Review Of Fluoride: Benefits And Risks. Report Of The Ad Hoc Subcommittee On Fluoride
A comprehensive review and evaluation of the public health benefits and risks of fluoride in drinking water and other sources. Covers: properties, metabolism and sources of fluoride; health benefit assessment of fluoride; health risk assessment of fluoride; findings and conclusions; and recommendations. Extensive bibliography. Includes 8 appendices: surveys of dental fluoride prevalence, 1939-1987; osteosarcoma; gentoxicity of fluoride, and much more.
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addition adjusted analysis animals areas associated bone cancer carcinogenicity cells changes clinical combined communities compared conducted consistent containing counties Deaths Dent dental caries dental fluorosis dietary disease dose drinking water duration of fluoridation effects Effects of Fluoride enamel Estimated et al evaluated evidence expected exposure factors female findings fluoride concentration fluoride exposure fluoride intake fluoride levels Food forms fractures Health Human incidence included increased individuals ingestion interval Iowa males mg/L mice mortality natural non-fluoridated O/E Ratio observed occurred optimal Oral osteosarcomas patterns percent period population POST prevalence prevention Program Public Health range rates rats reduction registries relationship Relative renal reported Research risk scores Seattle SEER SEER program showed significant sodium fluoride sources studies supplements survey TABLE teeth tissue tooth trend tumors United water fluoridation water supplies Whitford
Page iii - Registry; the Food and Drug Administration; the Health Resources and Services Administration; the National Institutes of Health; the Indian Health Service; and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research.
Page 53 - ... with any of the preceding levels of fluorosis. Staining is defined as an area of definite discoloration that may range from light to very dark brown. 5 Discrete pitting of the enamel exists, unaccompanied by evidence of staining of intact enamel. A pit is defined as a definite physical defect in the enamel surface with a rough floor that is surrounded by a wall of intact enamel. The pitted area is usually stained or differs in color from the surrounding enamel. 6 Both discrete pitting and staining...
Page 93 - RW (1988). Chemical structure, Salmonella mutagenicity and extent of carcinogenicity as indicators of genotoxic carcinogenesis among 222 chemicals tested in rodents by the US NCI/NTP.
Page 138 - Frequently included in this classification are teeth showing no more than about 1-2 mm of white opacity at the tip of the summit of the cusps of the bicuspids or second molars. Mild The white opaque areas in the enamel of the teeth are more extensive but do not involve as much as 50 % of the tooth.
Page 26 - Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) was examined with the use of data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute.
Page E-15 - Cantor, KP, Hoover, R., Hartge, P., Mason, TJ, Silverman, DT, Altman, R., Austin, DF, Child, MA, Key, CR, Marrett, LD, Myers, MH, Narayana, AS, Levin, LI, Sullivan, JW, Swanson, GM, Thomas, DB, and West, DW, Bladder cancer, drinking water source, and tap water consumption: A case-control study.
Page 50 - Dean ( 1936 ) has described the effects of fluoride in drinking water on the teeth of children ( p. 1270 ) : . . . from the continuous use of water containing about 1 part per million, it is probable that the very mildest forms of mottled enamel may develop in about 10 per cent of the group. In waters containing 1.7 or 1.8 parts per million, the incidence may be expected to rise 40 or 50 per cent, although the percentage distribution of severity would be largely of the "very mild" and "mild
Page 95 - Mottled teeth; an endemic developmental imperfection of the enamel of the teeth heretofore unknown in the literature of dentistry," Dental Cosmos, 58: 129-156 (February) ; 177-184 (May) ; 627-644 (June) ; 781-792 (July) ; 894-904 (August), 1916.