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26. The distribution of commerce for 1941, to and from existing terminals, as well as the through general vessel and carferry traffic, is shown on a flow chart? accompanying this report. The commerce of 1941 is reasonably representative of the nature of the commerce for the past several years, as well as of the future commerce to be expected on this waterway. The principal commodity shipped at the present time is stone, which in 1941 comprised about 86 percent of the total shipments from the city of Sturgeon Bay. As the channel deepening was completed recently, it is expected that an increased proportion of shipments of this commodity will pass through the canal. *Coal and coke which in 1941 comprised about 6.5 percent of the total commerce for the city of Sturgeon Bay, would be the principal commodities to derive benefit from the desired turning basin. The receipts of these commodities will probably increase somewhat for a few years but, no doubt, will decrease considerably as soon as the relatively large boat-building program has been completed. The nature of the area tributary to Sturgeon Bay and the nearness of other improved harbors are not conducive to a large permanent coal commerce at Sturgeon Bay.

VESSEL TRAFFIC

27. The following tabulation shows the trips and drafts of vessels to the city of Sturgeon Bay and through the canal, in 1941, except for recreational craft:

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Includes 1 steamer, foreign registered, net registered tonnage 1,084; and Government vessels as follows: 19 steamers, 45 motors, and 2 barges.

Includes 3 steamers, foreign registered, total det registered tonnage, 2,719; and Government vessels as follows: 15 steamers, 44 motors, and 2 barges.

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Includes Government vessels as follows: 32 steamers, 4 motors, and 32 barges. NOTE.-Also included are 1,528 round trips of 13 commercial fishing vessels (motors) operating in the vicinity of the city of Sturgeon Bay.

28. The vessels, other than recreational craft, fishing boats, and Government vessels operating to the city of Sturgeon Bay and through the canal in 1941 are listed in appendix A' to this report. The principal commercial vessels to the city comprised the bulk steamers carrying stone, sand, and coal; and tugs and barges transporting package freight and coal. The principal vessels through the canal comprised the car ferries, bulk steamers carrying gasoline and oil, coal, pulpwood, and sand; and, also, tugs and barges carrying oil.

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29. The following tabulation shows the trips and drafts of local and visiting recreational craft for the calendar year 1941:

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NOTE.-The local trips were made by 51 of an estimated 75 recreational craft (exclusive of outboard motor vessels) permanently based in this vicinity. All data based upon an approximate 85 percent return of questionnaires sent to owners.

SURVEY

30. The accompanying map was prepared largely from maps and data on file in this office supplemented by a topographic and sounding survey of January 1942. The character of the material in the area involved was also determined on the survey by borings and sampling: The map shows existing conditions at this locality and the desired turning basin.

PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT

31. Two plans of improvement have been considered, and the estimated cost of each plon is as follows: Plan No. 1: Dredge only area A about as shown on the accompanying map: (a) Dredge 22,000 cubic yards, place measurement, to a depth of

20 feet, plus 1-foot overdepth, at 50 cents per cubic yard.-- $11,000 (6) Aids to navigation -

500 Total cost of improvement....

11, 500 The estimated increased annual cost of maintenance is.

500 Plan No.2: Dredge areas A and B about as shown on the accompanying map: (a) Dredge 70,000 cubic yards, place measurement, to a depth of

20 feet, plus 1-foot overdepth, at 50 cents per cubic yard... (6) Aids to navigation -

1,000

35, 000

Total cost of improvement...
The estimated increased annual cost of maintenance is.

36, 000 1,000

AIDS TO NAVIGATION

32. The Coast Guard Service would be involved to the extent of providing the necessary buoys to mark the turning basin at an ostimated initial cost of $500 for plan No. 1 and $1,000 for plan No. 2 with an annual maintenance cost of $100 for plan No. 1 and $200 for plan No. 2,

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33. The estimated annual economic costs of the improvements considered, are as follows:

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(a) Federal investment:

(1) Estimated expenditure by Engineer Department for new work
(2) Aids to navigation..---

Total investment...
(6) Federal annual carrying charges:

(1) Interest, 3 percent of $30,000.

Interest, 3 percent of $11,500
(2) Amortization of obsolescence (40-year basis):

1,326 percent of $36,000.

1.326 percent of $11,500
(3) Increased cost of maintenance:

Engineer Department
Coast Guard Service (navigation aids).

Total annual carrying charges.
(c) Non-Federal annual carrying charges...
(d) Total Federal and non-Federal annual carrying charges.

480

150

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34. The benefits to navigation interests that might result from the desired turning basin are presented under "Discussion."

DIFFICULTIES ATTENDING NAVIGATION

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35. It is reported that the car-ferry Wabash at one time in a blow was unable to negotiate the bridges, was blown around, and had to proceed through the canal into Lake Michigan in order to turn around. In 1940 the steamer Calcite had to proceed from the city westward as far as Sherwood Point in order to turn and depart eastward through the canal. Chicago passenger boats, including the steamer South American, have approached the city docks, slowed up, decided they were unable to turn in the narrow channel, and consequently departed without stopping. On October 13, 1942, the steamer J. L. Reiss, unladen, experienced considerable delay in negotiating a turn between the Fidler-Skilling coal dock and Dunlap Reef. In addition, two

vessel concerns reported that they were unable to negotiate the ne approach to the Bushman dock except with part cargoes because of

shoal water. However, local interests have subsequently provided a deep-water approach to this dock.

WATER POWER AND OTHER SPECIAL SUBJECTS

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36. There are no questions of water power, flood control, or land reclamation related to this project. The desired improvement would not have any appreciable effect on pollution, recreation, or wildlife conservation. In general, recreational boating is adequately served by existing harbor improvements. There is no seaplane base or seaplane navigation at Sturgeon Bay at this time and the desired turning basin would have no adverse effect on any such development in the future.

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SHORE LINE CHANGES

37. As the turning basin would involve only dredging adjacent to the existing channel in protected waters, it would have no effect on accretion or erosion of the shore line of Sturgeon Bay.

DISCUSSION

38. An analysis of the commerce for 1941 shows 318,905 tons of through and 361,815 tons of local freight. Of the vessels handling through freight, five had a length of more than 400 feet and two had a length in excess of 450 feet. Likewise, nine vessels handling local freight had a length of more than 400 feet and six of these had a length in excess of 450 feet. The width of the existing channel in the bend where local interests desire a turning basin is sufficient to permit vessels up to 400 feet in length to turn with ease and vessels from 400 to 450 feet in length can turn except in severe weather or strong winds or currents. The existing channel northwesterly of a point about 13 miles northwest of the desired basin has a width of 500 feet with some areas of sufficient natural depth alongside to turn vessels up to 450 feet in length. The bay abreast of the stone quarry, which handles the greater part of the local commerce, is about 1% miles wide and 30 feet deep. Therefore, the commerce that would derive the greater part of the benefits from a turning basin is the receipt of coal and coke at the Bushman and Fidler-Skilling Docks and about 15 trips per year by two passenger vessels.

39. A comparison of freight rates indicates that the rate on coal and coke to Sturgeon Bay is considerably higher than that to other comparable ports on the west shore of Lake Michigan and Green Bay. The highest rate at Sturgeon Bay was to the Bushman Dock due largely to lack of depth in the approach channel to the dock but to some extent to lack of a turning basin. However, an approach channel and berthing space was provided at this dock in the fall of 1942 by and at the expense of local interests. Similarly, the rate on coal and coke to the Fidler-Skilling Dock is somewhat higher than it is to comparable docks at other poris. This is due largely to the inconvenient approach to the dock, relatively small storage space available, and the absence of a turning basin. Although each of these various factors cannot be definitely evaluated, it appears reasonable that a turning basin would result in a saving of at least 5 cents per ton on an average annual coal and coke commerce of about 24,000 tons. This saving would amount to about $1,200 per year. In addition, there would be occasional benefits which cannot be evaluated with reasonable accuracy, such as improved turning conditions for passenger vessels; less risk of damage to through west-bound vessels that might be unable to pass the bridges in strong currents and winds; improved approach to the Bushman Dock; and convenience in maneuvering vessels waiting for weather to leave port. The owner of the Bushman Dock has also indicated that there is a possibility of expanding his dock into a rail-water terminal for handling a substantial commerce in coal and stone to and from the shipyards and the stone quarry. Although this development is at present contingent on many unsolved factors and is therefore of a speculative nature, &

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