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For tbe American Bee Journal. Sundry Thoughts.

ter, my finest queen, by some cause or other unknown to me. I at once doubled up with another colony. Hoping that fruit and other blossoms may be a success this year, and that the old and reliable BEE JOURNAL may be very successful, I remain, Yours truly, W. J. SHERRIFF.

For the American Bee Journal. Albino Bees.

Noticing your request for such information as your readers would be interested in perusing, I shall endeavor to give such facts as have come to my observation in the past year. The meeting of the N. A. B. K. Society, held in our city in 1874, left us in high expectations for the ensuing year; our bees were in good condition, most of them having abundant stores, and many of us had good reason to think a good supply of the nectar would be secured from the surplus honey left by the colony after they used what they required for wintering; but, alas, a sad disappointment was in store for many of the apiarians of this section. The winter set in early and very severe, and ranged from zero to 200 or 25 ° below for some weeks at a time; in fact, the ground was penetrated by the frost to the depth of four feet and over. Is it any wonder that our bees that were on summer stands consumed their stores within reach of the brood nest, and then literally starved to death before the bee. keeper was aware of their condition ? The few stands that lived through this terrible trial bad yet further struggles for very existence, for when the warm sun and showers of April called forth vegetation, and the flowers (we had no blossoms of any kind) began to come forth, a heavy frost, about the first week in May, cut off all hopes for a pasturage for our pets, and although some colonies whose condition had been inquired into in time, and come out strong in the spring, succeeded in getting sufficient stores to carry them through this winter, but the bulk of the bees in this neighborhood had to be fed in the fall to enable them to survive the winter. So far, this winter has been very encouraging; the weather has been mild, and the bees have consumed but little of their stores; the fine weather of the past few weeks has given them many occasions for healthy flights; indeed, on New Year's Day, and for some weeks previous, they were carrying pollen from the dandelions and spice-wood. New Year's Day, with us, was like May, and a neighbor, who had some empty hives in his apiary, secured a fine large swarm. Just think of it; a swarm of bees on the 1st day of Jan. uary. I presume they were a colony that had failed to secure a supply of stores and had deserted their old habitation in hope of bettering their condition, which they did, of course, as our friend, being a practical man, was not long in furnishing the necessary provisions for the support of the little strangers. I have decided to make no more experiments with winter. ing weak swarms, but will, in all cases, double them up in the fall, preferring to have three or four good strong colonies to ten or twelve weak ones. I lost, this win.

MR. EDITOR:—I dislike misrepresentation, from my very heart I dislike it, and think the man who first invented a humbug should be hung in effigy with his inventions tied to his feet, that his neck might support him and his works together. My reasons for thus sweeping at the whole system is not that I believe it totally useless, but that it does more mischief than good, and destroys more for. tunes than it creates honestly. I am not in the habit of using harsh epithets, nor do I wish to step on anyone's corns, neither do I take pleasure in wantonly treading on the innocent worm crawling at my feet. But when I see a bare-faced humbug, I feel very much like putting it on the ground and placing my stoga square on its neck. I see the following going the rounds of the Bee journals: "The Albino pure Bees, the best in the world." This savors much of humbug in our ears—Albino; White Albino Bees, White Bees, what are they! Are they a distinct variety of the Bee; a freak of nature, or, a cross between two varieties? I am inclined to the latter opinion. I have been experimenting upon them for three years past and as yet I have not been able to get a single queen (and I have reared scores of them) who will duplicate her. self. But on the contrary they produce eggs from which hatch every variety from the finest white queens and bees to the straight grey bee, except perhaps they may have white fur on their body. . Now why are they the best bees in the world? They may be one of nature's beauties when seen frisking in the May morning sun, but is beauty the only grace that en. titles them to be the best bee in the world? Or perhaps the young gentleman or lady who dote upon the sweets of nature, but who instinctively shrink from the sharp points, when they see they can take out the combs and handle the bees as if they were flies, yet perhaps will not find much surplus honey-may be led to say, “Oh they are the best bees in the world.

The queen-breeder also may conclude they are the best bee in the world, because of the short time she lives, for I have not yet had one single Albino queen who (if she survived the first season) didn't become a drone-layer and finally disappear before the end of the second season, there. fore making a market for another. As Barnum says, “Humbugs are what please

the American people,” so perhaps we had better all throw up the hat for the "Al. bino Bee, the best in the world."

D. STAPLES. Columbia, Tenn., Feb, 4th, 1876.

For the American Bee Journal, Comb Honey ys. Extracted.

dle honey, and more so than people gen. erally think.

There is no mistake but that the me chine extracted honey is the only pure honey possible, and it will be the honey in demand after a while. Comb honoy will remain a fancy article only, but it sells also; let us therefore, each one of us, raise our share of comb honey and let each one of us raise more of the one or of the other, just as he thinks best. But don't let us condemn everything because other parties don't grab for our lot first. Comb honey will always be a risky article. It will be damaged if kept over a year; not so with machine extracted honey. And if ever an overstocking of the market takes place it will be with the former and not with the latter.

Cincinnati, O. CHAs. K. MUTH.

My bees have wintered, so far, very well. I have lost only three_queens. Every hive is strong but one. This one was foul broody last fall, has only bees in three spaces between the combs but brood in all stages, while I found only eggs in a few of the balance of my hives. I had foul brood in two of my hives last fall. They appear to be cured, however, entirely.

Honey trade was very satisfactory with me this winter as far as quantity was concerned, and if I may judge by the increase of demand in the retais trade, my trade will be better next season.

Is it not amusing how some of our brethren will jump from one extreme to another? It is not long since when every body struck out for extracted honey. Five hundred pounds to the hive; that will give us a fortune. Yes; The time will come when we shall realize a thousand pounds of honey to the hive, said one of our celebrated (?) teachers in apiculture. We do raise a respectable quantity of honey, and honey_has since become an article of trade. Extracted honey is fast getting to be a competitor to cane sugar, while its good qualities are appreciated more every year. Immense quantities are used for table use and for manufacturing purposes, quantities of which we had no idea a few years ago. And yet, we are not happy. How we have sobered up in the face of all these facts! Bee-keeping is a failure, the honey pump is a humbug and a detriment to bee-keeping, says one of our sanguine brothers. Let us all raise comb honey, etc. About such language we see in our Bee Journals at the present time. There is hardly ever anything gained in business, by jumps. It requires energy and perseverence to carry on any business, and there is no reason why beekeeping should be an exception. Every bee-keeper should raise comb. boney and also machine extracted honey, he should take pains to keep each kind of honey by itself and to offer for sale each kind in as attractive a style as possible.

As a business man I know that I must hold my wares only at such prices at which they will take, if I want to sell, and the same holds good with farmers and bee-keepers. It pays every bee-keeper best to work up a home trade, as his honey will bring him the best price from consumers, and the balance only, he should offer to a dealer, who-must buy cheap, of course. It is expensive to han

THE BEE AS A SCAVENGER.-A mouse found its way into the hive of one of our amateur bee men, not long since, and the intruder. was found dead, and completely imbedded in wax. The mouse, having a sweet tooth, crept into the hive to steal honey, but unfortunately aroused the in. mates, and before he could find his way out again, was stung to death. By-and-by decomposition set in, and Mr. Mousey began to disseminate a bad smell, which bees cannot tolerate; but finding it impossible to hustle him over the ramparts, as they do other nuisances, they went energetically to work and sealed him up in wax, hermetically sealed him, in fact, so that not the slightest odor escaped, to make the hive unpleasant for the hightoned, extremely neat and cleanly inhabitants.--Schoharie Republican.

Mrs. Willis D. Bailey is hereby informed that her letter is received, but as she gave no Post Office, County or State, it is impossible to comply with her request, till she furnishes these requisites.

SALEM, Ill.—March 13, 76.—I went into winter quarters with 130 colonies, well supplied with honey. Have lost five from queenlessness, none by desease.

Bees very lively but have consumed a vast amount of honey, in consequence of the warm winter. Am feeding Rye meal which they go for " lively. Have noticed them bringing in polen. An examination shows that they are making & fine start in breeding.

of honey resources, we have in the spring, soft maple and elm, folowed by fruit bloom, and hard maple, then white clover, which, though blooming abundantly, sometimes fails to afford honey. Also some black and yellow locust. Then fall flowers, smart weed, spanish needle and some buckwheat. L. MOCOLM.

Notes & Queries.

CONDUCTED BY CH. DADANT.

Which will be the most profitable way to use the comb foundation in my surplus honey frames ? Should I fill the entire frames with foundation, or use them only in strips; and if in strips, how deep must these be, in order to induce the bees to begin to work readily and to build the combs straight within the frames? My frames are 572 inches long, 412 inches deep, and 14 inches wide, inside measure. My surplus honey is nearly all from white clover, which I put up in shape and manner probably unexcelled, and furnish it to home customers in desirable quantities, at 35 cents per pound, net, ready sale. The frames are returned to me when empty, and will last many years.

Stark Co., Ohio. HENRY CRIST.

ANSWER:-No doubt comb foundation will greatly help the bees, and secure straight combs. To incite bees to work readily in the surplus frames, fill the frames with foundation, or at least, bave a part of the foundation descending as low as to touch the bottom bar of the frame, cutting the foundation diagonally.

1. What honey-producing plant will supply that lack occurring about June 1? If we can find good forage then, we shall have as good a place for bees as any in the West.

2. What is your experience in raising Melilot clover! When does it blossom ?

3. When does Alsike clover blossom ?

4. When does Chinese mustard blos. som?

5. Where can I purchase these seeds, and at what price? H. S. HEATH.

ANSWER:-1. White clover, alsike, mel. lot, catnip, all of the large tribe of mints, linden, sumac, anise, borage, red raspberry, cucumber, melon, sun-flower, etc.

2. Melilot is one of the best plants for bees, and blossoms from June till October. 3. In June.

4. See page 33 of our February number. 5. Consult our advertising pages. Among boney-producing plants I have not seen any account of HEMP. I bad a few stalks growing in my yard; as soon as it began to bloom, the bees were on it from light till dark. P. McBRIDE. Keokuk County, Iowa.

ANSWER:-Bees find. pollen in large quantity on hemp, but, we think, no honey.

Wishing to Italianize my black and hy. bred bees, I would like to know the best method. Is it to buy a tested queen and raise others, or to get dollar queens in the spring and introduce into hives early? Will two out of three dollar queens be pure ?

H. HAINES. ANSWER :-It would be well to buy dol lar queens for all your hives if you could get these queens from a reliable bee. keeper, whose apiary is well stocked with pure bees, and surrounded with neighbors having pure Italian bees. No doubt hon. est bee-keepers are numerous, but the other conditions are rarely found, and to buy these dollar queens is something like gambling, yet they are very good to raise drones, at least.

On what terms are bees rented, when taken in the spring ? STEPHEN W. HALL.

ANSWER:—We give one-fifth of the honey and one-half of the natural swarms to the owners of the farms where we put our bees, and attend to them ourselves. If the farmer could take care of them we would give him one-half of both increase and honey.

S. Will you please by the JOURNAL inform. me how to make “ bee-quilts," so frequently mentioned therein. Do they any more than cover the top of the frames, taking up only the place the honey board does. in a Langstroth hive? How thick are they, and of what material should they be made? Are they used only as winter cov. ering? Is it any advantage to give bees rye flour when there is a warm time for several days or a week at a time, when the bees are on their summer stands, and are out flying about? Can the extractor be used early in the summer? If so, in what should the extracted honey be kept, and at what temperature should it be kept? Will dampness affect it? Can the frames for surplus honey be one-half the length of those in the lower part of the hive?

A SUBSCRIBER. ANSWER:— Bee-quilts are made of two pieces of cotton cloth as large as the top of any hive, with several thicknesses of cotton batting between them-some use more, some less.

Some use them all the time, winter, fall, and spring, -taking them off only in summer, when surplus boxes are put on. Give rye flour to the bees whenever they will take it. The extractor can be used in cold weather by keeping comb containing the honey to be extracted, in a warm room twenty-four hours. Dampness does not affect honey

kept in tight barrels, kegs, or cans. Wax all wooden vessels in which honey is to be kept. The frames for surplus honey are often made half the size and depth of those used in the lower part of the hive.

1. In making artificial swarms, would it not be better to give the queenless part a queen, or a queen cell immediately, instead of waiting for them to rear one?

2. Would it not prevent after-swarming to destroy queen cells, begun before the division :

3. Will bees produce as much extra honey in an under hive as they will in boxes on top.

A. A. STETSON. ANSWER:-1. Yes; if a queen cell, give it the next day.

2. Yes. 3. No.

I put my bees, 19 colonies, into winter quarters on Nov. 15, in a house built on purpose. Thermometer stands at 42 deg. never going below 40. I notice a constant humming in a number of hives, so that I fear there is something, wrong. They are Thomas' Patent Hive. I made a frame to fit the top of the hive, with can. vas on the bottom, and filled each frame one inch in depth with wheat bran. Quebec.

JOHN EDMOND, ANSWER:-Probably the top of your hives are fitting too closely, and consequently the inside too warm; your cellar is at the suitable temperature.

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3. Top boxes, with small frames at sides. 4. Eight inches. 5. In some local. ities.

I have a hive that has been queenless for two or three months. About ten days ago, eggs were deposited in a small piece of drone comb which the bees proceeded to nourish, and they are now sealed over, and I think will hatch all right. I examined on Feb. 21st. There are no other eggs in the hive. Query: Where did these eggs come from? If from a fertile worker, why not more eggs, and should they be from a fertile worker, could they be relied on for fertilizing queens, if I raise them now? J. M. W.

ANSWER:- No doubt these eggs were laid by a fertile worker. Never have we seen the eggs of fertile workers to be of account to raise drones, they are so few, yet we think their drones as good as any.

1. If you were to use the Langstroth hive, and cultivate the common black bee only, and use the extractor, would you use eight or ten frames-in the brood chamber?

2. How many colonies of bees can be kept in one place profitably, if the local. ity is a fair one for bees?

3. Why does the color of the Italian Bees effect their babits of industry, or why are the dark colored ones superior to the high colored ones ? If dark col. ored ones are superior, why are not the black becs superior to either? D. W. F.

ANSWER:-1. Ten frames would be preferable; but one who keeps black bees only, and does not use the extractor, is wasting valuable time.

2. It would be difficult to overstock a good location. We could not venture to give the exact number, without know. ing more about the location.

3. The color is not every thing about Italian bees. They are a different race from the blacks,- much so as the Berkshire hog is different from the old style “prairie rooters." The Italians are a superior race.

Is there any chemical process for bleaching wax? If so, please give directions.

E. D. CLARK. ANSWER.–We do not know the most recent method of bleaching wax. A few years ago the modus operandi was to have the wax put in the shape of very thin sheets ; to dip these in water containing muriatic acid, and to finish the bleaching by submit ting the wax to the action of the dew for several days.

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By what process can I tell the age of a queen ? I see it recommended to destroy queens three years old. What think you of it!

John W. BAYLOR. ANSWER:-Generally, old queens can be detected by their appearance. Yet no one can tell exactly the age of a queen, without having kept a record of her birth. The piolificness of a good queen decreasing after her third year, it is a good practice to replace her after she attains that age.

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1. Should the inside of a movable comb hive be planed smooth ?

2. What height and length should the entrance holes to hives be?

3. Which is best: top or side surplus boxes?

4. What depth of frame will give the most top box-honey, without regard to wintering?

5. Is the lophanthus anisatus a valu. able honey producing plant? Pettit, Ind.

JOHN JONES. ANSWER:41. It is better to do so.

2. The whole length of front, but so constructed as to be made smaller at will.

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and boards down the sides in the fall, for winter protection from stornis and cold winds. His hive is one known through this section as the “palace hive," with a few changes of his own. It is in size 12x17 inches, and 12 inches high, covered by a cap high enough to contain three sectional honey-boxes, which sit across the frames. In winter, in place of the honey-boxes, he has frames that fit in. side the cap, filled with cut straw, which rests on the frames immediately over the broad chamber, to allow the moisture to pass off. He also raises the hives in winter, from the bottom board, by a frame three inches high, the size of the hive, to allow an air space below the

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in the management of bees. Having commenced with two swarms of blacks in common box-bives, only a few years since. He transferred them into mov. able-comb hives, and Italianized them and their increase the same season. He has uniformly had good success with them, having doubled them in number, beside taking good quantities of honey each sea.

He usually winters from twenty to thirty swarms, and never has lost niore than one swarm in a season. For the first two years he tried wintering in the cellar, but now leaves them on their sum. mer stands, with a rough board shed around them. The roof of this shed he leaves on during the sąmmer, for shade,

frames. He uses the extractor but little, believing, that box-honey, that always finds ready sale at 25 cents per pound, is better than extracted, which is slow sale in nearly every market, at 15 cents, even if you can get double the quantity.

Mr. Boyce is a grocer, and does a general shipping business. He keeps also, several varieties of fancy poultry and pigeons, and finds all the time he can spare from his business fully taken up, besides the services of a man to help him. He is an enthusiastic lover of bees, and delights in their management. He does not make the sale of bees, queens, or hives a business, simply selling the increase from them, each year.

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