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recent excavations. The character of the finds in the earlier strata indicates that the peculiar discipline attributed to Lycurgus was of late growth-probably of the sixth century

This important discovery may be said to dispose of Lycurgus as a historical character.1 Individual Spartan institutions have been ably elucidated in an Italian monograph which deals mainly with the navy and the ephorate. The gradual encroachments of the ephors upon the functions of kings and elders are traced in a careful analysis, from which it appears that the Peloponnesian war was the turning-point in the transference of power. The normal foreign policy of Sparta is explained by Dr Grundy as a simple outgrowth of the ever-present Helot peril. The simplicity of the theory is most engaging, and it certainly suffices to explain most of the problems of Sparta's dealings, at any rate within the Peloponnesus.

Early Athens has called forth several new treatises, among which two French essays deserve special notice. The economic reforms of Solon have been discussed at great length by C. Gilliard in a book which endeavours rather to adjudicate between current theories than to suggest novel interpretations. The author trenches most questions by the rejection of our literary authorities and an appeal to general economic considerations. His scepticism, though somewhat uncompromising, comes as a useful reminder of the scantiness of our knowledge about Solon. The discrepant accounts concerning the Athenian property-classes are ingeniously reconciled by E. Cavaignac,5 on the assumption that the minimum ratings of each class were altered from time to time in accordance with the value of money and the exigencies of taxation.

1 It may be noted that the historic reality of Lycurgus is a contention upon the demonstration of which Dr Reich (in the work quoted above) stakes the success of his method.

2 A. Solari, Ricerche Spartane (Leghorn Giusti, 1907, pp. xx + 303; 5 lire).

3 Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1908, pp. 77-96.

4 Quelques réformes de Solon (Lausanne, Bridel, 1907, pp. 323). 5 Revue de philologie, 1908, pp. 36-46.

The fifth century.—An exhaustive survey of the problems connected with Xerxes' invasion is to be found in the appendices of Dr Macan's edition of Herodotus quoted above. The mass of ȧropíaι passed under review is alarmingly great, and it is clear that many of them defy solution. Of the ingenious reconstructions offered by Dr Macan, perhaps the most noteworthy is that of Salamis. His conception of the Greek tactics-a combined flank and front attack made upon the head of the Persian column from a position along the shore of the island-deserves minute investigation. Prof. Goodwin's article on Salamis,2 mentioned in last issue of this periodical, is mainly a restatement of his views, propounded twenty years ago, in reply to American critics. His new suggestions can hardly stand against Dr Macan's theory.

The contemporary history of Sicily presents a wellknown puzzle-how Messene came by its name. A new solution is offered by Mr C. H. Dodd, who may be allowed to have steered his way through without falling foul of the Charybdis of literary or the Scylla of numismatic evidence.

The fresh evidence concerning the period 480-430 B.C. is collected in the appendix to a second edition of Mr G. F. Hill's well-known book.* It may here be noted that no mention is made of Wilcken's readings of the Anonymus Argentinensis, nor of the total line in the famous tributelist of 425 B.C.6

The Hellenistic Age. -The story of Eumenes of Cardia is retold in a German treatise which may be found useful as an introduction to the tangled record of the Diadochi.

1 Vol. ii. (pp. xx + 457).

2 Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, vol. xvii. pp. 74-101. 3 Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1908, pp. 56-76.

Sources for Greek History, B.C. 478-31 (Clarendon Press, 1907, pp. xii + 439; 10s. 6d.).

Mentioned in the Year's Work, 1907, p. 81.

C.I.A. i. 544, shown by Dr Wilhelm (Bericht der Wiener Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1897, No. 26) to belong to I.G. 37. 7 A. Vezin, Eumenes von Kardia (Münster, Aschendorff, 1907, pp. 164).

A first-rate contribution towards military history has appeared in a new volume of Kromayer's Schlachtfelder.1 The campaigns of the Greek monarchs against Rome are here subjected for the first time to an exhaustive critical examination. A detailed study of the campaigns in their entirety shows that the losing armies were handled with greater skill than the disastrous issue of the decisive battles would suggest; in particular, the strategy of Philip V. of Macedonia is presented in a very favourable light.

As a corollary to this book Prof. Kromayer has devoted a special article 2 to the diplomacy of the Seleucid king, Antiochus III., in his relations with Rome. He gives strong reasons for believing that the conventional representation of this monarch as a latter-day Xerxes is untenable: far from being infantile, his policy erred on the side of excessive subtlety.

An interesting chapter in the history of Syria-and of the world is touched upon by U. Mago, who has brought the attacks of Antiochus IV. upon Alexandria and Jerusalem into their proper relation by a precise determination of the chronology.

A sidelight upon the model bureaucracy of Egypt is thrown by F. Preisigke in a description of the express post which the Ptolemies instituted on the model of the old Persian angareia.

(D) Miscellaneous.-The researches of Mr W. H. S. Jones 5 on the subject of malaria in Greece have practically established the fact that this disease was rife in Plutarch's time, and

1 J. Kromayer, Die antiken Schlachtfelder in Griechenland, vol. ii. (Berlin, Weidmann, pp. xii + 452; 18 m.).

2 Neue Jahrbücher für das klassische Altertum, 1907, pp. 681-99. 3 Rivista di Filologia, 1907, pp. 576-82.

↑ Klio, 1907, pp. 241-77.

W. H. S. Jones, Major Ross, G. G. Ellett, Malaria (Macmillan, 1907, pp. vi+ 108; 2s. 6d.), amended and supplemented by the first-named in the Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology (Liverpool University Press), 1908, No. 4, pp. 529-46; in Janus, 1907, No. 12; in the Academy, 12th September 1907, pp. 268-70.

have gone a long way to prove that it was becoming endemic in parts of the country during the latter part of the fourth century. The days of the "climatic and pathological interpretation of history," foretold by a recent writer in the Classical Review, are now upon us. Indeed, this new motivation of events may prove a valuable adjunct to our traditional explanations of the "decline and fall."

Much additional information about the progress of research during the early years of the century will be found in a lengthy review by Th. Lenschau. This summary con

tains a warning that the frequency of new hypothesis on insoluble problems or choses jugées may expose Greek historical study to the reproach of Alexandrinism: real progress must be sought for in the turning over of new evidence, especially that of inscriptions, or in the treatment of hitherto neglected topics. Among these latter may be counted economic history, which has recently been broached with much success by French and Italian writers, but in spite of the present wave of fiscal excitement has hardly attracted the attention of English scholars.

1 1908, No. 3, p. 83.


2 Jahresbericht der klassischen Altertums wissenschaft (Leipzig, Reisland), 1907, vol. cxxxv. pp. 54-261.


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