With the discovery of conditioned reflexes by I. P. Pavlov, the possibilities for experimenting, following the example set by the classical, exact sciences, were made available to the behavioral sciences. Many psychologists hoped that the component parts of behavior had also been found from which the entire, multifaceted cosmos of behavior could then be constructed. An experimentally oriented psychology subsequently developed including the influential school of behaviorism.This first text on human ethology presents itself as a unified work, even though not every area could be treated with equal depth. For example, a branch of ethology has developed in the past decade which places particular emphasis on ecology and population genetics. This field, known as sociobiology, has enriched discussion beyond the boundaries of behavioral biology through its stimulating, and often provocative, theses.After vigorous debates between behaviorists, anthropologists, and sociologists, we have entered a period of exchange of thoughts and a mutual approach, which in many instances has led to cooperative projects of researchers from different disciplines. This work offers a biological point of view for discussion and includes data from the author's cross-cultural work and research from the staff of his institute. It confirms, above all else, the astonishing unity of mankind and paints a basically positive picture of how we are moved by the same passions, jealousies, friendliness, and active curiosity.The need to understand ourselves has never been as great as it is today. An ideologically torn humanity struggles for its survival. Our species, does not know how it should compensate its workers, and it experiments with various economic systems, constitutions, and forms of government. It struggles for freedom and stumbles into newer conflicts. Population growth is apparently completely out of hand, and at the same time many resources are being depleted. We must consider our existence rati
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16 mm film 25 frames/second 16 activity adults aggression androstenol animals baby basis behave behavior patterns biological bonding boys Bushmen characteristics child chimpanzees communication concept conflict context cultural dance differentiated display disposition dominance Eibesfeldt Eibl Eibl-Eibesfeldt Eipo emotional ethologists ethology evolution example existence experience facial expressions fear female fighting FIGURE friendly function genetic gesture girls Himba human hunter-gatherers incest taboo individual infant infanticide inhibitions initially innate innate releasing mechanisms interactions investigated kibbutz Konrad Lorenz Kung learning Lorenz maintain male man’s means mother mother–child motivation movements MŁller-Lyer illusion norms objects observed occurs one’s ontogeny organization parents particular partner perceive perception person Photo phylogenetic adaptations play position primates rank reference relationships releasing response rituals role selection sequence sexual signals similar smiling social society Sociobiology specific speech stimulation strategies structure territorial threat Trobriand Islands various verbal western New Guinea women Yanomami