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sold rapidly at fancy prices, and nothing better was needed.
Houses sprang up like magic, and fortune seemed to smile. But from some causes, probably & Democratic House, or unbalancod Congress, the producers began to clamor, and down went the honey-jarring business.
If parties who have been, or are now, in the jarring-honey trade, have it in their power to prostitute fancy comb-honey, either in boxes or small frames, and so have their revenge, it is not unlikely that it will be done.
There is but one way for the producers to prevent it, and that way is potent and all powerful, and of like interest to the producer of extracted, as well as combhoney. Namely, to raise their own starting comb, and encourage others to do the same. It can be raised with bee labor for less money, and on long time paper, and without forwarding money to any parties, however irresponsible, accompanying the order. Let po man fail to inform his neighbor of the danger and expense attending the taking of this charming bait, except for the mere cavity of the hive, and for brood purposes and extractor only; for such purposes, such foundation may pay, but I have my doubts even for that. If the foundations are to be sold for frames and boxes of certain sizes in measurement, why not sell the foundation by the foot, so parties wishing to purchase, can know the expense before wri. ting so many letters and paying so much postage?
The only clue given in the card as to expense, is that there is material enough in the foundations to lengthen out the cells and cap them over. Now that is very fine. How glad the poor overworked worker bees will be; no wax to make, nothing to do but preach, doctor, make laws; be the happy middle man, and make money.
“How skillfully he builds his sell, how skillfully he spreads his wax."
Suppose one pound of foundation to furnish cell-room for twenty pounds of honey, (which is not far from the usual rate), and a Langstroth hive will hold sixty pounds of honey, we now have the amount of foundation necessary for the work, and it weighs three pounds and cost net three dollars, and sixty cenis. The net profit on extracted honey would be about three cents per pound, if sold at ten cents, which is a fair price by the barrel. By this calculation it will be seen that one hundred and twenty pounds of honey could be given the bees for do. ing the same work—that is for filling the hive with combs. Now what is the result? Three pounds of comb would consume sixty pounds of honey, and there would be sixty pounds left—which would be just enough to fill the combs in the hive with ho:cy, and the colony would be in the
best possible condition for winter. . Do figures lie!
I am very glad if comb foundations, suitable for breeding purposes and extractor, can be made cheaper than the bees can make them, and if so, it is reason. able to presume a large market awaits their production; but for comb honey to be sold to consumers, I am decidedly opposed. Men who buy comb-honey, very fine to look upon, will not fail to find that ap. pearances are often deceptive; and especially will this be true of comb made of beeswax.
If comb honey is thrown on the market, as above represented, the consumer, who is an epicure, not only in looks, but in fact, will not allow his palate to be imposed upon by his eyes the second time. He will neither buy the fancy comb or jar honey at all. . He will prefer to melt his own sugar, and buy his own molasses, and pocket the difference. The matter of cheapness will be a great desideratum at this time of low prices.
It is an unsolved problem whether such combs, as are advertised, can be used to compete with bee labor, with honey at its present price. Let us have the price per foot, so that we can decide for ourselves and take the responsibility.
The bee business has, like other industries, its draw-backs, but it is not likely to be abandoned by those having a choice Location and experience, even should prices continue to decline.
T. F. BINGHAM.
For the American Bee Journal. Eccentric.
“Well, well; if there isn't Eccentric, sure as the world! We thought he had gone to the Black Hills, or California, or some golden country;" we hear in imagination, as the above heading greets the reader's gaze. Really, it has been a long time since we sent you greeting, dear old BEE JOURNAL; but it was not because of any lack of interest in your welfare. Many times during the past season, had we intended to sit down and tell you of what we were doing; but the press of business has prevented. But to-day (March 17th, Centennial year,) we have sharpened up one of “Faber's Best," and as the raging storm from the great North West renders out-door labor not particu. larly inviting, have concluded to pencil a few thoughts for your pages.
The winter, thus far, has been very mild, with little snow; so little, in fact, that a sleigh ride has been a luxury in. deed. But we have had rain in great abundance, and winds without end, al. most; and to-day the fast-falling snow is driven across the prairies with a fearful velocity. Only a few days since the bees were dying freely and gathering poler; the robins were singing, and the frogs croaking; even the agile musquito made music for our ears (and work for our hands), while the soft balmy air and radiant sunshine betokened an early ad. vent of the season of flowers. But alas! for our hopes; to-day_has a wintrier aspect than had any of February's. The time cannot be far distant, however, when spring will come to stay, and usher in active operations in the apiary. May it come speedily!
We were much interested in the great commotion which those active fellows over in Michigan created at their convention, held in Kalamazoo, in December last. The cold stream of truth which they poured upon the red-hot prejudices of self-interest and self-aggrandizement made some steam and a little smoke. It really was amusing to see with what alacrity the editor of the Bee-Keeper's Magazine donned the garb they had pre. pared for him; and no less so to witness his frantic gestures and wry grimaces in envleavoring to wear the garment. But it seems to have been too tight a fit, as he speedily boiled over with abusive epithets and harsh invectives, showing the spirit of gall and bitterness he was in.
We heartily sympathize with the efforts of the Michigan Association to bring out matters in their true light, and are pleased to note the fact that the kee-keepers of the country are waking up to their true interests. It was only necessary to set the great mass of the bee-keeping com. munity to thinking, in order to insure a satisfactory solution of the problem, in our opinion, as we have full confidence in their discretion and good sense.
But we cannot concur in the ground the Michigan Association took in reference to comb honey, albeit we confess to hav. ing believed that the extractor was responsible for the unsatisfactory condition of our American honey markets.
But a .somewhat careful investigation of this subject has resulted in the following con. clusions: It is not for the interest of the apiarist who obtains his surplus with the extractor, to raise comb honey, for many reasons. In the first place, he would have to entirely change his method of management; discard his present appliances for new ones; adopt a system of manipulation with which he was not familiar, and which would require years to master: and finally, perhaps, sell his box honey for a small advance over what the extraci. ed article would command. It is becom. ing more and more apparent that the difference in price of box and extracted honey will gradually lessen until both shall command about the same figures. While we do not question the statements of some of the Michigan bee-keepers that thoy “can obtain as much comb honey in small boxes as with the extractor," we
knoro that the great mass of bee-keepers can not do it. There is a science in obtaining box honey, which requires years of study and experience to master.
Then it seems there was another fraud among the honey dealers. We had some personal acquaintance with Wm. M. Hoge, ali "John Long," when he was a member of the firm known as the “Chi. cago Honey Co.” Of course New York presented a much larger field for his operations. But what were King & Slo. cum about during all this time, that they did not discover his tricks! Writing up advertisements, we presume, of that “E pluribus unum” bee hive, instead of look. ing after the interest of bee-keepers.
It was with unfeigned pleasure, Mr. Editor, that we perused your announce ment in March number that the good old RELIABLE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL would continue to be devoted to the in. terests of the honey producers of the world. We need one journal, surely, to represent our interests, and the AMERICAN will do. With that on our side, and open to us all, we can afford to let the Magazine abuse us, and laud its "fixin's for sale;" can afford to let Gleanings learn how to wipe dishes, chew gum, and tell about "our universal implements;" yea, and we can afford to let the World, through its ancient typography and mutilated English, discourse upon the wonders and attractions of “Orange Culture," "the lands for which we have for sale." Ah, Mr. Editor, “there's tricks in all trades but mine," most assuredly.
In conclusion, lest we might otherwise become the target for the anathemas of the puissant pens of liliputian minds, we will simply say that all ihe above is from your old friend,
ECCENTRIC. For the American Bee Journal. Beo-Keepers' Society Organization.
The first meeting of the Lancaster County (Pa.) Bee-Keepers' Society was held on Narch 13th. A permanent
organ. ization was effected by electing Peter 8. Reist, of Manheim, President; J. F. Hershey, of Mount Joy, Vice-President; and A. B. Herr, of West Hempfield, Secretary The following members were present: H. B. Nissley, East Donegal; Elias Hershey, Paradise; J. Kepperling, and A. H. Shock, Conestoga; J. F. Hershey, Mt. Joy; P. S. Reist, Manbeim; S. G. Garber, Raphu; A. B. Herr, West Hempfield; Joel Fisher, East Lanpeter; and Levnard Fleckenstein, Manor. The above-named gentleman own 300 lives, and represeut 1,000 hives as belonging to neighbors who are expected to join the Society at its next meeting. The first subject brought before the society was, “Will bee-keeping pay?".
J. F. Hershey said that bee-keeping
cussion on this subject, and said that he had a piece of comb lying exposed for twenty-four hours, in a cool chilly air, from which he raised a prolific queen. He did not know whether the egg was used or not.
J. F. Hershey said that where there are eggs in the comb, they can be of use for raising for a long time. Combs with eggs can be shipped by mail, and kept for five or six days, and then have a young queen hatched out of them. When the brood is over four days old, they cannot raise a queen. Some have been raised in this time, but they are not perfect, and, as a matter of course, are entirely worthless.
The question, "What is the reason that a queen's sting is curved and a worker's sting is straight, and yet hatched from the same kind of an egg ?" was proposed by S. G. Garber, who wanted a little information on the subject.
A. B. Herr thought it was the nature of the bee, or the formation of the cell.
J. F. Hershey believed nature had made it so, in order to attack its rivals.
paid him very well, out of the money he had invested in bees, and said that he made 100 per cent. He did not keep bees for honey, but had sold $600 worth of queens during the past year; he also sold some honey, but kept no account.
Messrs. S. G. Garber, Elias Hershey, and Leonard Fleckenstein, spoke in favor of bee raising, and said that they were all well paid for the interest and labor bestowed upon the bees.
Peter S. Reist thought bee-keeping, if understood rightly, would pay better than any other kind of business, if only fifty per cent. would be made on the amount invested, it would be paying very well.
The next question discussed was, " Which is best-the Italian or the black bee."
Elias Hershey favored the Italian bee, on account of its swarming qualities, and that it could gather more honey than the black bee.
J. F. Hershey also favored the Italian bee; they work better and protect the hive from moth much better than the
for making honey.
Leonard Fleckenstein was very much in favor of the Italian bees, but as regards the gathering of honey, he had a colony of black bees that would gather more than the Italians.
“Do bees injure fruit?" was next discussed.
J. F. Hershey did not believe bees would destroy grapes, unless the grape was already partly destroyed by some other insect; they never touch or harm a sound grape. A great many people blame the bees for injuring grapes, but he thinks it is the wasp that does the mischief. As regards the destruction of apples, he has had as high as fifty swarms in his orchard at a time, and never noticed any destruction or diminution in his crop.
His clover crop was greatly benefitted by the presence of bees.
D, H. Lintner had often heard that bees would destroy grapes, but after experimenting, he found that it was not so. He put several bunches of grapes, dipped in sugar syrup, in front of the hive; when he took the grapes away, after the bees had eaten all the syrup off, they were as sound as when he put them there.
A. H. Shock said that the people in his neighborhood were very much opposed to the Italian bee, as they believed it stung their grapes.
Peter S. Reist believed the bees were a great benefit to flowers, as they carried the pollen of one to that of another, thus propagating, as it were, the flowers.
The fourth question,-"How long can brood remain exposed without being cov. ered by the bees, and still be used for queen raising ?" was then introduced.
Leonard Fleckenstein opened the dis
and how ?" was the next question brought before the meeting.
D. H. Lintner supposed it was produced in order to take the place of a queen. It is not quite as large as a queen, and looks like an ordinary worker bee. It lays eggs the same as a queen, sometimes two and three in a cell, but they never amount to anything. He could not tell how the fertile worker was formed. They would not hatch, and when a queen is put in with them, they will kill it. The only remedy for this is to transfer the worker to another hive.
J.F.Hershey said that the fertile worker never raises any worker bees; they can raise nothing but drones, and these are perfectly worthless.
Leonard Fleckenstein compared the bee to a human being, and said it did the best it could.
Which is the better plan, natural or artificial swarming ?” was the last question brought before the meeting.
J. F. Hershey preferred the artificial way of swarming, on account of a great deal of time being saved. When a natural swarm leaves the hive, it takes seventeen days before the young queen is in good condition, and the hive is got in working order. In an artificial swarm, all this time can be saved by placing a queen in the hive at once. In the artificial way, you can swarm three times when you can only swarm twice in the natural way. Before swarming in the artificial way, the bees should have as much honey in the hive as they have when they go into winter quarters.
Leonard Fleckenstein and Jacob Kepperling, also favored artificial swarming, and cited several experiments which they
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had undertaken. They believed a week or ten days were gained by artificial swarming
Peter S. Reist was of the opinion that natural swarming was the best, that is, if you have a prolific queen in the right place. He had a great many bees, but if it were not for artificial swarming, he would not have near so many. Artificial swarming should be thoroughly under. stood before it is attempted; in this way, thousands of bees have been wantonly destroyed.
A motion was made and carried that a committee of three be appointed by the chair to prepare practical questions for discussion at the next meeting, which is to take place on the second Monday in May, at the same place. The chair then appointed J. F. Hershey, A. B. Herr, and Leonard Fleckenstein, as the committee. There being no further business, the society adjourned.
ADAM B. HERR, Sec'y.
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For the American Bee Journal, How to Winter.
I should like to suggest to progressive apiarists. Much has been said, and many have missed the mark in what they have said on this subject. Make a room with double walls, nearly frost proof. Near it build another small house for heating or cooling the bee-house. It should be tight with a large heating stove and pair of blacksmith's bellows, with a pipe run. ning into the bottom of the bee-house, driven by a small wind-mill. With this you can furnish them with a good current of warm air, or if too warm, with cool air from ice, supplied by the wind mill. With this you can regulate the atmos. phere to suit, and the bees will not have to live all winter in the same foul air, and get the dysentery in the spring.
Don't make a green-house out of your heating house, as that may set the queen to laying. As you pump in the air, fra. grant with blossoms, she may think it spring, and the bees might swarm as soon as they are put out, and be lost, as there would be no honey for them to subsist on.
J. M. BENNETT. Bremer County, Iowa.
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CHICAGO. —Choice white comb honey, 180 250. Extracted, choice white, 8@13c. CINCINNATI.
Quotations by C. F. Muth. Comb honey, in small boxes, 25@30c. Extracted -1 1b. jars, in shipping order, per doz., $3.50; per gross, $39.00. 2 tb. jars, per doz., $6.50; per gross, $72.00.
ST. LOUIS. -- Quotations by W. G. Smith. Comb, 20@25c. Extracted, 10g124c. Strained, 7@9c.
SAN FRANCISCO.-Quotations by Stearns & Smith. White, in frames, email@example.com. Dark, 100 120. Strained, 7@11c. Beeswax, 27@.30c.
DEVOTED EXCLUSIVELY TO BEE CULTURE.
CHICAGO, JUNE, 1876.
Captain Hetherington's Address. keeper would contribute but a dollar, it
would suffice to rear such a monument In common with the apiarian readers as would grace the humble cemetery of the A. B. J. generally, we read the where his remains have found a restingabove-mentioned address in the April place, and bear witness to the bereaved number with much interest. Having family, and public generally, of our high had the pleasure of meeting the “ gallant appreciation of his usefulness and worth. Capting" on two occasions at “Bee Con- We make this as a proposal to our brother ventions," when we talked apiculture and sister apiarists, and hope it may be until the “wee sma' hours ayont the entertained and carried into effect. If twal,” and enjoyed some good social and resolved on, we will do our part in seeing public opportunities in the company of that Canada gives its quota toward so deour fellow bee-keepers, some curiosity serving an object. was aroused to see how our genial friend Anything said by Captain Hetheringwould acquit himself in the Presidential ton on practical bee-keeping deserves re. chair. We had high expectations, and spectful consideration, but we think with they have not been disappointed.
the editor of the A. B. J., that he has We thank the Captain in the name of wandered a little from the record in his the Canadian bee-keeping fraternity, (per. criticisms on the “bee journals.” We haps it would be presumptuous to speak know that it was our aim while editing in the name of the whole Continent of the A. B. J., to be impartial and truthful America) for his eloquent tribute to the in all our representations of bee-keeping. memory of the late Moses Quinby. He We own to a feeling of enthusiasm in rehas paid a high and glowing tribute at gard to apiculture, but still think it never once to his talents and virtues. It was tempted us into the use of coleur de rose well deserved. While we need not say in when speaking of the business. On the despair, “we ne'er shall look upon his one hand, it was necessary in some cases like again,” it is no libel on humanity to to defend bee-keeping from the uncalledsay that such men are, “like angels' vis- for and ungenerous flings of journalists its, few and far between.” We warmly who were constantly insinuating that second the suggestion as to the compil. "bee-men were sharpers, and that api. ation and publication of a memoir and culture was a delusion and a snare.” On remains. Perhaps the MSS. of “Ad. the other hand, it was needful to tone vanced Bee-Culture” is in such shape that down the exaggerated anticipations of it can be got ready for the press in a style sanguine beginners. Back numbers and that would do the author* no discredit. If volumes of the A. B. J. furnish proof that so we hope it may see the light.
both duties were in some degree faithfully In view of Mr. Quinby's great, and to a
performed. large extent, disinterested labors and the Although the captain frankly owns felt indebtedness of bee-keepers to him- that he began bee-keeping under a de we subinit whether it does not behoove us lusion, we are inclined to think he has to testify our gratitude and respect in done, on the whole, pretty well at it, and some substantial and enduring form. we should have been glad if he had given Would not a monument to his memory, a fuller account of his personal experi. erected by the bee-keepers of America, be ence. This is necessary, "that the subject & graceful expression? If every bee- be fairly presented.” The inference from