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Egypt supplies us with a number of new ostraka1 and inscriptions, including an interesting series of "relics of Graeco-Egyptian schools," consisting of exercises of various kinds the alphabet, syllables, mythological or historical tales, etc.

1 Am. Journ. Arch. xi. 441 ff.


2 Class. Philol. ii. 277 ff.; Annales du Service, viii. 49 f. (Coptos), 100 f. (Naucratis), 158 f. (Behera); cf. Rev. Phil. xxxi. 297, etc. 3 J.H.S. xxviii. 121 ff.




(A) Ancient authorities.-The text of the new historian discovered in 1906 at Oxyrhynchus is now accessible in an admirable editio princeps, in which the papyrus is so fully elucidated as to leave over comparatively few outstanding questions.

The fragment of 800 lines of which the find consists deals with the events of 396-4 B.C., which it describes in considerable detail. It supplies a good deal of new information about the movements of leaders in the antiSpartan coalition, and contains a valuable sketch of the Boeotian confederation. Its style is agreeably terse: albeit lacking in literary finish, it proclaims the author to have been versed in historical method. Although the claim that it should override Xenophon's authority on contentious points has scarcely been made good, the new document must certainly rank as his most important supplement for the period under treatment.

The chief point of controversy which the papyrus has raised turns upon the question of authorship. The choice clearly lies between two leading historians of the fourth

1 The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, vol. v. (Egyptian Exploration Fund, London, 1908), No. 842.

2 Prof. Busolt (Hermes, 1908, pp. 255-85) explains the divergences between the new historian and Xenophon as arising from a craze on the former's part for "going one better" than his rival. Though his arguments for the most part fail to convince, he gives good reasons for preferring Xenophon's account of the war in Asia.

century, Theopompus and Cratippus; but for the acceptance or rejection of either of these it is difficult to find conclusive evidence. It is tempting to assign the work to a historian of repute like Theopompus, but considerations of style and date tell seriously against him. The balance of probability inclines towards Cratippus, whose claims cannot be controverted by any incisive objections, while his Attic nationality would best account for the minute knowledge of Athenian politics displayed in the narrative.

Another important event of the year is the completion of Dr Macan's monumental edition of Herodotus.2 Reference will be made below to the content of the appendices. The introduction gives a full exposition of Herodotus' style of workmanship. Its most notable sections3 maintain a new thesis to the effect that books vii.-ix. were the earliest in order of composition. The theory, which is based on the general style of this portion and the absence of back references, has a more solid foundation than most speculations of this kind.

A well-marked feature of books vii.-ix. is the religious and poetical colouring with which Herodotus invests his narrative of Xerxes' invasion. A recent writer suggests that this characteristic is not purely the result of Herodotus' ethos, but is partly due to his adaptations of an epic poem by Choerilus of Samos, ̓Αθηναίων Νίκη κατὰ Ξέρξου.

The theory is an attractive one, but is vitiated by the fact that Choerilus is generally supposed to have been some twenty years younger than Herodotus.

An article on Ephorus is the only notable contribution

1 An attempt to ascribe the document to Androtion (G. De Sanctis, L'Attitude di Androzione e un papio di Oxyrhynchos, Turin, 1908) has been completely defeated by E. M. Walker (Classical Review, 1908, pt. 3, pp. 87-8). The chief advocates on Theopompus' behalf are Busolt (op. cit.), Ed. Meyer, and the editors; E. M. Walker (Klio, 1908, pp. 356-71), Prof. Goligher (English Historical Review 1908, pp. 277-83), and Prof. Blass take sides for Cratippus.

2 Herodotus, books vii.-ix., edited by R. W. Macan (Macmillan 1908, 2 vols.; 30s.). 3 Vol. i. pt. 1, §§ 7-8.


1 D. Müder, in Klio, 1907, pp. 29-44.

in the latest volume of Pauly-Wissowa's Encyclopaedia.1 The author avoids the extreme judgments which have been in vogue on the score of this most elusive of Greek historians, but inclines to accept him at a low valuation. The same impression is conveyed in an elaborate treatise by Prof. Myres on the History of the Pelasgian Theory. This throws an interesting light upon the methods of Greek historians of various ages: in particular, it brings out the lack of conscientiousness among writers of the fourth century.

(B) General histories.-Several new works of this description have been published, but can hardly be said to make an advance upon previous knowledge. The two volumes of The Times' history of the world 3 represent a laborious and mostly up-to-date compilation from various sources, but are entirely lacking in novel and independent generalisations. In contrast with this, a book by Dr Reich is nothing if not original, as it professes to be based on a new "psychological" method. Unfortunately, the method amounts to mere guess-work or flimsy analogy. A perusal of the less ambitious general accounts brings home the fact that the researches of the last generation have hardly yet been disseminated outside the circle of specialist writers.

(C) Special subjects.-The two leading states of Greece continue to be a fruitful field of research.

The history of Sparta has been strongly illumined by the

1 Real Encyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (Stuttgart, Metzler), vol. vi. pt. 1 (1907, cols. 1536; 13s. 6d.).

2 Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1907, pp. 170-225.

3 The Historian's History of the World (The Times Office, 1908, vol. iii.= pp. xxviii + 639; vol. iv. = pp. xx + 650).

General History of Western Nations from 5000 B.C. to 1900 A.D. (Macmillan, 1908; 15s.); the chapters on Greece are contained in vol. i. pp. 189-485.

Sir W. Smith, A Smaller History of Greece (Routledge, New Universal Library, 1907, pp. xxx+316); C. Seignobos, History of Ancient Civilisation (Fisher Unwin, 1907; chapters on Greece, pp. 98-191).

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