## Rationality for Mortals: How People Cope with UncertaintyGerd Gigerenzer's influential work examines the rationality of individuals not from the perspective of logic or probability, but from the point of view of adaptation to the real world of human behavior and interaction with the environment. Seen from this perspective, human behavior is more rational than it might otherwise appear. This work is extremely influential and has spawned an entire research program. This volume collects recent articles, looking at how people use "fast and frugal heuristics" to calculate probability and risk and make decisions. It includes the revised articles and newly written introduction that were first published in the hardcover edition. Its appeal is to a mixture of cognitive psychologists, philosophers, economists, and others who study decision making."Gerd Gigerenzer has created new, pathbreaking ways of thinking about human rationality. His ideas build on one another and are best seen as part of a coherent whole that is when the nature of his arguments emerges most clearly."-- Leda Cosmides, University of California Santa Barbara |

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### Contents

1 Bounded and Rational | 3 |

2 Fast and Frugal Heuristics | 20 |

3 Rules of Thumb in Animals and Humans | 46 |

4 I Think Therefore I Err | 65 |

5 Striking a Blow for Sanity in Theories of Rationality | 80 |

6 Out of the Frying Pan into the Fire | 92 |

7 Whats in a Sample? A Manual for Building Cognitive Theories | 99 |

8 A 30 Percent Chance of Rain Tomorrow | 117 |

10 The Evolution of Statistical Thinking | 136 |

11 Mindless Statistics | 152 |

12 Children Can Solve Bayesian Problems | 172 |

Innumeracy Defeated | 192 |

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231 | |

239 | |

9 Understanding Risks in Health Care | 127 |

### Common terms and phrases

30 percent adaptive toolbox adults answer as-if ball base rate Bayes’s rule Bayesian reasoning Bayesian responses behavior bounded rationality breast cancer calculated cognitive illusions conditional probabilities conjunction fallacy cues decision ecological rationality environment errors example experimental fast and frugal figure Fisher gaze heuristic Gigerenzer graders hindsight bias Hoffrage human hypothesis testing inferences innumeracy instance interpretation intuitive Jerzy Neyman judgment Kahneman learning level of significance logic mathematical mean memory mind natural frequencies Neyman Neyman-Pearson null hypothesis null hypothesis testing null ritual objects optimization models optimization under constraints overfitting p-value participants patients people’s percent chance players predict prob probabilities of rain problem psychology question random sampling recognition heuristic red nose reference class representations result rules of thumb sequential sampling simple heuristics single-event probabilities social solve statistical thinking STATISTICIAN stopping rule strategy structure superego take-the-best take-the-best heuristic theory tion Tversky validity variables