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it tive months, and all came out in good condition. The one I constructed was modified somewhat from the one Mr. Langstroth described in his work, merely for convenience. Having selected the highest ground, near the bee yard, for the clamp, I measured off 16x16 feet, dug out the soil one foot deep, throwing it out at each side for covering; I then set four posts in the center on a square of. 8 feet and 6 feet high, pining pieces on top of the posts to sustain the inward pressure, after being covered. I covered the top with strong poles, placing them 8 or 10 inches apart, and treating the sides the same, placing the bottom of the side poles on the top of the ground, which would give them an inclination of about 45 degrees. On one side put a door, the jamb being a foot wide, and the same position, or slant, as the sides. It is then ready to cover with siraw (hay is better), cover all with earth 1 foot thick, and you have it ready for the bees. Make a cover for the door and place it on the jambon the outside. Cut a hole in one corner of the door 3x3 inches for ventilation; or ventilating tubes would be better. It is well to let it remain a few days, with the cover off, to dry out before putting in the bees. When they are put in have the hives as dry as possible; give them up. ward ventilation, and disturb them afterwards as little as possible.
M. S. SNOW. Ono, Wis., Dec. 1, 1875.
A daily examination of the combs of queenless colonies that had been extracted failed to discover, in several instances, any other change in the contained brood and eggs, than was due to growth and development.
Some apiarists say: always run the bottom of comb forward in the extractor, to make the honey come out easier. Now I can see no difference in this respect; and theoretically there is none, for the centrifugal force acts in a straight line, outward from the center.
A careless hand will sometimes break combs by starting or stopping too suddenly, especially if the gearing is such as to require a rapid motion of the hand, thus giving more power over the revolv. ing frames.
The most common objection that I have observed to the extractors offered for sale is that the combs are too near the center of the machine. Some that are on the market have the comb racks so close to the center, that the tendency is to split the combs down the middle when in rapid motion.
W. C. P. Maysville, Ky.
For the American Bee Journal. Effects of the Extractor on Brood.
The question of J. W. Dunn, page 267, December number of the JOURNAL, is often asked, and is a very important one. The various opinions on ihe subject seem
show a lack of careful investigation. This is not as it should be; and the ques. tion ought to be settled beyond all perad. venture before the next season for extracting has passed.
The results of my careful attention to this subject has taught me:
1st. Eggs can not be thrown out by the use of the extractor.
2nd. Young larvæ are not injured by the extractor unless thrown out.
3rd. Ninety per cent. of the larve that are thrown out by my extractor are drone larvæ.
The drone larvæ owing to the larger size of the cells, and their greater weight when several days old, are more easily displaced than worker larvæ.
As very young larvæ and eggs are often removed from the cells, when put into a strange colony, it is necessary to notice whether combs are put into their proper hive or not. I think this the likelist source of error in determining this question.
For the American Bee Journal Chips from Sweet Home. SEPT. 14. — Our apiary numbers 108 hives, of which 50 are storing in boxes, slinging from 15, 41 comb-building, and two have queens not laying.
Since we have Italianized our apiary we are troubled but little by the moth; ants and spiders are worse this year.
Some time since some writer said that the Italians built larger cells than the black bees. A few days since we got & swarm of black bees, and had an opportunity to verify it; their worker comb. measured 100 cells in two inches square (or four square inches), and the Italians. only 82 in two inches square. Is this difference in size an improvement or not? Are Italians smaller by being raised in cells by black bees?
We use all good drone comb for guides in surplus boxes. To secure this we are cutting out drone comb, and have our comb-builders fill in with worker comb; for this purpose we employ nuclei and weak swarms, giving them from 2 to 3 full combs of brood and one or two empty frames or combs, from which we have cut drone comb; these we keep strong by crowding with a division-board, and examine once every two or three days, according to the tendency to build 'drone comb, which is regulated by the amount of honey being gathered, building worker it scarce, and vice versa.
How would I secure the greatest amount of box honey? I would have large hives; if Langstroth frame, 9x17 inches outside measurement; I would have 13 frames.
Commence in the spring with as many noon. Aug. 22, 5 A. M., 430 ;Aug. 23, 5 combs as the bees can cover, when honey A. M., 400; at 1 P. M. of same day, 760. and pollen is not to be gathered, stimulate Aug. 25, 5 A. M., 700 ; 1 P. M., 90 • ; con. by feeding rye-flour and sweetened water; tinuing warm till Sept. 10, 5 A. M., 550 ; insert between each two combs of brood then rained every day till Sept. 18, when an empty comb; in this you will need to we had a light frost. be guided by the prolificness of the queen, I set out, March 27, 54 hives out of 100 amount of bees and the weather, using a put in cellar. April 6th, gathered pollen; division-board, until you have filled the May 7, first drone seen; bass-wood, apple, hive with 13 frames of brood. Have the wild and tame cherry, plumb; white hives made with a front or entrance at clover, failed to produce any honey ; raspboth ends; these you will regulate, keep- berries, mustard, produced some. July 8, ing them more or less open according to bees commenced and gathered considerweather and strength of colony. If you able from ebow brush; tben, Aug. 10, they use the Langstroth blocks that have slots, commenced on buckwheat, of which we put the slotted side up, as they harbor had 25 acres within 192 miles; they left worms.
buckwheat, which yielded well, for the Be careful not to put any drone comb in Mississippi bottom fall flowers, gathering the hive, for they will raise a lot of useless considerable till frost, when a heavy rain consumers and incite them to swarm. cut the flow of honey short. Did you ever know a hive to swarm that had On account of cold weather, bees worked no drone-comb! Have all worker-comb full but little in boxes, storing it below, crowdof brood, and the hive crowded with bees, ing the brood to a small space. Ten hives and they will only leave your sweetened which I run for slung honey kept crowded water for honey abroad. Put on 12 6-1b. with bees and brood, and did not swarm, boxes, or better, use a section-box of frames but those storing in boxes had the swarm. similar to the one used by Clark and ing mania. From Aug. 25 till Sept 10, I Harbison, of California. I make them as increased to 108 hives, but 3 being queen. follows: Upright side pieces, 17 inches less I united them with others, leaving 105 long, 14 inches wide, and 36 inch thick; to try the winter with. top piece, 64x124x3-16; this piece is We took 1,000 lbs box honey and 2,000 nailed on top of side pieces; bottom piece lbs slung, honey.
D. D. PALMER. is 12 inch square and 54 inches long; Eliza, Mercer Co., III., Oct. 2, 1875. this is nailed between the side pieces, with one corner downward; for nailing use
For the American Bee Journal. lath nails. These frames are held to.
What They Did, and How They Did It. gether by a thin strip of wood laid in a 22inch mortice in the center of the outsides
DEAR JOURNAL:-The summer is ended, of side pieces, and tacked with cigar tacks
the honey harvest is past for the year 1875, in the end sections. A 13.frame Lang.
and it is now the duty of the bee-keeper to stroth hive will hold four of these section
repay the little busy bees for their last boxes, of 11 frames each, with a storage
season's work, by preparing them carecapacity of 112 fbs, instead of 72 tbs, in
fully to exist during the long and cold boxes. We put 6x7 glass on each end of
winter that we are destined to have in the section box with glue, these frames
this latitude. It is also the farther duty will hold about 272. Ibs, and may be re- of every bee-keeper to carefully look over tailed separately. These frames give us
his last season's work and see what he the advantage of large boxes (bees will
has accomplished-comparing his losses store more in a large box than in small with his success, also carefully reading ones), more surplus room, and when par. the AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL and then tially filled they may be emptied with the
trying to make next season more of a suc. slinger and the honey sold, instead of lay.
cess than the last. That, I consider the ing by from 1 to 4 tbs per box till next
way to make bee-keeping a success. I season. The frames will need a thin strip
commenced last spring with 18 stocks, 3 of comb as a guide, which may be fas. of which were queenless; the spring was tened to the top piece with glue or bees.
unfavorable, but I brought them all wax and resin, of equal parts.
through; owing to storms I got only About once a month it is well to open about 100 tbs of linden honey; we have hives that are run for box honey, and
no white clover here, from the middle to empty any combs that are filled and re
the last of July. My queens seemed de. turn, putting them in the center and those
termined to lay in the upper stories; filled with brood to the outside.
about the middle of August they comThe season of 1875 has been very cool menced to store honey and also to swarm; with us, as will be seen by the following although I extracted once a week, stili notes kept: Mar. 30, fahrenheit, 800 ; April they would swarm. 16 and 17, 20° ; remaining cool till May I piled up some of my Quinby hives to 7, 840 ; then about ten days warm, then three stories; it gave me a good chance to cool till June 20, then cool nights, being experiment with biving swarms back into about 55° in morning, and up to 80° at the parent stock, hiving swarms with
weak colonies, etc. I have taken about 2,000 lbs of honey, and have 28 stocks for winter. This makes the third year that I have tried to get box honey; I got about 125 lbs and lost more than I made in the operation, in my opinion; for whenever I tried to confine my bees down to work in boxes, they would invariably swarm when the boxes were about half full, and that would spoil that stock for box honey.
I had hives with 12 frames, the frames 12x16, and a 30 th box on top; still they swarmed; they kept swarming up, until about the 12th of Sept.
If my bees had taken such a swarming fever in June, I do not know where my increase of stocks would have stopped, as it was, I did all I knew how to prevent it.
ED WELLINGTON. Riverton, Iowa, Oct. 11, 1875.
For the American Bee Journal. My Success in 1875.
nearly starved to death, were weaker in bees on the first of July than they were on the first of March, and totally destitute of stores, making their daily food from day to day.
About the 10th of July fair weather and flowers came, and bees began to gain rapidly. In the fore part of the season I had increased seven stocks, part natural, part artificial,
On the sixth day of August swarming commenced again in earnest, and from that time till the 18th day of September swarming was an al. most daily occurrence. On the morning of the 18th a severe frost visited this county and the honey season closed, (on the zist a swarm came off, the latest I ever knew, I put it in a nail keg; it remained a few days, and then decamped, it could make no honey.) My 13 stocks in. creased to 43. Most of them in good condition for wintering, but such a great increase was detrimental to surplus honey. I got none.
When frost came, on the 18th, my bees were never doing better, and if frost had only held off, as it usually does here, and as it did in the western part of the state till October 18th, an immense yield of honey would have resulted. I never saw such a profusion of flowers in my life, hundreds of acres of aster, golden-rod, heart's-ease, smart weed, and many other kinds nameless to me. The fields in many places of gold. golden rod and buckwheat. We have all kinds of fruit blossoms, white clover, basswood, and I believe every plant and flower and shrub common to the western states in this latitude 39 deg. I call this a good bee country. John BARFoor.
Montgomery Co., Mo., Nov. 20, 1875.
For the American Bee Journal, How it Was Accomplished.
I have been taking the AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL for 7 years, and I have Langstroth, Quinby, Mitchell, King, and have read nearly all the bee literature in the country, been in company and conversed with some of the best apiarist in our country. I thought I was pretty scientific on that subject, but other business had always prevented any application of my science to the business.
thought I would
if I could perform the various manipulations so essential in bee-keeping, and without the successful performance of which no man could claim to be a successful and scientific apiarist, and possibly I might attain some of those marvellous results. which I had often read of, but had never seen.
I got my bees Italianized last fall, and succeeded partially; I commenced last spring with 13 hives: 8 full bloods, 2 hybrids, 1 black and 2 queenless stocks. First job in order was to supplymy queepless stocks with queens, which I did by giving them full frames of brood in all stages from my best Italian stocks. I succeeded finely, and here it would be well enough to state that I use the Lang. stroth hive, and I never have lost a colony of bees while wintering it in a Langstroth hive on its summer stand in Mo.
About this time I thought I had performed all I had ever read of, except raising queens; being a carpenter and joiner, it was no trouble for me to make hives, so I made nuclei hives and commenced rearing queens. I began with six and reared every one. So I now conclude I am something of a bee-keeper.
Our locality like all others in the Western States suffered terribly by an uncommonly wet spring, and delayed all bee keeping operations. In fact, they
DEAR EDITOR.-I see in the October number of the AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL a request by a correspondent, that those bee men making the largest report of honey, etc., for the season, would give their method of management. It would seem that I am among those referred to. One word in correction; it might be in. ferred from reading my report that I got my comb honey from the 38 swarms, run with the extractor, but I did not. It was all comb honey, that I got from the balance of my apiary: My mode of operating was with the High Pressuro Hive, mentioned in the June nurs.ber. Breed. up in the spring in long low brood cham. bers to the full capacity of the queen, until I have a stock large enough to divide. I then operate with the extractor, in the low form, or divide into two swarms and run each division with a super and upper tier of frames or cards, or I can lift one half the low chamber on to the other and start the extractor with the increased swarm. Usually in this form they do not gwarm, but this season most of them swarmed. I would state that I had the ad. vantage of between three and four hun. dred empty cards. I think it is safe to say that I obtained four thousand pounds more honey than I should if I had not had them, thus showing the value of good empty cards to work with. I shall have about the same number to work with another season if all is well. The ten young swarms I spoke of in my report I do not remember whether they were all from those I run with the Extractor or not. I only know that most of them swarmed once, some of them twice but I put back the second swarms. The 38 swarms averaged about 135 lbs each; from one swarm I took three hundred lbs, and three swarms of increase; another 2392 tbs and two swarms of increase. I suppose it will be borne in mind that I am some nearer the north pole than any other that reported, and in not a very good honey district at that; considering that no honey was extracted after July, I think I did well. I am now preparing my bees for winter quarters, taking off my upper story of cards and can verrify what I said, that I shall get some four or five hundred pounds more when putting up for winter.
A. H. HART. Appleton, Wis., Oct. 23, 1875.
&c. Honey is probably as good as it ever was, and the winters just as variable and no more so. I am one of the many who think that the cause of the bee dig. ease is, that an epidemic has passed over the country imparing the constitution of the bees, and rendering them more liable to disease from causes that did not heretofore affect them.
My bees wintered well, but the cold spring, I thought for a while would ruin them, they run down so in numbers, and before I was aware of it, more than half became queenless. It was late in the season before the loss could be made good. They are all now in fine condition; I have pot increased the number of swarms any, and took honey only from one hive, (abouť one hundred pounds). White clover, the only source this season, lasted about three weeks.
B. L. TAYLOR. Minneapolis, Minn.
For the American Bee Journal, Foul Brood- Artificial Feeding.
For the American Bee Jourual. The New Idea Hive.
Under the head of “Notes and Queries" in the July number, Wm. Herring asks how the New Idea Hive is constructed.
I ought, perhaps, to state how mine was made, so that Mr. H., or others, may not be misled by my former communication. Mr. Gallup said his were made double on the sides with one-quarter inch air-space; this being a colder climate than Iowa, I thought it only prudent to make mine a little warmer, so I made it of three thick. nesses on the sides and two on the ends, with quarter inch air-spaces. In preparing for winter take off the honey-boards and cover the frames with cotton cloth; then have a frame three inches deep, with bottom covered with cloth and large enough to cover the top of the hive; fill this frame with saw dust and they are all right. I hold that bees are the best judges of the proper temperature of the hive, and they will maintain that degree of heat, if you will enable them to do so. My hives set quite low and the snow drifts around them, if necessary I bank up the snow some, not caring even if they are completely buried. Bees used to winter in this climate in single-wall hives and did well; why don't they now? I don't believe in the theory of bad honey, cold,
Salicylic acid, a new discovered chemi. cal substance has been successfully em. ployed in the extermination of foul brood in Germany. I find the latest report thereon in the July number of the Bienen Zeitung. Mr. Mayer reports that he has conquered the disease in stocks where 80 per cent. of the sealed cells were diseased. The manner in which Mr. Mayer uses the acid is very simple; he sprinkles the combs with the acid diluted with warm water and at the same time washes the sides, top and bottom with a rag moistened with the diluted acid. He likewise feeds the diluted acid in the food in rather strong doses;" but what he considers a strong dose, or how much he dilutes the acid, Mr. Mayer sayeth not. The year before Mr. Mayer melted down all empty comb to prevent the disease from spreading; he now makes use of them, first sprinkling them with the di. luted acid.
Salicylic acid was formerly quite dear, but it is now manufactured in America by a chemical laboratory in Baltimore, so that it can now be obtained for less money.
I also noticed in some of the back num. bers of the German bee magazines that persons have greatly stimulated breeding, and consequently strengthened their stocks, by feeding milk and also eggs to bees. Not having seen any notice of such practice among American apiarists, I take the liberty of adding the following details as to the method employed :
In one litre (a little more than a quart) of boiled milk, dissolve a pound of sugar and feed to bees, in shallow troughs, at any time of day, without fearing robbers, as the sugar does not attract bees. Mr. Hilbert, who has practiced this kind of feeding most successfully, fed 30 swarms from the 20th of April to the 20th of June with four and a half litres of milk and four and a half pounds of sugar daily.
Feeding eggs is managed as follows: The eggs (both yolk and white) are well beaten together, after the tread has been removed. One part of eggs is then added to two parts of cold sugar syrup, made by boiling seven pounds f sugar in four pounds of water, care being taken to skim the same.
Hilbert feeds about six eggs weekly to one swarm, feeding the quan. tity mixed with two eggs every other day. When this or any other stimulating feed. ing has been commenced, it must be con. tinued to the end, that is until the bees are in every way able to take care of them. selves, as the sudden lack of food would seriously interfere with brood-raising.
JOHN P. BRUCK. Los Angeles, Cal., Dec. 14, 1875.
For the American Bee Journal. Bees in California.
In the AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL for September, 1875, I noticed a communica. tion over the signature of “G. F. M;" a fero of the false statements of which, I wish to contradict. When I wrote the first letter to the AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL I made a simple statement of facts as to the income of bee-keeping. I stated nothing as to the out go, as I had not enquired into the matter at all. I made no pretention to a knowledge of bee. keeping. Neither did I write the letter with any intention of inducing any per. son in the world to come here. In due time after the publication of that letter, I began to receive letters of enquiry as to locations, and chances for bee ranches, cost of hives, lumber, hauling, prices of groceries, flour, etc., etc., all of which I answered correctly. I now wish to show up some of the inconsistencies and con. tradictions of the communication of “J” who received a letter from a “promi. nent Kansas bee-keeper." By way of parenthesis, I will state that G. F. M., is located on one of the prettiest claims ir the county of San Diego just six miles from mine and it is not a "desert” by any means. I am at a loss to understand how a man can state in his letter, that a coun. try is a “desert” and in the same letter state the fact that the country is "overrun with swifts, horned-toads, snakes, ground squirrels, gophers, rabbits and quails." Query. What do they live on? I always supposed that sheep and cattle had to have grass, etc., to live on, and that thous. ands of sheep and cattle do live here and live fat too. This, G. F. M., cannot with truth deny.
Now as to some more of "J's” facts. “Some 500 or 600 miles" etc. It is 480 miles by sea from San Francisco to
San Diego. I have traveled that whole distance overland on horse back on purpose to see the country. 50 miles south of San Francisco is San Jose. The plain or valley surrounding which, 20 years ago, was thought by novices like G. F. M., to be a
desert." "Now it can not be bought for less than from $200 to $1,000 per acre, it now being under a high state of culti. vation and covered with vineyards and orchards and fruits of all kinds; and in the fall of 1868, I saw hundreds of bush. els of apples rotting on the ground, there being no market for them. 30 miles south of San Jose is Gilroy, with a rich farming country surrounding it. 20 miles south of that is Hollister, with the same. Between Gilroy and Hollister lies Soap lake, out of which flows the Pajaro river, which. “ reaches the Ocean ” all the year round. 30 miles south of Hollister is the valley of the Salinas River which for a portion of the year at least, “reaches the Ocean”. in something besides a
“ dribble," perhaps. (?) “J” knows more about that, than I do.
The valley is a rich farming country and not a desert, “J” to the contrary, notwithstanding. Next comes San Louis. Obispo, with some more good farming country, the people of which, would not thank "J" for publishing their county as a “desert." Next comes Santa B ara,. the same. Then comes Ventura Co., with just as good farming land as a man need live on.
Next comes Los Angeles with her thousands of acres of orange, lemon, lime, peach, pear, apricot, plum and prune orchards; as fine as any in the world. Also her thousands of acres of vineyards producing vast quantities of grapes, wine, etc. Not much of a desert. The average corn crop of Los Nietos, Anaheim, Santa Ana, and San Bernardino, is from 80 to 100 bushels per acre.
When I refer to fruits and harvest fields I don't mean a portion of the State 500 or 600 miles north from where I live, but I mean right here in San Diego Co. Yesterday I saw a white turkey fig tree three years old, without a drop of water put on it since it was set out, and not a thing done to it in the way of cultivation since the first season. This was frozen to the ground the first winter, and on it I saw 113. figs.
Men who'plant and sow here, and do it when and how it should be done, get just as good returns for their labor as in any of the western States, where they are as far from market as we are here. Good men get just as good wages and as steady employment here as in any country I ever lived in, and I have lived in Pa., N. Y., Ohio, Ind., Iowa and Missouri; and today, I would not trade my little 160 acres. for the best farm in either of those States. and be compelled to go there and live on it and work it myself, or hire it worked