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1-97; 1905, 1-119 (also separately, Die Ausgrabungen auf dem Forum Romanum, 1898-1902; 1902-1904 (Rome, Loescher; 5fr. each). Boni's official reports will be found in the Notizie degli Scavi from 1899, especially 1899, 151 seq. (so-called Tomb of Romulus); 1900, 159 seq. (Temple of Vesta); 295 seq. (Comitium and Curia); 1901, 41 seq. (sacrarium Iuturnae); 1902, 96 seq.; 1903, 123 seq., 375 seq.; 1905, 145 seq.; 1906, 5 seq. (the prehistoric necropolis near the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina). He has also given a general account of the excavations in Atti del Congresso Internazionale di Scienze Storiche, 1903 (Rome, Lincei, 1904; 15fr.), 495 seq.
The discoveries which have occurred since the beginning of 1905 are comparatively few: the most important is that of a small building which extends along parts of the northwest and south-west sides of the base of the equestrian statue of Domitian, and which is later in date than it. It has been identified by Comm. Boni with the Imperial tribunal of the time of Trajan: but there are difficulties in the way of the acceptance of this view (T. Ashby, in The Classical Review, 1906, 132). On the other hand, an inscription has recently been discovered cut in the pavingslabs of the Forum, to the north-west of the Lacus Curtius, which runs Lucius) Naevius Luci) filius) [Surdi]nus p[r](actor), and which, taken with the discovery of other inscriptions on the same site, and the comparison of Cicero, de Oratore, ii. 266 with Pliny, H. N. xxxv. 25, seems to indicate with some exactitude the site of the praetorian tribunal. Close to it stood the statue of Marsyas and the three sacred trees, the fig, the olive, and the vine (T. Ashby, ibid. 378).
The present season will in all probability be devoted to the completion of the excavation at the Basilica Aemilia, which the demolition of the houses occupying the rest of its site has rendered possible.
E. Petersen, Comitium, Rostra, Grab des Romulus (Rome, Loescher, 1904; 2fr.), and G. Pinza, Il Comizio Romano nell
età Republica (reprinted from Annali della Società degli Ingegneri ed Architetti Italiani, Rome, 1905, fasc. 2), have minutely studied the group of monuments, including the so-called Tomb of Romulus, which formed the boundary between the Comitium and the Forum of the Republic: but further excavation in this direction is still needed.
A. Mau has demonstrated (Römische Mitteilungen, 1905, 230), and his arguments are accepted by Petersen (ibid. 1906, 57), that the curved structure behind the Rostra of opus quadratum is itself the Rostra of Caesar, bringing forward convincing evidence of its priority to the rectangular Rostra. In a paper in The Classical Review, 1906, 77 (cf. 184), A. W. van Buren distinguishes four different periods of construction in the podia of the temple of Castor and of Concord.
Boni has more recently carried on investigations in the Forum of Trajan. Dio Cassius (lxix. 2) and other writers state that the ashes of the emperor, after his death in Cilicia in A.D. 117, were conveyed to Rome for burial, and placed within a golden urn, which was deposited in the column. The accuracy of this statement has been denied by some recent writers, though the sepulchral chamber within the base was known to engravers of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, and was only filled up towards the end of the eighteenth or beginning of the nineteenth century. It has now been opened up once more, and traces of the position of the solid marble bench on which the urn stood, and which was chiselled away in ancient times, may be seen Under the column mediaeval treasure-hunters had excavated a large hole, which was later on used for burials: it has now been cleared and filled up with concrete.
Traces have also been discovered, close to the column itself, and in the north-east hemicycle of the Forum, of earlier structures, the existence of which renders it impossible to suppose that the words of the inscription on the column, ad declarandum quantae altitudinis mons et locus tantis operibus sit egestus, can, as some topographers have supposed, refer to the actual site of the column. The height
of the column must, rather, indicate the maximum height of the cutting back of the hill which was necessary to give a site for Trajan's immense buildings. Similar discoveries were made in 1812-14 (see F. Nardini, Roma Antica, ed. iv. con note di A. Nibby, Rome, 1818, ii. 351), but the fact has passed almost unnoticed. See G. Boni, in Nuova Antologia, fasc. 837, Rome, November 1st, 1906; The Builder, December 15th, 1906, vol. xci. p. 679.
In other parts of Rome we may note (1) the recent discoveries in the gigantic necropolis to the west of the Via Salaria, which has already afforded thousands of sepulchral inscriptions (cf. Notizie degli Scavi and Bullettino Comunale, passim). A terracotta plaque found in one of the tombs, with a relief representing the stage of a Greek theatre with a tragedy in course of performance, is published by G. E. Rizzo in Jahreshefte des Österreichischen Archäologischen Instituts, viii. (1905), 203 seq. (2) The discovery of a building to the south-east of the Church of S. Stefano Rotondo, which, from the inscriptions found in it, is certainly the Castra Peregrina (Classical Review, 1905, 328).1 (3) The discovery, near the so-called Porta Furba, of a cippus, and other remains of the Aqua Marcia (R. Lanciani, in Bullettino Comunale, 1905, 289 seg.).
A very useful general work on Roman topography is S. B. Platner's Topography and Monuments of Ancient Rome (Boston, U.S.A., Allyn & Bacon, 1904; 3 dollars), reviewed by G. J. Laing in The Classical Review, 1905, 232.
In Papers of the British School at Rome, vol. iii. (1906), 1 seq., T. Ashby publishes the second of a series of articles on the “Classical Topography of the Roman Campagna (the Viae Salaria, Nomentana, and Tiburtina).
A preliminary account of excavations at Rava Roscia,
To those there published may be added the following, on a small bronze tablet : G(enio) k(astrorum) P(eregrinorum) Q. Carinius [Amabilis optio [p(rimi) p(ili)] leg(ionis) II Ital(icae) [factus] > frumen(tarius) [et >deputatus. The supplements are due to A. von Domaszewski.
near Norba, appears in Notizie degli Scavi, 1904, 407 seq. (by L. Savignoni and R. Mengarelli). A series of terraces exists on the hillside, which must have supported the huts of a primitive population. Under one of these was a tomb dating from the eighth century B.C., coeval, that is, with the earlier tombs of the necropolis of Caracupa in the valley below. The latest trace of habitation on the terraces is pottery of the sixth century B.C.; So that this settlement seems to end when Norba begins to exist.
Turning to Christian archaeology, we may note that important discoveries were made in 1904 in the cemetery of Commodilla, near S. Paolo fuori le Mura; the small subterranean basilica of SS. Felix and Adauctus, containing interesting paintings of about the sixth century A.D., was found (O. Marucchi, in Nuovo Bullettino d' Archeologia Cristiana, 1904, 41 seq.; 1905, 5 seq., cf. R. Kanzler, ibid. 181; Notizie degli Scavi, 1905, 102 seq.).
Excavations in the oratory under the Church of S. Maria in Via Lata (built into the Saepta) have led to the discovery of paintings which may range from the eighth to the tenth century (L. Cavazzi, in Nuovo Bullettino d Archeologia Cristiana, 1905, 123 seq.).
We may also note in this connection that explorations have been made in the crypt of S. Marcianus at Syracuse (P. Orsi, in Notizie degli Scavi, 1905, 391) and in two catacombs near Priolo, a few miles north of Syracuse (id. ibid. 1906, 185, 218).
At Palestrina remains of the architectural decoration in painted terracotta, and of the votive deposit of a temple were discovered (G. Gatti and A. Pasqui, in Notizie degli Scavi, 1905, 122 seq.).
The construction of an electric tramway to the Alban hills has led to discoveries of some interest, inasmuch as the line runs through the remains of several villas on the north-east side of the Via Latina, just beyond the tenth mile, at which was situated the station Ad Decimum (Respublica Decimiensium, also known, perhaps, as Vicus
Angusculanus) (see R. Lanciani, in Bullettino Comunale, 1905, 129 seq.; F. Grossi-Gondi, ibid. 1906, 18 seq.).
At Pompeii investigations have been carried on regarding the original form and subsequent transformations of the larger theatre there. It appears to have been originally erected about 200 B.C.: the earliest form of the σkývn now preserved dates from 100-80 B.C.; and Mau considers that at this period the action took place, not in the orchestra, but immediately in front of the σkývn between the πapaσкývia, not, however, on a raised stage, but on the ground level (Römische Mitteilungen, 1906, 1 seq.). After 80 (or 40) B.C. a raised stage was constructed. The lacuna in the reports on the excavations in other parts of Pompeii is filled by two articles by A. Sogliano, in Notizie degli Scavi, 1905, 85, 128, 203, 245, 273, and 1906, 97, 148, describing the work done between December 1902 and March 1905. The Porta del Vesuvio and a water reservoir near it were brought to light, and a number of houses excavated, in one of which two flat ceilings decorated with painted plaster, like the walls, have been skilfully restored. It was also possible, for the first time, to obtain from the ashes the cast of a small wooden ladder.
At Reggio Calabria (Rhegium) a large coloured mosaic pavement with square panels, each containing a figure of an animal, has been found. It belongs to the third or fourth century A.D. (Q. Quagliati, in Notizie degli Scavi, 1905, 281 seq.).
In Etruria some fine vases and other objects were found near Campiglia Marittima (anc. Populonia) in 1899-1903, which have been acquired for the museum at Florence (L. A. Milani, Notizie degli Scavi, 1905, 54).
Excavations made in 1903 in the necropolis of Ferento (Ferentinum) brought to light rock-cut tombs, containing stone sarcophagi, with vases and other objects of no great value, belonging to the third and second centuries B.C. (L. Pernier, in Notizie degli Scavi, 1905, 31).
In the same year a large Etruscan tomb, belonging