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ous examination of the subject, marked, in the manner of conducting the same, by the greatest perspicacity. The author gives his experiments with sevon different species, and closes his work with the chapter summarizing his conclusions.
Early in the controversy regarding the truth of partheno-genesis, the possibility of the queen being a hermaphrodite was seriously broached, but v. Siebold demon. strated the falsity of this proposition. He has likewise discovered that some species produce males and others females; and that this is not a matter of chance, but that the Polistes, Vespa and Nemata, as well as the bee, produce only males, while the Apus, Artema and Limpadia, always produce females. The same holds true of certain species of hymenoptera. He has no doubt but that further investi. gation will prove it to be no isolated exception to the law of reproduction, but that it occupies a hitherto unthought-of range in creation.
To such as feel reluctant to abandon the belief in the hitherto universally accepted law or theory of reproduction, which requires, in all cases, a co-operation of sexes to produce an animate creature, he recalls the words of Aristotle, “Observation is more trustworthy than theory, and the latter is only to be accepted when it agrees with the former.”
John P. BRUCK. Los Angeles, Cal.
80 long as they keep their bees supplied with pure, fresh water, which they consume in large quantities during the height of the breeding season.
On the north side of my apiary is & fence, just outside of which is a cistern of pure rain water. From a small reservoir containing four or five gallons of water, a small iron pipe is conducted under ground about twenty-five feet, termi. nating in the apiary grounds, in a nipple two feet above the ground, through which a small jet of water issues, falling into a small vase or basin, through which the pipe has been conducted. This is supplied with fresh water daily during the season, and is very freely visited by my bees, especially during seasons of drought, which we sometimes have in this climate. My apiary is not a large one, but on some days I have estimated that over 20,000 bees would visit this little fountain.
Natchez, Miss. JNO. R. BLEDSOE.
For The American Bee Journal. Honor to whom Honor is Due.
For the American Bee Journal. Remedy for Foul Brood.
Several times, seeing Mr. Dadant hit at in the JOURNAL, I concluded to give my testimony in case of imported queens. In October. 1869, rather late in the season, I received an imported queen from Mr. Dadant and introduced her successfully. This queen was well marked, but not as light as others I have, but she was the only one I ever had who reproduced herself every time, and I raised quite a num. ber of queens from her during three years. This queen was good for four years. At the end of the third season she was superseded, and I found a young queen besides the old mother in the hive. Åt once I removed the old queen and in. troduced her to a rather weak colony, where she laid some, but before cold weather set in, I found her again superseded and gone. If I could get a queen like that again, no price would be too high; but this may be an exception, as I paid a few dollars extra for selecting a good queen; and sure enough, I never have seen a better. Jefferson, Wis.
W. WOLFF. For the American Bee Journal. Effects of the Extractor on Brood, My experience and observations on this subject are quite different from any opinions I have ever seen explained.
With an extractor that runs steady, it is perfectly easy to turn it fast enough to empty new honey in warm weather with. out the least injury to eggs or worker brood; but it is more uncertain about drone larvæ, as the cells are so large that they lay perfectly loose in the cells when they are as large as half-grown workers, and at that size they are heavy enough to be
MR. EDITOR.-Some years ago, and during several seasons, about the middle of summer, when the weather was very dry, several of my hives gave forth a very offensive odor, perceptible some distance off, and made me apprehensive that the bees were troubled with foul brood. They appeared to be in a healihy condition, and I did not open the hives to make an examination, but waited to see if such should prove to be the case. After a time the offensive odor ceased to be perceived, and the hives proved to be as healthy as
I then came to the conclusion that the cause of it was lack of a supply of pure water, and made arrangements to supply them with it, which I have done ever since, and have not since then found any signs of unhealthiness among any of my bees. On the contrary, I have reason to believe that the plan I have adopted is the surest to ward off disease. And it is my belief that impure water is the prime source of foul brood in any locality, and would earnestly recommend to all api. arists who are troubled with it among their bees, to give this plan a fair trial, feeling confident that if they will do so, all traces of the disease will disappear, and never be known among them again
For the American Bee Journal. Bee Smoker.
removed from the cells with a very low motion of the extractor.
I think those that lose brood by the use of the extractor either turn too fast, or their extractor does not stand solid and consequently shakes and jars the brood and dislocates it. But I think it is more like. ly that the brood is dislocated by shaking or jerking the bees off the combs, and the operator not thinking that he is handling the combs much rougher to get the bees off than the extractor does to take the honey from the cells; and if he finds any dead larvæ in the cells he wrongfully blames the extractor for it.
I have my screens lean back from the centre, which bring the cells more to a level, and the honey is easier thrown out, and the brood being nearer the centre, there is not so much force on it.
Ionia Co., Mich. S. K. MARSH.
MR. EDITOR: Fearing there may still be found a few who are deterred from keeping, bees from fear of stings, allow me: to describe a smoker easily manufactured by any one with a little ingenuity. It is a modification of the Quinby, and though quite as effectual, may be made at a trifling cost. To a two-ounce tin box, solder on one side near the bottom a small tube. four or five inches long, leading to the inside, opposite this in the bottom of box punch one-half inch hole and cover with perforated tin or fine wire cloth. This box should be attached by small wrought iron nails or screws to a small pair of bel. lows made of one.fourth of an inch board and covered with sheepskin, having a hole about three and a half inches from point to correspond with hole in bottom of box. Our own instruments are five inches wide by eight inches long, with spring holding them open attached to the inside, so that they can be worked with one hand. When wanted for use, the box may be filled with a little roll of cotton batting, dry decayed wood or other mate. rial.
DR. D. R. PORTER. Long Island, New York.
For the American Bee Journal.. Spring Management.
For the American Bee Journal. My Comb Foundation. Four years since I wrote a friend in Europe to send me the apparatus, in use there, to make comb foundation. He sent me two plates (made of type metal) weighing 26 pounds, but being so busy with my farm I did not use them until last August; and this was how I did it:
I melted good clean wax in a can 15x11 inches, and 312 inches wide, to accommo. date the size of my frames.
Take a 'pane of window glass 10x14 inches, moisten it with a strong solution of salt water (made with table salt), dip the glass into the melted wax (of 140 to 150 deg. Fahr.) hold it free, so long as the wax is soft, then put the waxed glass into fresh water, and then you can take off the glass two sheets of thin wax, to be pressed in the apparatus for making artificial comb foundation, in & common cider press. Prepare a stand and cover for the metal plates.
I filled the wax can with warm water (110 deg.) and dipped the wax sheets preparatory to pressing, to make them soft enough to receive the configurations. The inside of the metal plates I moistened with a solution of sal soda, to prevent the sheets from sticking, by the hard pressing necessary. After getting off the comb foundation from the plates, I put it in fresh water to wash off the soda.
I used this artificial comb foundation for worker cells, and it was very valuable to me in making artificial colonies. My frames are 11x12, and the comb foundation 8x12; these I placed between finished combs. The bees readily work out the cells; it is pleasant to see them work on it.
The best temperature for preparing the sheets is 90 deg. Sal soda, (washing soda) not cooking soda, must be used on the plates.
HENRY BOSSHARD. Highland, III.
Now Spring is at hand, and bee-keepers have their bees out of their winter quar: ters, the next thing in order is to breed them up and prevent them dwindling away during the cold spring months. To secure this, we must see that they are kept warm, and have proper stores and combs.
To keep them warm, the hive must be tight, and the entrance contracted until it is very small; have a good quilt and some: papers over the top of the frames, and take away all combs, if there is more than they can cover; leaving them the best worker brood.combs with honey stored in the top of them; make passages through them about four inches from the top, and place them in the front end of the hive, and one comb full of honey behind them, and contract the size of the hive accord ing to the number of combs left in it. This can be done in different ways, either by using papers or by tucking the back end of the quilt down behind the combs. Whatever is used, it must be close-fitting, to keep out the cold and retain the heat and prevent any bees getting behind it and chilling.
Some bee-keepers recommend a board for a partition, but I think either of the others is better, as they can always be fitted to the hive; when in case a hive is stuck up with propolis, it would interfere with the board. The object of con
tracting the size of the hive is that the so that they will fit any place, and in all bees will not have so much space to keep places. If some of them at first have warm, and can better protect themselves bumps or raised places on them, spring and brood, and rear brood faster.
them back and pare them off until they To induce the queen to deposit eggs, are even. How can the keeper of many and the workers to rear them, it is neces. colonies dispatch business and get through sary to keep a portion of the honey un- in extracting, artificial swarming, etc., sealed.
where he has to put every comb back in I have no occasion to feed any artificial the same position it occupied before ! pollen, as there is a bounteous natural Such practice may do for some persons, supply in my range as early as the but it will not do for me. Some say, do weather is warm enough to permit the not extract from the brood chamber. I workers to gather it.
know, under certain circumstances, it is As for honey resources, I think, I have very important to extract from the brood as good as the country affords. Yet there chamber. This is often necessary when are times during the season when there is we are only using one story hives. If we no yield of honey in the flowers, and yet want honey we must have plenty of bees my bees never cease breeding until cold to gather it. In order to have plenty of weather in October, if there is unsealed bees, we must have ample room for the honey in the hives.
queen to lay. We know that without the To get the best results in breeding, the free use of the extractor her room is often brood combs must be interchanged by encroached upon, and that their instinct moving the central ones apart that have is for storing as close to the brood as possi. the most brood in, and inserting between ble, and that they are miserly and will them the outer ones that have the least not eat it out until compelled to do so. brood in, until all are equally filled with I often extract the outside combs of the brood, and as the colony increases, and brood chamber, widen out the middle the weather becomes warmer, the combs sheets of brood, and set empty combs in should be moved apart, and empty worker the middle. This gives the queen room combs inserted between them in the brood to spread herself again. E. LISTON. nest; also empty frames should be in. i • Virgil City, Mo., March 29, 1876. serted in the brood nest as fast as they can fill them with new combs, or better still,
For the American Bee Journal. to insert frames with combs that were
Melilot Clover as a Honey Plant. partly finished last fall. The above man. agement will secure the best results in
After a fair trial with the Melilot clover breeding, but when empty combs are in- I find it is the best honey plant in Amer. serted for increasing the brood nest, care ica. Sow the seed in April or May, with must be taken not to increase it beyond the anythiug, or any kind of grain, or strength of the colony; or in case of a or on any kind of soil, and it will cold spell they cannot protect all the
The earlier it is sown the betbrood, and some of it will be chilled and
ter. It does not bloom until the seclost, and the object sought will be defeated.
ond season, generally from the 1st to the Ionia Co., Mich. S. K. MARSH. 10th of July. It remains in bloom
from 60 to 90 days. If you should want For the American Bee Journal,
to have it come in late, say about the first Extracting from and Exchanging Brood
of August, when you see it showing Frames.
signs of blooming, cut it back to about
six inches high, and you will get a late Page 210, AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL for run of honey, which the bees will store in 1875, commences an article from W. C. P. boxes. Fall frosts will not injure it. I have I do not know who he is, we always like
seen bees at work on it on October 5th. to see the full name of the person writing
Webster describes it as a great honey any piece. If he does not like to give plant. It makes a good quality of honey. us his post office, leave that out, but give the My bees have wintered on Melilot honey name, county and state. He says the this winter, and they have never wintered bees move nearly all the eggs, etc., from
as well since I have been in the business. strange combs, or combs from other hives I have lost only two stands out of one put in with different bees.
hundred and ninety. They show no signs experience is entirely different. With of dysentery, (except the two). They my bees it makes no difference whatever. were put in the cellar on November 16th, My friend, W. C. P. may have bees of a and taken out about March 10th. different disposition from mine.
I don't think this clover would be good Some one, in one of the back numbers
for cattle or horse pasture, although I of the JOURNAL, speaks of putting all the
have sowed it in my cattle pasture, and combs back in the hive just as they come they keep it well fed off.
On good out, every one in its own place. We ground i have had it grow seven feet should make our combs every one straight
high. Every other honey plant, last year, and nice, (and the good apiarist will do it),
failed to give any honey.
I got 6,000 pounds of hay, all from Take now, for instance, the most perfect Melilot, and I do know if it had not been of all the creatures, examine him closely for my Melilot clover, I should have and in no part of his body, internally or failed to get any honey. I don't think externally, will you find anything that is there is any other plant that is as good to actually superfluous; to be sure, there are enrich land as Melilot clover. I think so muscles for which we have no use at presmuch of it, I expect to sow forty or fifty ent, and “land-marks " which point to a acres for my bees. It always blooms different state of things; of the former when all others fail. I could not keep we may cite the muscles connected with bees without it. Any bee-keeper who has the ear, which although dormant and tried it, will not be without it.
useless at present, point back to a time Lee County, Ill.
R. MILLER. when we had use for them, and could
prick up our ears, perhaps like any other For the American Bee Journal. ass, or the muscles under the skin, show. Can Bees Hear!
ing that that membrane could be set in
motion at a stage of human development, I do not claim to be master of bee litera
when such a motion was necessary to our ture. I have not read near all the books
well-being; We are also possessed of on the subject, nor do I think I ever shall;
teeth, called "eye-teeth," upon which neither am I master of all their natural
there seems to be a surplus expenditure powers, instincts, and peculiarities, but I
of strength for our present use; we find hold that bees have, at least, five seuses,
them developed more in sume individuals and perhaps six,seeing, hearing, tasting,
than in others, protruding sometimes con. smelling, the sense of touch, and common
siderably beyond the others; this accord. sense, this teaches them not to use extrava
ing to the theory of "evolution” and gant means to accomplish small ends.
"progression,” indicates that the human All the senses enumerated, I think aro
race was at one time carnivorous. generally admitted among bee-keepers
Without enumerating more instances, who have carefully studied the subject,
let us apply this end to bees: We find except the sense of hearing. This seems that they have the power common to most to be a bone of contention. As I stated insects, of emitting many peculiar noisesabove, I have not read all the works on they distinctly express anger, contentbee-culture, but all those I have read, are
ment and fear. The first, all bee-keepers not positive on this point: Dumely, "Can recognize in the fine biss, and the change bees hear ?" The theories generally ad- when flying, from the honest hum of in. mit the probability of their possessing dustry, to a finer key, which plainly this sense, but as far as I am aware, it has warns you to beware. The second, we never been demonstrated by actual exper.
recognize in the peculiar hum emitted iment and proof. One wriier in Novice's when the busy workers come home laden Gleanings, (I have not the paper with me,
from the fields; how often do we see them hence I cannot give name or date,) who stop for a moment at the entrance of their says he has lectured on bee-culture, states,
domicile and spread their wings, and the that he was never been enabled to discover
sound is immediately recognized as one that bees cau hear, although he has tried of contentment and happiness. The third many experiments, such as shouting, rat- may be discovered by striking the hive sud. tling tin dishes, playing the fiddle, etc.; denly when a peculiar rattling noise will and this seems to be the general result penetrate the whole cluster. There are reached by all those who have tried. many other distinct sounds,such as the pipOthers, again, are firm in the belief that ing of the queen, and also of the workers they cannot hear. Last winter an experi. when ofttimes they are running over the enced bee-keeper offered to bet with me, comb; the different degrees of sound that I might go down in his cellar among
emitted by the queen in her flight, the the bees, and shout with all my might,
drone and the worker, etc. Now then, if. and I could not disturb the bees in the bees were deaf, all this music would be least, so firm was he in his belief that lost to them; and if we apply evolution, bets cannot bear. I might have lost the it would point back to a time when they bel, lad I made the allempt, but it would
could hear, but as this would be the rehave been no evidence that bees are deaf. verse of progression, and as it is impossi. First, allow me to point out the hypothe.
ble to see why they should need this sense sis that from a uatural standpoint would
at one time more than another, we must indicate that wees can hear.
drop it as untenable, and the hypothesis It is a universal law in nature, that she points to the fact that they can hear! does not tolerate anything absolutely Now for the experiment, proving that useless in her domain. Those who are at they can hear: Often thinking of the all acquainted with her workings, and es- challenge by the bee-keeper last winter, I pecially those who have studied Darwin, was tempted to try some experiment by will readily admit this. Nature is strictly which my position could be sustained, economical upon this point, although she but having read and heard so much about is exceedingly extravagant upon others. such trials which proved useless, I had
little hope of success; nevertheless, one time when examining a stand of Italians, when holding up a frame for inspection, I gave a shout, and a rather loud one, when to my surprise and joy at the discovery, every bee upon the comb made a momentary check in her movements not a motion was visible-but the check was only momentary--they immediately resumed their wonted movements. I have tried this, time and again, with the same result, also by bringing the shout down to quite a low key. I am also quite satisfied that swarms as they issue from the hive, are confused by the rattling of tin-ware, and alight in consequence thereof; but I shall prosecute my experiments still fur. ther the coming season, if I handle bees, and hope to make further developments in this direetion.
J. D. KRUSCHKE. Hamilton, Ill., Feb. 10, 1876.
For the American Bee Journal. Beeswax vs. Comb.
MILK AND HONEY APIARY,
BEESWAX CREEK, April 6, 1876. MR. EDITOR: I thank you very cordially for the notice of that part of article referred to as page 104, namely that " Honey comb is one thing and beeswax another and very different thing." I am not in the habit of noting small typographical errors or criticisms on any. thing I may write. (This with me is a rule,) but in this case, with your permission, I will make an exception and proceed to show some of the facts, which I suppose to bear on the opinion expressed. I have this day under a strong magnifying power, examined some small fakes of broken comb, and also, some much thin. ner shavings of the same comb, melted on thin manilla paper. After cooling, the melted side closely resembles the unmelted flakes in texture, no real difference appearing. The shaved side is compact and shines like polished silver, and while of the same thickness as the flakes of comb, or even much thinner, they are much more tenacious and malleable. Of course the wax is homogeneous, while in thick places at the corners of the cells the walls of the cells are easily separated, small flat particles cleaving off readily. These particles seem to be patches over. lapping each other, and forming the thick. ened walls of the cells. No one can fail to see the difference, even without the aid of a microscope.
Honey comb is not all alike; it differs not in thickness only, but in permeability. Honey comb not unfrequently has a wet or oily look, and as bee-keepers say, "sweats.” Honey in boxes often has this look, and on close examination, the honey seems to have soaked into and through the caps. No observant box-honey raiser !i3s failed to notice this rot uncommon
feature. In the fall of 1873, I had hun. dreds of boxes filled, and capped per. fectly, which would not hold their contents, while on the hives even. The caps remained perfect, but the honey escaped. The bees thickened the caps, but still honey got out. Many of the combs contained hardly any honey, while others had only a few cells in different places, which were empty. Many of the combs could be sliced off just beneath the caps, without touching honey at all. Nearly every box was from eight to thirty-two ounces below weight, while the boxes were quite full of very pretty comb.
Honey comb rapidly decomposes in a damp, warm atmosphere. This is shown by leaving honey comb in shady, damp places in the grass, where it soon loses its plasticity and adhesiveness.
Hives of bees wintered in cellars or on their summer standsfrequently have mouldy.combs, the edges of which are so decomposed that they seem destitute of wax. The form of the cells may remain, but the substance is so disintegrated, it will scarcely hold together.
From the above, Mr. Editor, I trust you will see that honey comb, while, perhaps, chemically the same as beeswax, is not like beeswax in those features which give comb-honey its peculiar virtues.
Beeswax is not soluble in any of the conditions given above, neither does it disintegrate in the mouth like honey. comb. “The proof of the pudding is in chewing the string.
Now, Mr. Editor, as I said in the arti. cle referred to: please give us a lift, if for no other purpose than self-preservation, still give us a lift.
People who buy comb-honey do so, not because it is pure, nor because it is honey in the comb, but because the comb heightens its flavor and enhances the pleasure of eating it.
Need I say that beeswax foundation will not heighten the pleasure of eating honeynot muchly!
The card of C. 0. Perrine, on the cover of the current number, throws some light on this subject, which I trust you will pardon me for referring to, as it may be even more significant than the above facts.
Mr. Perrine does not cherish, it is presumed, a very friendly feeling towards comb-honey producers, neither the producers of extracted, as his letters and articles, previously written, will show. Said honey-producers have taken him as the representative man, and the great head of the “ring honey-adulterators." The cry of adulteration on every hand, has been one of the leading causes, why his and other fancy-jarring-honey establish. ments have been compelled to run “Kanuc" and other fancy brands of syrups in connection with honey.
In thc infunt days of !ioner.jarring, ::