swarms; all the others died while this one came out in splendid condition even though it was badly stirred up in getting it home.
T. S. BULL-Have wintered my bees in my house cellar for many years with splendid success, never having lost all. My plan is to remove honey board in the fall and cover tops of frames with a piece of factory; as the spring months approach, cover the cloth with sawdust. The cellar is dark though a light is carried in often to procure vegetables; temperature uniformily 50 Farenheit.
JAMES HEDDON-It is generally supposed that brood-rearing in a winter repository will lead to disastrous results; will Mr. Bull relate his experience in this direction?
T. S. BULL-Two years ago a hive accidentally fell from a shelf on which it had been placed, to the bottom of my cellar, smashing the combs. I cleaned up the muss as well as I could, and suc
ceeded in patching up a couple of combs. These were placed in the centre of the hive with an empty frame between them. Those bees filled that empty frame with comb, the queen deposited eggs therein, the eggs produced perfect bees, and the swarm came out in splendid condition. The honey that was daubed on the hive and bottom board stimulated them to breed. I take no precautions against noise; they soon become accustomed to it, and remain quiet.
Dr. SOUTHARD-Noise will not disturb bees at 35 when it will at 50.
JAMES HEDDON-At our May convention Mr. Bingham gave a detailed account of his system of ventilating his winter repository, which is admirable, as he can keep the temperature at any given point. Still he has lost heavily, and is now in the South with his bees, because he knows that nothing will save diseased bees in a cold climate. When bees are diseased don't disturb them. If anything ails a babe it wants to eat. (Had I realized that our medical brethren were present, I wouldn't have said it.) 'Tis just so with a dyspeptic man. Nature's prime want is hunger. An abnormal condition of the system-physical weakness-calls for food, for relief, which at best is only palliative, but more frequently an aggravation. Disturb bees and they will eat.
Pres. BALCH-'Tis instinct to eat. They carry honey with them when they swarm, which is natural.
tal was of "secondary importance;" but the low price of honey and high price of bees makes capital inseparable from success. To succeed we must have capital in the shape of a large apiary, all the needful appliances for rapid manipulation, and a business eye for "the main chance." Avoid having too many irons in the fire, and give your business your undivided attention. Bee-culture don't agree with farming nor any other business. There will be a clash and one or the other neglected, and of course unprofitable. The average bee-keeper must have strong stocks to make a success of "honey gathering rapidly." A good mechanic can make a good job out of poor stock, but a poor mechanic will make a poor job out of the best stock. The same is true of bees; a skillful apiarian can secure good yields of honey from weak stocks. An extractor is a convenience, not a necessity. Occasionally it will come in play for extracting broken combs so as to patch them up. Will you raise 9 cent extracted honey for a dull market, or 25 cent box honey for a ready market? My advice is to keep larger apiaries and raise honey in small glass boxes.
T. S. BULL-How would you dispose of our dark fall honey? Will that sell in boxes?
JAMES HEDDON-Most assuredly it will. My father is a traveling agent for a manufacturing firm of our town, and is thoroughly posted in regard to the best honey markets of the country. He recently advised me to quit using the extractor altogether, as the price of extracted honey is constantly receding. He says that box honey only will be profitable in future; and that the darker grades will sell well in a 21⁄2 pound box. DR. SOUTHARD- Will not the bees crowd the brood chamber with honey, when the extractor is not used?
JAMES HEDDON-My opinion is, that an extractor is never necessary for this purpose. Seven years of practical experience in the apiary is the basis of this belief. Mr. Burch has succeeded admirably in securing box honey, with no aid from the extractor, while Mr. Bingham regards its use as of no advantage whatever. Don't use large hives, but small ones; the bees will breed below and store honey above in boxes. [Concluded in our next.]
For the American Bee Journal.
How Are The Mighty Fallen.
It is rather amusing to hear the champions of the Honey Extractor " go back" on their old hobby. They were riding it so long that I thought it impossible for them to fall off. But, lo, even the ever
HOLDING FAST TO ITS OLD NAME, which it has carried successfully through the long period of thirty-four years, the American Agriculturist swings out its banner for the "Centennial Year" with the vigor of the prime of life and with well founded promises of still greater achievements in its appropriate sphere-that of a plain, practical, highly instructive and trustworthy family journal. Its name, adopted at the start for a special field of work, has become almost a mis-nomer, because it is now equally useful to City, Village, and Country. The closing number of volume 34, now before us, like its usual issues, is full of good things, varied in contents, which are prepared with much labor, thought and care, and illustrated with over 60 well executed and well printed original sketches and engravings. This Journal is a marvel of cheapness, beauty and utility, costing only $1.60 a year, postage included, for its more than 500 double pages of useful information, and 500 to 600, or more, of fine engravings. Every family should have it.ORANGE JUDD COMPANY, Publishers, 245 Broadway, New York City.
ANSWERS BY MRS. TUPPER.
My bees in the cellar are very uneasythey keep up a continual noise and many of them are running about the entrance and outsides of the hives. What causes this, and how shall I quiet them? H.
They are too warm or else your cellar is light. Reduce the temperature in some way; leaving the outer door open at night is a good plan and exclude every ray of light. If there comes a warm day, set them all out for a few hours and let them fly, then put them back.
I have 4 Langstroth hives with honey boards. Were put in cellar Nov. 4th, that being a clear, dry day. From vari ous causes was only able to feed them up to that time 9 tbs sugar in 34 gallons water to each hive, besides which they had about 3 lbs honey each. Entrances contracted to about 5 inches in length, and are 3% inches high, and are now covered with wire cloth. My intention is to take off honey-board and put on a box or frame the same length and width outside as the hive, having a bottom of bagging or some similar substance of loose texture, sides 2 inches deep, with top of woolen cloth, and filled in with cut straw. Temperature of cellar to-day is about 53 Fahrenheit, and the bees in three hives are excited and buzzing. Shall I feed them, and if so, how? The cellar is dark. C. E. S.
Your cellar is too warm- and that is one reason of the excited state the bees seem to be in; 40 Fahrenheit is warm enough-lower than that will do well, never higher.
We think you put your bees in too early, and would advise, if there comes a warm day, to set them out and let them have a good flight. Your idea of top boxes is good, but they should have been put on before you put the hives into the cellar. We avoid all disturbance after they are put away. Put a pound or two of plain sugar candy over the frames under the box on top, and remove all wire from the entrance. The confinement helps to make them uneasy. After having them put away once more, let them alone until the 1st of March. After that they may be set out, and fed if necessary.
Voices from among the Hives.
SANILAC Co., MICH.-Dec. 7, 1875."In the spring of 1874, I had 48 stocks in Langstroth hives, all common bees; increased to 54, good season. I got 4,200 Ibs of box-honey, and 1,500 lbs of frame honey. Our honey-producing plants are: white clover, raspberry and buckwheat. By August 1st bees became numerous. As I did not like to have them idle I put an empty hive on the top of the other, and three eleven pound boxes on the top of that. Honey was 18 to 20 cents per lb. The year 1875 was a poor season; cold and dry. On the first of April, I set out 52 stocks, most of them wintered very poorly; I lost 12 in spring by dividing. Reduced to 40 stocks; increased to 56 by dividing; only 36 made any surplus. They made 3,000 lbs box honey, besides enough to winter on. Price of honey, 20 to 22 cents a pound." JOSEPH LEE. WOODVILLE, MISS.-Nov. 19, 1875.-"In the spring got from 120 to 130 tbs honey per hive, counting nuclei and all-about doubled stocks. No honey after August till the 27th ult.; for eight days did well; filled from five to eight frames heavy and others light. Unprecedented dearth, previous to this little harvest, caused a sad thinning in the ranks of my little workers and I have doubled up a number of stocks and given away seven or eight. Poplar is unrivalled, blooms from April 1, for about four weeks. Holly, from 13th April about four weeks, and sweet bay from March 22 about 10 days. Linden is not plentiful; clover (white), very abundant, but yields no honey for me. Sourwood, chincapin, sweet gum, black gum, water oak all did well this year, also the crape myrtle and china. Last year the golden-rod surpassed everything else, this year it has scarcely been visited by a bee-so I find it hard to determine the relative value of our best plants. No frost yet to hurt and flowers abundant but no honey." ANNA SAUNDERS.
LEE Co., Miss.-Sept. 7, 1875.-"Last spring I opened a hive about 9 o'clock in the morning, in which there was an Italian queen that would have been five days old at 11 o'clock the same day. In the hive was a small piece of drone comb. I was surprised to see an egg in each drone cell. I opened the hive again in the evening, and there were no more eggs. The next morning there were 2 eggs in every drone cell, and in some, 3. No more eggs were laid for five days, when she began to lay worker eggs. I have been keeping bees 8 years, and have read everything during that time on the subject that I could get hold of, and I have never seen an account of a similar case. The drone eggs hatched, and in due time were capped over."
T. W. JOHNSON..
CHICAGO.-Choice white comb honey, 18@25c. Extracted, choice white, 8@12c.
CINCINNATI.-Quotations from C. F. Muth, 976 Central Avenue. EXTRACTED HONEY IN SHIPPING ORDER. 1 tb jars (12 cases) per gross.. $39 00 (12 jars) per case 3 50 72.00 6 50
(12 cases) per gross.
1 lb 2 lb 2 tb (12 jars) per case.. Comb Honey, in small boxes......25@30 ST. LOUIS.-Quotations from W. G. Smith, 419 North Main street.
Choice white comb, 22@25c; Extracted, 12@14c; Strained, 6@9c.
SAN FRANCISCO.-Quotations from Stearns & Smith, 423 Front street. White, in frames, 20@221c. Dark, 10 @12c. Strained, 7@11c. Beeswax, 27@30c
T. N. HOLLET, Pennsville, O., sent us some Cyprus Island Bees, which he received from M. Cori, last fall. He has our thanks for a peep at them. Mr. Hollett intends to try Cyprus Island Bees and give the results of his experiments.
Don't send us any more back numbers unless you hear from us stating we want them, as we have been abundantly supplied with all but No. 1 of Vol. 2.
Particular attention is directed to the advertisement of J. Oatman & Co., who are prepared to supply Material for Hives, ready to nail together. They have also 125 stocks of Italian Bees to sell at a bargain.
Gardeners will find much of interest and value in Root's Garden Manual advertised in this number; nearly three-fourths of its contents consisting of improved and labor-saving methods in market, private and flower garden. Mr. Root grows most of the seeds offered and makes a specialty of Market Gardeners' supplies.
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WILL thrive in the shade? Which on a light sandy soil? What varieties from the garden will furnish winter bloom in the house? and much else of interest to lovers of flowers in Root's Garden Manual. See adv. " All About Gardening." Jan3mp.