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An Extractor to be Given Away. little experience and thinking because

honey is still being gathered there is no Mr. A. G. Hill has sent us one of his Gas- need yet to think about winter, they will be Pipe Extractors to be presented to the per- so anxious for a larger yield of honey that son sending in the largest club of new sub- they will plan to leave just as little as posscribers to THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL sible in the hives, and perhaps feed too late, before November 1, 1876. The Extractor is or have colonies so weak in stores in the light and extremely simple. We will pay spring that they will build up very slowly. the express charges, so that it shall be We do not pretend to have fully solved the "without charge” to the recipient.

problem of wintering and springing bees, We will add the following:

but are strongly of the opinion that one imFor the second largest list, we will give a portant factor in the problem is to have tested Italian queen in May, 1877. For the third largest list, we will give a

plenty of stores and at the same time have copy of THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL for plenty of room for the queen to lay. If 1877, post-paid.

more honey is left in the hive than will be For the fourth largest list we will send, post-paid, a copy of Vol. I. of THE AMERI

used in wintering it will not be wasted, and CAN BEE JOURNAL, bound.

in the spring the bees will increase their See our club rates on page 246 of this is

numbers more rapidly if they feel that they sue. Names and money can be sent in as

have plenty. Better extract the overplus at received, mentioning that you wish to com

the beginning of the harvest than to try to pete for the prizes, and we will open an ac

leave just as little as will carry the bees count accordingly. Work should be com

through. menced at once.

Novice inquires, in August number of Give Plenty of Room and Honey.

Gleanings, if the AMERICAN BEE JOU'R

NAL or any one else knew that McAllister In most localities the season has been one & Co., of Chicago, were of the fraudulent which has yielded an unusual harvest of sort why they did not say so? Now look honey, and many hives which have been here, Novice, you may wish you hadn't put left to take care of themselves will be in that chip on your shoulder. THE AMERIbad condition for winter by reason of their

CAN BEE JOURNAL tries to be a little careplentiful stores. Especially where the flow ful not to speak too hastily on subjects of of honey has continued up to the first of which it is not fully informed. Some eighSeptember, no time should be lost in exam- teen months ago the advertisement of J. K. ining every hive to see that room enough is

McAllister & Co. was refused by the publeft for the occupancy of brood. If every lisher of the AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL frame is filled with honey, except a shallow

because he was not furnished with satdepth at the bottom of part of them, the isfactory references, but this lack of inforcolony will scarcely survive the winter. If i mation did not warrant publishing the firin any colonies need to be fed no better use

as a fraud. Has there been more than one can be made of some of the frames of honey

case of unfair dealing reported of them? in the over-full colonies than to give them Not long ago we ordered a small package to those which have not sufficient stores for of comb foundation, and after putting it inwinter, returning empty combs in place of

to the hives it stretched down in such a the full ones. If this cannot be done then way that each particular cell seemed to be extract the honey from one or more of the

making faces at us. Should we not imcombs and have plenty of empty worker

mediately have warned the public that the cells in the middle of the brood nest. Do party was a fraud, sending out what was not, however, go to the other extreme, and

worse than worthless? Had we done so, extract most of their honey, thinking there

hastily, we might have regretted it, for very will be time enough for them to fill up, and

shortly afterward he gave notice that he if not they can be fed. There is nothing

had discovered that the material did not lost by leaving a liberal allowance of honey, work right, and he stood ready to make and at this season of the year there should good all damages. So it is best to go slow be at all times enough honey left in the

and sure in such matters. hives so that if a sharp frost comes and suddenly cuts off the harvest, there will be no The firm of King & Slocum, publishers of necessity to feed for winter. If the yield the Bee-Keepers' Magazine, of New York, should continue so as to fill up the hives has been dissolved. Mr. Slocum retiring again, it will be easy to extract again. We and Mr. Turner taking his place, under the are aware that this advice will be lost upon firm name of A. J. King & Co. The new some of the very ones who need it. Having firm has our best wishes for success.

Comb Building Huber thus describes the process of comb building. He speaks of two kinds of workers—“wax-makers” and “nurses.” This is an error. There is but one kind of bees. Young bees are the “nurses” and “comb builders," while the older bees gather the honey. He says:

The wax makers, having taken a due portion of honey or sugar, from either of which wax can be elaborated, suspend themselves to each other, the claws of the fore-legs of the lowermost being attached to those of the hind pair of the uppermost, and form themselves into a cluster, the exterior layer of which looks like a kind of curtain. This cluster consists of a series of festoons or garlands, which cross each other in all directions, and in which most of the bees turn their back upon the observer; the curtain has no other motion than what it receives from the interior layers, the fluctuations of which are communicated to it. All this time the nurse bees preserve their wonted activity and pursue their usual employments. The wax makers remain immovable for about 24 hours, during which period the formation of wax takes place; and thin laminæ of this material may be generally perceived under their abdomen. One of these bees is now seen to detatch itself from one of the central garlands of the cluster, to make a way amongst its companions to the middle of the vault or top of the hive, and by turning itself round to form a kind of void, in which it can move itself freely. It then suspends itself to the centre of the space which it has cleared, the diameter of which is about an inch; it next seizes one of the lamina of wax with a pincer fornied by the posterior metatarsus and tibia, and drawing it from beneath the abdominal segment, one of the anterior legs takes it with its claws and carries it to the mouth. This leg holds the lamina with its claws vertically, the tongue rolled up serving for a support, and by elevating or depressing it at will, causes the whole of its circumference to be exposed to the action of the mandibles, so that the margin is soon gnawed into pieces, which drop as they are detatched into the double cavity, bordered with hairs, of the mandibles. These fragments, pressed by others newly separated, fall on one side of the mouth and issue from it in the form of a very narrow ribånd.

They are then presented to the tongue, which impregnates them with a frothy liquor like a bouilli. During this operation the tongue assumes all sorts of forms: sometimes it is flattened like a spatula, then like a trowel, which applies itselt to the riband of wax; at other times it resembles a pencil terminating in a point. After having moistened the whole of the riband, the tongue pushes it so as to make it re-enter the mandibles, but in an opposite direction, where it is worked up anew. The liquor mixed with the wax communicates to it a whiteness and opacity which it had not before; and the object of this mixture of bouilli, which did not escape the observation of Reaumur, is, doubtless, to give it that ductility and tenacity which it possesses in its perfect state.

The foundress bee, the name which this first beginner of a comb deserves, next ap

plies these prepared parcels of wax against the vault of the hive, disposing them with the point of her mandibles in the direction which she wishes them to take; and she continues these maneuvres until she has employed the whole lamina that she had separated from her body when she takes a second proceeding in the same manner. She gives herself no care to compress the molecules of wax which she has heaped together; she is satisfied if they adhere to each other. At length she leaves her work and is lost in the crowd of her companions. Another succeeds and resumes the employment; then a third; all follow the same plan of placing their little masses; and if any, by chance, gives them a contrary direction, another coming removes them to their proper place. The result of all these operations is a mass or little wall of wax, with uneven surfaces, five or six lines long, two lines high, and half a line thick, which descends perpendicularly below the vault of the hive. In this first work is no angle nor any trace of the figure of the cells. It is a simple partition in a right line without any inflection.

The wax makers having thus laid a foundation of a comb, are succeeded by the nurse bees, which are alone competent to model and perfect the work.

The former are the laborers, who convey the stone and mortar; the latter, the masons, who work them up into the form which the intended structure requires. One of the nurse bees now places itself horizontally on the vault of the hive, its head corresponding to the centre of the mass or wall which the wax makers have left, and which is to form the partition of the comb into two opposite assemblages of cells; and, with its mandibles rapidly moving its head, it moulds in that side of the wall, a cavity which is to form the base of one of the cells to the diameter of which it is equal. When it has worked some minutes it departs, and another takes it place, deepening the cavity, heightening its fateral margins by heaping up the wax to right and left by means of its teeth and forefeet, and giving them a more upright form; more than twenty bees successively employ themselves in this work. When arrived at a certain point, other bees begin on the yet untouched and opposite side of the mass, and, commencing the bottom of two cells, are in turn relieved by others. While still engaged in this labor, the wax makers return, and add to the mass, augmenting its extent in every way, the nurse bees again continuing their operations. After having worked the bottom of the cells of the first row into their proper forms, they polish them, and give them their finish, while others begin the outline of a new series.

The cells themselves, or prisms, which result from the reunion and ineeting of the sides, are next constructed. These are engrafted on the borders of the cavities hollowed in the mass; the bees begin them by making the contour of the bottoms, which at first is unequal, of equal height; thus all the margins of the cells offer an uniformly level surface from their first origin, and until they have acquired their proper length. The sides are heightened in an order analogous to that which the insects follow in finishing the bottoms of the cells; and the length of these tubes is so perfectly proportioned that there is no observable inequality

wax workers is in a state of the most complete inaction, till one bee goes forth to lay the foundations of the first comb. Immediately others second her intentions, adding to the height and length of the mass; and when they cease to act, a bee, if the term may be used, of another profession, one of the nurse bees, goes to form the draft of the first cell in which she is succeeded by others. “So work the honey bees, Creatures that by a rule in Nature, teach The art of order to a peopled kingdom."

-SHAKESPEARE.

between them. It is to be remarked that though the general form of the cells is hexagonal, that of those first begun is pentagonal, the side next the top of the hive, and by which the comb is attached, being much broader than the rest, whence the comb is more strongly united to the hive, than if these cells were of the ordinary shape. It, of course, follows that the base of these cells, instead of being formed like those of the hexagonal cells, of three rhomboids, consist of one rhoinboid and two trapeziums.

The form of a new comb is lenticular, its thickness always diminishing towards the edges. This gradation is constantly observable, whilst it keeps enlarging in circumference; but as soon as the bees get sufficient space to lengthen it, it begins to lose this form and to assume parallel surfaces; it has then received the shape which it will always preserve.

The bees appear to give the proper forms to the bottoms of the cells, by means of their antenna, which extraordinary organs they seem to employ as directors, by which their other instruments are instructed to execute a very complete work. They do not remove a single particle of wax until the antennæ have explored the surface that is to be sculptured. By the use of these organs, which are so flexible and so readily applied to all parts, however delicate, that they can perform the functions of compasses in measuring very minute objects, they can work in the dark, and raise these wonderful combs, the first production of insects.

Every part of the work appears a natural consequence of that which precedes it, so that chance has no share in the admirable results witnessed. The bees cannot depart from their prescribed route, except in consequence of particular circumstances, which alter the basis of their labor. The original mass of wax is never augmented, but by an uniform quantity; and what is most astonishing, this augmeptation is inade by the wax makers, who are the depositories of the primary matter, and possess not the art of sculpturing the cells.

The bees never begin two masses for combs at the same time; but scarcely are some rows of cells constructed in the first, when two other masses, one of each side of it, are established at equal distances from it, and parallel to it, and then again two more exterior to these. The combs are always enlarged and lengthened in a progression, proportioned to the priority of their origin, the middle comb being constantly advanced beyond the two adjoining ones by some rows of cells, and they beyond those that are exterior to them. Was it permitted to these insects to lay the foundation of all their combs at the same time, they could not be placed conveniently or parallel to each other. So with respect to the cells, the first cavity determines the place of all that succeed it.

A large number of bees work at the same time on the same comb; but they are not moved to it by a simultaneous, but by a successive impulse. A single bee begins every partial operation, and many others in succession add their efforts to hers, each appearing to act individually in a direction impressed either by the workers who have preceded it, or by the condition in which it finds the work. The whole population of

From the English Manual of Bee-Keeping.

Effects of Stings. Mr. G. Walker, of Wimbledon, has recorded an experiment he made on himself to try how long, and how many stings, it would require to get inoculated. He gives the following as the modus operandi and result, viz:

I went to one of my hives, caught a bee, placed it on my wrist, and allowed it to sting me, taking care that I received the largest amount of poison by preventing it from going away at once; then I let the poison-bag work, which it does for some time after being separated from the bee. The first day I only stung myself twice. A bee sting has always had a very bad and injurious effect on me, inasmuch as it has always caused a great amount of swelling and pain; in fact, once when stung on my ear, the part became so painful and swollen that I hardly got any sleep the following night, and it was three days before I recovered. The first few stings I got during this experiment had the usual effect; the whole of my fore-arm was affected with a cutaneous erysipelas, and there was disorder of the muscular nerves, accompanied with heat, redness, swelling and pain. This attack lasted till Tuesday, and on Wednesday (October 7th) I was so far recovered that, following the same plan, I stung myself three times more also on the wrist. "The attack of erysipelas this time was not nearly so severe; but, as before, I felt a stinging sensation as far up as my shoulder, and I noticed that a lymphatic gland behind my ear had increased considerably in size, the poisor: being taken up by the lymphatic system. On Saturday (October 10th) I'again treated myself to three stings, and the pain was considerably less, though the swelling was still extensive. At the end of the next week (October 17th) I had had eighteen stings; then I stung myself seven times more during the next week, and I reached the number of thirty-two on October 31st; the course of the experiment having lasted nearly four weeks. After the twentieth sting there was ery little swelling or pain, only a slight itching sensation, with a small amount of inflamation in the immediate neighborhood of the part stung, which did not spread further; and I stung myself on November 8th, without its having any effect

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SEND NAMES.–Our friends will greatly oblige us by sending the names of such of their neighbors as keep bees and do not take THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL, and we will send them a sample copy.

Biographical.

He had an intense enthusiasm in the business and worked so hard in the apiary

as probably to shorten his life. His success The late Adam Grimm.

was the cause of many others engaging in

the business. Adam Grimm was born in Germany, in He established a bank at Jefferson, of the year 1824. His father kept a few hives which he was cashier, (his bees having proof bees in which Adam took deep interest, vided the capital) but during the honey harand did not rest satisfied till he himself be- vest he left the bank to the care of emcame the owner of a few colonies.

ployees and went from one apiary to the He emigrated to this country in 1849, set- other, personally supervising all that was tling at Jefferson, Wis., on a farm where he done. remained until the time of his death, which We shall not soon forget two or three occurred April 10, 1876. Soon after settling pleasant visits which we made at his home at Jefferson he obtained a few colonies of with his interesting family. He told us that bees and was so successful with them, that his wife remonstrated with him for working at a time when all other crops failed, his so hard, telling him that he now had a com

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Tours,
Adams Grimmy

bees came to the rescue and helped him over the most critical time of his life.

In 1863 he had increased his apiary to 60 stocks of black bees in all sorts of box hives, and in 1864 he commenced to use framne hives and transferred all his bees into them. In the same year-1864—he bought his first Italians and as rapidly as possible Italianized his apiary, and then sold large numbers of Italian queens all over the country.

About 1869 or 1870 he imported, personally, 100 Italian queens, 60 of which were alive on their arrival at New York. Of this number he introduced 40 in his own apiaries. He increased his stock regardless of cost, every year, but had larger returns especially in late years both from the sale of honey and bees. Queen rearing he thought unprofitable.

petence, and could give up his bees with the laborious care of so many, but he seemed to think the returns were large for the amount of labor, making the work still a pleasure, although no longer a necessity. He reached the number of 1,400 colonies, and on one of our visits when he had nearly 1,000 colonies, he said, with a half-comical expression, "What would I do if all should die in the winter?” And then the comical look giving way to one of German determination, he said, “I would buy some more, and with so many hives full of empty comb I would show you how soon I would fill them up again.'

His daughters, Katie and Maggie, (since married) were his able and faithful assistants, and the son, George, since his father's death has assumed the principal care of the bees, for which he is well fitted by his previous training.

Correspondence.

size and less compact. Whilst I was watching them, the queen emerged from the cluster, and quietly walked into the hive. On the quilt were the slain bodies of some thirty workers. On visiting them two weeks later I found the queen doing faithful duty, as if nothing had happened.

Very clearly here were two different parties; and I do not remember ever

to have seen this matter mentioned by any one except Mr. Chas. Dadant. Can the knowledge be turned to any practical account?

B. LUNDERER.

For the American Bee Journai, Queens' Friends and Foes. I have practiced introducing queens by merely waiting till queen cells were started, and then placing the queen on the comb amongst the bees, without using any precautionary measures whatever, and have never failed when honey was yielding, but have often noticed that in front of such a hive shortly afterward, a number of dead bees would be found on the ground. For a long time it puzzled me to know what this meant, but I finally came to the conclusion that the bees had a battle amongst themselves, one party attacking the newly introduced queen, and the other party defending her, and that the dead bees in front of the hives were slain in such battles.

About the middle of last July in extracting the honey from a two-story hive, I found the queen in the upper story with brood scattered through both stories. In order to be sure to put the queen where I wanted her to be, after I was through overhauling both stories, I put her in a tumbler turned upside down over a sauce dish. After finishing my work with the hive, I placed the queen on top of the frames and she was immediately attacked. I took out the ball of bees which enclosed her, and as I did so a small cluster dropped off the inain ball, and this small cluster remained clinched evidently battling one another. I then dropped the ball containing the queen in a tumbler of water, but instead of separating they remained in a firm ball. After they had become motionless from drowning, I took them out and easily separated the queen, which I placed on top of a hive cover in the shade, to dry off and revive. On the top of the frames where I which had just been killed at the spot where the queen was. I then closed up the hive and looking at the tumbler and sauce dish which had contained the queen, I noticed that the dish was soiled by_bees which had been previously in it, (for I had been using it all day to hold different queens) and undoubtedly the strange and unpleasant odor given to the queen, by being in the soiled dish was the cause of the bees attacking her. After the queen had revived, I daubed her with honey and placed her on the porch, where she was caressed by the bees which first met her, and very soon quite a crowd collected about her. Gradually the appearance of the bees assumed that doubtful aspect, in which you scarcely know whether they are foes or friends to the queen Very soon the ueen was enveloped by a large mass of bees. She was a choice queen and I was very anxious for her safety, but it was growing late in the evening and I was to leave the next morning, so I decided to let the bees take their own course. I visited the hive the last thing before going to bed, but found no change in the situation. I put a quilt in front of the hive so that I might find the dead queen thereon if she was killed. I went to the hive the first thing in the morning and found the cluster shifted from the porch to the side of the hive, smaller in

For the American Bee Journal, Bees Stinging to Death: While the Prussian army at Sadowa was fighting the Austrian forces, one of their batteries took position in a walled garden. In this garden, behind the guns, were a few stands of bees. The walls of the garden had been bored to make battlements, so that the gunners protected against the fire of the enemy could point their guns from behind the shelter of the high stone walls. Suddenly a bombshell fell in the garden, not far from the bees and bursting struck the hives. The bees became angry and rushed on the gunners and horses. Men and horses were literally covered with stinging bees. The guns were deserted and in spite of the haste of the retreat, several horses were killed, two men could not recover, and many others were several weeks before regaining their health.

The Franco-Prussian war had also a few episodes in which bees have played their part. At the battle of Beaumont, in the village of Warniforet, a farmer had about 60 bee hives. When the Prussians invaded the village, some soldiers, elated by their success, had the unhappy idea of feasting with honey. They had routed the proud French army, could a few small insects resist their attacks? With their sabres they loosened hastily the caps of most of the hives to rob their contents. The bees astonished at such an affront remained quiet a few instants, then rushing en masse they made a vigorous attack on their assailants. Four Prussian soldiers were killed instantly, four more did not recover, and several others remained for months in the ambulance before being able to resume service again.

Dr. Schweinfurt, in relation of his expedition across Central Africa, narrates that, while he was ascending Bahr-el-Abiadone of the forks of the upper Nile-the wind being contrary his boat could not use its sails. Some men were sent on shore to tow it with a rope. This rope while dragged on the ground hit and disturbed a bee hive. The revenge of these insects was not long delayed. A full swarm fell on the towers, who hastened to jump into the river to repair to the boat by swimming. The bees followed them to the boat and in their fury attacked all the crew, even the botanist who was in his cabin quietly occupied in fixing plants in his herbarium. There was a general rush out. The Doctor himself jumped into the river to escape the fury of the insects. Little by little the bees returned to their hive and quietness was restored. When the battle was over it was found that two men had been stung to death, and there were as many wounded as

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