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ONE of the most satisfactory signs of the progress of archaeological study in this country is the revival of an interest in its Romano-British remains. Too long left to the mercies of provincial amateurs and other irresponsible and untrained persons, they are now being regarded in a more serious spirit, and the same scientific methods applied to them as to the more attractive branches of ancient art. Not only has the comparative study of sculpture, pottery, and other arts received a new impetus, but excavations have been put on a proper footing, and the example set by the explorers of Silchester and Caerwent is being followed in all parts of the country. Not the least welcome feature of this revival is the attention paid to such researches by our universities, ancient and modern. Oxford and Cambridge have sent their representatives to take part in the work at Corbridge, and the good work which Manchester has been doing during the last few years is now to be emulated by Liverpool.

The discoveries at Corbridge unquestionably take first rank among those of the year, albeit this season has yielded no fine sculpture like the Lion, nor produced any puzzle like the Pottery-shop. Professor Haverfield, writing to the Times, says that the work has been more difficult this year owing to the depth of the trenches and the quantity of débris. But the fact remains that Corstopitum is likely to prove one of

1 The writer desires to express his grateful acknowledgments to Messrs A. Trice Martin, Mill Stephenson, and James Curle, for information supplied.

the most interesting, if not most important, sites in Roman Britain.

To come to details, four noteworthy buildings have now been opened, fronting a broad road which runs east and west through the site. Two of these are oblong halls or barns with heavy buttresses on the exterior, paved with stone, and with a complicated ventilation system in the basement. They correspond to the granaries usual in Roman forts, but are larger than the average, measuring nearly 100 feet in length. They are faced with courses of admirably finished masonry, singularly well preserved. In one, the windows of the basement are barred with stone mullions, one of which remains in situ, "the oldest mullion in England." Near the entrance of one granary was found the inscribed slab of the Antonine period described by Prof. Haverfield in last year's report. Adjoining these buildings was a large drinkingfountain with trough and platform for a cistern, and an inscription recording its erection by masons of the Twentieth Legion. Beyond this were the ruins of "the most massive and most extensive Roman building ever found in the North of England," only surpassed by the baths at Bath. The plan is not yet completely recovered, but it appears to be an enclosure 150 feet square, surrounded by rows of chambers; the enclosing walls are of "rusticated" work, and there are traces of destruction by fire and later inferior restorations.

Among smaller finds, the most remarkable is that of about eighty gold coins of the latter part of the fourth century, found in September in a hole in a wall, wrapped in lead foil and in excellent preservation. In addition to these were four or five hundred copper coins, from Vespasian to Arcadius, mostly late, and a hoard of "third brasses." These point to the destruction of Corbridge at the end of the fourth century. A remarkable piece of sculpture is an architectural fragment with the head of Sol in relief, in the style of the fourth century, and unique for that period in Britain. The pottery includes some good Castor ware and Gaulish ware of the first century.

Professor Haverfield points out that the site was evidently

occupied in the first century; Agricola may have placed a small fort there. When Antoninus advanced further north, it became an important base; but subsequent events rendered its military structures useless, and they were converted into civilians' shops. By the end of the fourth century, the ravages of the barbarians had brought about complete devastation.1

The season at Caerwent is just drawing to a close at the time of writing, and has proved by no means one of the least successful. The area excavated this year, writes Mr A. Trice Martin, was again in the north-east quadrant of the city, between the main road from east to west and the street along the east side of the forum. On the north of this area a court was revealed, probably belonging to a house partially excavated last year, with parts of the southern range of rooms. The court had a porch or entrance of surprisingly large proportions. To the south was found a very interesting building, which can hardly be anything but a temple. It consists of a square cella with apse on the north side, surrounded by a buttressed wall, which may prove to be the wall of a podium. To the east of this a series of houses was found, abutting on the main street; the type of house is somewhat peculiar, neither of the "corridor" or "courtyard " form. Much more "Samian" pottery has been found than in any previous year, and a well and a small circular building, supposed to have been a potter's kiln, were also uncovered. In one house over 1000 small coins were found, and one pit yielded a small standstone image of a seated female figure, which from its rude execution can only be compared with the stone head found in 1901.

At Silchester this year work began later than usual, owing to the necessity of waiting till the crops were cleared off the site, and at the time of writing the operations are not far advanced. The first proceeding was the re-excavation of the east gate of the town, previously uncovered by Mr Joyce, without a plan being made. Investigations made in front of the small temple found in 1907, with the hope of finding 1 Manchester Guardian, 24th July; Times, 19th Sepember.

more inscriptions, proved fruitless. After the harvest, the systematic exploration of the last remaining insula was begun, but is not at present sufficiently advanced for a description to be given. So far, a large gravel yard, enclosed by strong walls, with a small square building in one corner, has been discovered, also the foundations of two houses of the usual type, and a much-damaged building with a curious and strongly-built adjunct, containing flues for heating. The finds of minor objects, such as coins and pottery, are well up to the average.

In Lancashire, excavations have been continued on the site of the Castleshaw fort, near Rochdale, and the plan of the smaller fort has now been made out by Major Lees and Mr S. Andrew. The buildings were entirely of wood, and only the post-holes remain, but their lines have been traced, and correspond with those at Ardoch, in Scotland. They are ranged in long rows at intervals of 5 feet, with a total length of 20 yards, indicating the lines of the barracks. Two buildings begun last year were more fully examined, the first being a stone structure heated by a hypocaust, the floor of which had been reconstructed. The other was a small round tower in the eastern corner of the inner fort, 2 feet high and 9 inches in diameter. It is thought to be an oven, on the analogy of a recent find at Haltwhistle. The smaller finds were few in number.1

At Ribchester, excavations took place in the spring under Mr G. L. Chessman of Christ Church, Oxford, and Mr T. May. Among the results obtained was the location of the north wall, with gate and two gate-towers on the inner side, 16 feet square; the foundations of one tower contained an interesting threshold stone. Inside the camp a substantial buttressed building was found to be a granary, similar to that discovered in 1898, but of later date. It showed traces of rebuilding, and had a paved floor supported with pillars, among which were remains of wheat scorched with fire. In the centre of the fort was found an inscription: Avg [vsti

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1 Manchester Guardian, 24th July.

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