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which will be found useful by students of religion and of civilisation generally in the western provinces. To return for a moment to Keune's article, he enters carefully into the artistic representations of Epona, concluding from her attributes as there depicted that she was a deity of "Segen und Fruchtbarkeit," with a particular connection with the breeding and feeding of horses, etc.; in one type of statue, for example, she sits feeding the animals with corn out of her lap.

The article on the Etruscans by Körte has a short section on the religion of that people (pp. 765 ff.), but as might be expected, there is little that is new in it. The writer affirms that the majority of deities met with in Etruscan art and inscriptions are of Etruscan and not of Italian origin, though it is impossible to tell what descent they may also have from the East (e.g. Babylonia) or from Greece. Some names, however, are Italian, and point to a period of amalgamation and religious development on Italian soil. Apart from such names as Menrva and Uni (Juno), we now have also Mars, in the form of Maris, on the Magliano leaden plate in the Museum at Florence. The now famous bronze liver of Piacenza contains many names of gods still uninterpreted.

Dr Frazer has kindly sent me a paper on St George and the Parilia, published in the Revue des Etudes Ethnographiques et Sociologiques, which will form part of the third edition of the Golden Bough. The Roman Parilia was on April 21; St George's Day in the east of Europe in April 23; in both, the cattle and sheep are chiefly concerned, and the ceremonies show strong signs of relationship. The object of the St George's festival is beyond doubt to guard the cattle against wolves and witches at the critical time when the flocks and herds are driven out to pasture for the first time in spring. Dr Frazer argues with reason that the object of the Parilia was the same; and the connection thus suggested between this festival, which was certainly originally a rural one, and the practice of releasing the flocks and herds from their winter pasture in the valleys and conducting them to the "calles" and "saltus" of the Apennines, is a real and

interesting contribution to the study of old Roman religion.1 It is fully borne out by the analogous lustratio of the crops before the harvest, at a period of danger from storms, etc. (answering to our insurance from hail, etc), and that of the army and the arms before the beginning of the season of war. There are other incidental points of interest in the paper, which is written with all its author's charm of style and Less convincing are three Appendices in the new edition of the same author's Adonis, Attis, and Osiris, on questions which have to do with the Flamen Dialis, the marriage of the Roman gods, and the employment of the children of living parents in ritual (pueri patrimi et matrimi); these contain "controversial matter," and can only be mentioned here.

Addendum.-There has just reached me, through the kindness of its author, a paper on the distribution of Oriental cults in the Gauls and Germanies, by Prof. Clifford H. Moore, extracted from the Transactions of the American Philological Association, 1908. The distribution in these provinces of the cult of Magna Mater is perhaps the most important part of its contents; as regards Mithras, the author follows Cumont, though pointing out that the evidence suggests a less exclusive connection with the army than Cumont claims. The evidence handled is of course almost entirely epigraphical and monumental, and is treated with care and skill.


It was originally Heyne who made this suggestion, in his com

mentary on Tibullus II., 5, 88: so Dr Frazer tells us.



General. The year 1907-8 has seen the publication of a fresh fascicule of the Inscriptiones Graecae, containing the 520 inscriptions of Amorgos and the neighbouring islands,1 edited by J. Delamarre; owing to the illness of the editor, however, the final preparation for publication was undertaken by F. Hiller von Gaertringen. A further instalment of the Inscriptiones Graecae ad res Romanas pertinentes 2 has also appeared, comprising the inscriptions of Egypt, while a third edition of H. Roehl's valuable Imagines inscriptionum Graecarum antiquissimarum has been issued, containing reproductions, mostly in facsimile, of 529 archaic Greek texts. But the year has been chiefly marked by the publication of the first volume of W. Larfeld's handbook, the largest and most comprehensive work on Greek epigraphy ever written, which will be indispensable for every student of this subject. The second volume, dealing exhaustively with the Attic inscriptions, was completed in 1902. The present instalment, parts of which are reprinted or amplified from the same writer's admirable treatise on Greek epigraphy in Iwan v. Müller's Handbuch der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft,5 is divided into three parts. The first of

1 I.G. xii. 7, Berlin (Reimer); 22 m.

2 Tom. i. fasc. v., Paris (Leroux); 3 fr. 50 c.

3 Berlin (Reimer); 8 m.

Handbuch der griechischen Epigraphik, i., Leipzig (Reisland), 38 m. Cf. Berl. Phil. Woch. 1908, 83 ff.; Ztschr. öst. Gymn. lix. 222 ff.

• Vol. i. (2nd ed.) 357-624.

these deals with the history of Greek epigraphical study from ancient times down to the present day; in the second or "General" section such questions are discussed as the material, execution, cost, vicissitudes, criticism and interpretation of inscriptions; while the third or "Special" section deals with the Greek alphabetic and numeral signs, the classification of inscriptions and their formulae.

Five of the most important Greek defixiones have been republished with an ample commentary in a handy brochure by R. Wünsch,1 and an interesting new example of this class of documents comes from Panticapaeum.2 The question of manumission and the condition of freedmen in the Greek world is fully treated, largely on the basis of epigraphical texts, by A. Calderini. We may further notice the discussion by H. F. Hitzig of Greek treaties regulating civil processes between subjects of different states: here also the evidence is almost wholly epigraphical and the essay is prefixed by a collection of all the pertinent documents, the texts of which, however, are not printed in full, but merely summarised. F. Hiller von Gaertringen's short article on the falsification of the provenance of inscriptions also deserves mention here.5

Attica.-With the exception of a series of four new texts from the Asclepieum and three fragments and a kaλósinscription from the Acropolis," the harvest of new inscriptions from Attica is small. From Athens itself come a mutilated dedication of the first quarter of the fifth century B.C., a mortgage-stone, four or five epitaphs, and a fragment of a Panathenaic amphora bearing the name of the archor

1 Antike Fluchtafeln, Kleine Texte für theol. Vorlesungen u Übungen, No. 20, Bonn (Marcus u. Weber); 60 pf.

2 Arch. Anzeiger, xxii. 126 ff. Cf. Monumenti Antichi, xvii. 472 Mitt. aus Bosnien, x. 375.

3 La Manomissione e la Condizione dei Liberti in Grecia, Mila (Hoepli); 12 1.

4 Altgriech. Staatsverträge über Rechtshilfe, Zürich (Orell Füssli 2 m. 60 pf. Cf. Berl. Phil. Woch. 1908, 592 ff.

5 Ath. Mitt. xxxiii. 161 ff.

7 'Ep. 'Apx. 1906, 189 ff.

6 Am. Journ. Arch. xi. 307 ff.

8 Am. Journ. Phil. xxviii. 424 ff.


Neaechmus (320-19 B.C.).1 From places outside Athens we have a dedication to Asclepius from the Peiraeus,2 three short texts, one of them a mortgage-deed, from Markopoulo,3 and an unimportant fragment from Cephisia. The Attic drama is represented by a discussion of the epigraphical evidence for the choregia,5 and articles on the comic poet Eudoxus and on the date of Menander's death." W. S. Ferguson has continued his valuable and fruitful inquiries in the field of chronology in his Researches in Athenian and Delian Documents.8 Fresh light is also thrown by improved readings or more careful study on several important Attic documents previously known, including the interesting specification for the construction of a number of tripod bases 10 published last year by M. Holleaux," and a passage in the famous "Erechtheum inscription" 12 mentioning the μέτωπον of that building.18

Peloponnese.-Arcadia has produced fifteen new inscriptions, none of which are of any great interest, from Tegea and the neighbourhood: 14 various texts previously published have been corrected and supplemented,15 and H. Diels has discussed afresh the inscribed key of the Artemis temple at Lusi.16 From Laconia we have only to note an article on the

1 Am. Journ. Arch. xii. 47 f. 3 'Ep. 'Apx. 1907, 25 f.

2 Am. Journ. Phil. xxviii. 433. 'Ep. 'Apx. 1906, 187 ff.


A. Brinck, De choregia quaestiones epigraphicae, Kiel. Progr. 1906.

Berl. Phil. Woch. 1908, 637 ff.

7 Class. Philol. ii. 305 ff. See also Foucart's review of Wilhelm, Urkunden dram. Auff. in Athen, in Journ. d. Savants, 1907, 468 ff., 544 ff., 590 ff.

* Klio, vii. 213 ff. Cf. Class. Philol. ii. 401 ff.

9 Jahrbuch, xxii. 249 f. (I.G. i. 450); Ath. Mitt. xxxii. 470 ff. (I.G. ii. 1194); Jahreshefte, x., Beiblatt, 99 ff. (I. G. iii. 23). Cf. Klio, vii. 454 f.; Class. Philol. ii. 401 ff.

10 Am. Journ. Phil. xxviii. 425 ff.; Ath. Mitt. xxxiii. 75 ff.

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14 'Ep. 'Apx. 1907, 105 ff.; Am. Journ. Phil. xxviii. 424. Cf. Bull. Corr. Hell. 1907, 378 ff.

16 'Ep. 'Apx. loc. cit.

10 Sitzb. d. Berl. Akad. 1908, 27 ff.

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