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& man or a woman.

was a man.

belief, with the rest, was that the hairs got in the " They make Nahash the serpent to be another water through horses rubbing themselves against name of Jesse, because he had no sin except that the willows which lined the brook up stream. thus David inherited none."

which he contracted from the original Serpent, and Where the water ran ripplingly there were the most hairs-always found on a gravelly bottom

In an article on Nahash in the same dictionary where flat stones and bits of sticks were most Prof. Grove mentions the two solutions of the plentiful. Looking back to the days of my youth- question cited above, and whilst favouring Stanful fishing, I have not the least doubt but that the ley's view, admits the possibility of Nahash being hairs got in the water as indicated above, were

the name of Jesse's wife, adding, however :gradually washed along the bottom till an end

"Still it seems very improbable that Jesse's wife caught round a stick or under a stone, and when is if this hypothesis is adopted.”

would be suddenly intruded into the narrative, as she fast the moving water supplied the animation.

Johnson Baily. The popular belief, however, was that these hairs South Shields Vicarage. had life. Those which I extracted from the water were, to the best of my memory, hairs, and nothing to be unknown, as is the opinion of Dean Stanley

The name of David's mother can only be stated else. When run through the fingers under pres- in Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, in common sure they curled, as all hairs do.

THOMAS RATCLIFFE.

with other authorities. The opinion of the two corWorksop.

respondents at p. 196 is merely the same inference It seems that this belief has not died out even Junius from the same verses (* N. & Q.,' 18' S. ix.

which was drawn long since by Tremellius and in the United States. Curiously enough, there 42; 2nd S. ix. 271). It is also so stated in the happens to be a reference to it in the Popular Genealogies,' by J. S., at the beginning of early Science Monthly, for July, 1886. I quote as fol- copies of the A.V. (p. 22). There is a previous lows from an article on Animal and Plant Lore question, which is left alone, --whether Nahash were of Children,' by Mrs. F. D. Bergess :

The form of the name itself “Another most absurd notion......is that horsehairs, is not decisive. The Jewish Rabbis, with St. allowed to remain in a pond or puddle of water, will Jerome, appear to have no doubt that Nahash become living creatures - ' turn into snakes is the technical term among boys. I believe, for the supposed

Dean Stanley, with the best modern metamorphosis. It would seem that, by way of teachers commentators, is in favour of such an opinion. long before this, Prof. Agassiz's article on this subject

ED, MARSHALL. might have worked its way even into very provincial districts. Nevertheless, only last year, a young man in

I do not think that the "editorial dictum” at a thriving Western college earnestly supported the p. 160 is altogether open to challenge, as nothing theory, and tried hard to convince his professor in is known for certain as to David's maternal zoology that he had known of cow hairs turning into | parentage, commentators greatly differing on the short thread-like worms. He probably had seen either young specimens of Gordius or some other nematode subject; and though C. M. I. does not believe worm in the barn-yard, and also seen plenty of loose

“that Jesse was also named Nahash,” yet Pole, in hair lying about, and connected the two facts as cause his ‘Synopsis,' states positively that he wils. His and effect."

words are :The writer of the article is in accordance with Naas hic est nomen vel, 1, fæminæ ; uxoris Isai; C. and with Lord Arthur RUSSELL, in her sug- vel, 2, viri; is est Isai: vel Jessé, qui binomius erat, ut gestion as to the origin of the belief. J. P. L.

constat ex 1, Par, 2, 13, ubi iidem filii et filiæ, et nepotes

tribuuntur Isai, qui hoc loco dicuntur esse Naas.” NAME OF David's MOTHER (7th S. ii. 160,

See also margia on 2 Sam. xvii. 25.

EDMUND TEw, M.A. 196).-See the article on David by the late Dean Stanley in Smith’s ‘Dictionary of the Bible.'

If this lady is known only, as appears, by the Speaking of the relations of David to Zeruiah and same name as the contemporary King of Aumon, Abigail, be says :

it seems yet stranger for both to bear that of “Though called in 1 Chron. xi. 16, sisters of David, the first enemy of our earliest named ancestors

in they are not expressly called the daughters of Jesse ;|(Gen. iii.). Yet more so as the name appears and Abigail, in 2 Sam. xvii. 25, is called the daughter of no other generation than that in which (as Sir Nahash. Is it too much to suppose that David's Isaac Newton argued) the extant Genesis, in mother had been the wife or concubine of Nahash, and the Canaanite tongue, must first have appeared ; then married by Jesse? This would agree with the difference of age between David and his sisters, and also

so that all three Nahashes are verbally contem(if Nahash was tbe same as the King of Ammon) with poraries. Of course tradition will not allow the the kindness which David received first from Vahash first to be a name or nickname ; but would any (1 Sam. x. 2) and then from Shobi, son of Nahash translator, in the absence of the LXX., have thought (xvii. 27)."

more of translating in one place, “ Now the serIn a note the dean says that the Rabbis identify pent was more subtle,” &c., than in another, Nahash with Jesse :

Hanun, son of a serpent, king of the children of

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Ammon”? Surely it would be more consistent to Clytha (who have now resumed the name of Herleave Nahash alike in both books—that edited in bert), the Prices (ap Rice) of --, and the Samuel's time, and that which alone records Prodgers (ap Rodger) of Ludlow, are all of the Samuel's time. Then most readers would regard same stock. It is supposed that the two last Ha-Nabash of the former as a talker of non-Edenite mentioned are the two elder branches, and an race (the chief extant note of a “missing link”— amusing story is to be found in an old number of and all we short-lived moderns must be at least · N. & Q.' (about twelve or fifteen years ago, I three-fourths descendans of such-of the daughters should think) regarding their rival claims. Vaughan of men ” in Gen. vi., and the wives, and probably I have heard means “ the younger." mothers too, of Noah's sons), but which most They are also all said to descend from brothers memorable of non-Edenites came to be remem- whose mother was daughter (and I think heiress) bered only by such a name as "the Crawler," of " Davy Gam, Esq.,” killed at Agincourt. I am, from the doom inflicted on him (not unlike that however, speaking without book. Possibly Me. of Gehazi), that he personally (not his posterity) Angus might like to see this note. F. A. W. had to grovel and eat nothing free from dust all his remaining days. I hear it argued that the phrase

Epitaph : “OUR LIFE IS BUT," &c. (7th S. i. Ha-Nabash was more subtle than any beast of 383, 513; ii. 136).-An earlier instance than any the field” proves Ha-Nahash to have been a that has been yet cited of the grave being taken beast of the field ; and so, I suppose, to say “the for the rest of mortal life, as the night's sleep Czar is more powerful than any Turk” would im- is of the day's work, may be found on the Greek

E. L. G. ply him to be a Turk.

household jars which we lay up as

vases ” in our

museums, in which Death and Sleep are figured Allow me to express my dissent from the view companion-like side by side. Was Keble thinkof your two correspondents at the last reference ing to improve on some of the many versions of (C. M. I. and MR. E. J. WALKER), and my agree this epigram when he wrote, ment with the editorial note at p. 160. It seems

That life a winter's morn may prove to me to be most unlikely that Nahash was

To a bright, endless year? woman's name. There is, I believe, no instance MR. UNDERHILL enumerates (7th S. i. 512) in the Bible of the same name baving been borne the chief similitudes that have been found to by a male and a female. (It can scarcely be epitomize the various views of human life (comnecessary to remind your readers that “ Noah" plaint of weariness being the prevailing note). is an apparent, not real exception ; for I think my father hit on one which is original the name of one of the daughters of Zelo- enough to be added to the list when he called phehad, which appears in English as Noah, it, in his ' Lay of Life' has in the Hebrew another letter, and it would

..a septuagenary twinkle. perhaps have been better to spell it Noyab.) I find I have also a mem. of a variant of the Now Nahash was unquestionably the name of epitaph in question very different from the rest :the king of the Ammonites in the time of Saul ; At length, my friends, the Feast of Life is o'er, and the original word in 2 Sam. xvii. 25, is pre- I've ate sufficient-I can drink no more ! cisely the same. It seems to me that that verse My Night is come; I've spent a jovial Day; means that Ithra (or Jether, as in 1 Chron. ii. 17,

"Tis time to part; but oh !-what is to pay? the word Israelite in 2 Sam. xvii. 25, is probably

R. H. Busr. an early error of transcription for Ishmaelite) Cities THAT ARE COUNTIES (7th S. ii. 67). — married Abigail, who was daughter to Nahash The city of Coventry was formerly a county of and sister to Zeruiah, Joab's mother. Abigail and itself, but, by statute of the present reign, ceased Zeruiah would be called David's sisters, as in to be so and was annexed to Warwickshire. I 1 Chron. ii. 16, if they had the same mother but believe there are no counties corporate in Scotnot the same father. I consider that the name of land, and that the city of Edinburgh forms part of King David's mother is unknown, and that she the county of Midlothian, sometimes called Edinwas married successively to Nabash (of whom | burghshire. The town of Hexham, in Northnothing more is known) and to Jesse.

umberland, is not a county of itself. With these

W. T. LYNN. exceptions, MR. J. B. FLEMING's list appears to be Blackheath.

accurate.

W. D. T. SEAL OF GRAND INQUISITOR (6th S. xii. 387,

Liverpool. 438, 472 ; 7th S. i. 17, 56, 99). - Bishop Vaughan

Ascension Day SUPERstition (7th S. ii. 166). bears Herbert first because the arms of Herbert -Some years ago at the Bethesda slate quarries and Vaughan are identical, the Vaughans of an attempt was made to break down the superCourtfield, co. Monmoutb, being of the same male stitious observance of Ascension Day mentioned at descent as the Herberts. The several families of the above reference, and for two years the manHerbert, the Joneses (ap John) of Llanarth and agers succeeded in inducing the men to work as

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usual. Strange to relate, however, a fatal accident PHILANTHROPIST (7th S. ii. 209).—I think MR. occurred each year, and this naturally tended to WHITESIDE refers to Sir Francis Drake and the increase the dislike of the superstitious to work water supply of Plymouth. At all events that on that day.

GEO. H. BRIERLEY. circumstance exactly answers his query, except Western Mail, Cardiff.

that Sir Francis was not a native of Plymouth, he Name of Song Wanted (7th S. ii. 189). — The Mr. Worth, in his . History of Devonshire' (Elliot

having been born at Crowndale, near Tavistock. name of the song inquired for is Quite by, Stock, 1886), p. 210, says :Accident. It was published by Mr. Pitman, of Paternoster Row.

PERCY C. BISHOP.

"Drake is connected with the modern life of Plymouth by his construction of the leat, or water-course through

which the town is still supplied from the river Meavy. PRAYERS FOR THE ROYAL Family (7th S. ii. There is a tradition that he did this at his own cost; but 8, 131).—1669. “Our most gracious Sovereign recent discoveries of long-lost documents show that the Lord King Charles "; and “Our gracious Queen work was initiated by the Corporation, planned by one Catherine, Mary the Queen-Mother, James Duke Robert Lampen, and carried out at their charges, and

that Drake's relation to the scheme was that of a conof York, and all the Royal Family.”

tractor," &c. 1727. Latin, by Thos. Parsel,

Editio quarta, prioribus longissimé emendatior.'

"Supremum

I may add that within the past few years the Dominum nostrem Regem Georgium"; and “Sere- inhabitants of Plymouth and others have by public nissimo et Celcissimo, Georgio Walliarum

Principi, subscription erected a statue on the Hoe to Sir Principissæ, eorum liberis, et universæ stirpi Francis, their great townsman and erstwhile mayor.

FRED. C. FROST. regiæ,” &c. 1844. “ Adelaide

Teignmouth. the Queen Dowager, the Prince Albert, Albert Prince of Wales, and all the AUTHORSHIP or Distica WANTED (7th S. ii. Royal Family.”

G. H. THOMPSON. 128, 156, 214).—The epigrams on the “Papal agAlnwick.

gression by Dr. Scott in Latin and English are, PECULIAR WORDS FOUND IN HEYWOOD AND

I beg leave to say, quoted literally by me from the Dekker (7th S. ii. 124). Rhubarbative is the could not have appeared in the first edition of

Sabrinæ Corolla,' p. 6, editio altera, 1859. They French rébarbatif, which Littré defines as rude, repoussant comme un visage à barbe hérissée. " that book, as it was published several months beThere is also, perhaps, a play upon the English Dean of Rochester, the author, was at the time the

fore the “ Papal aggression” occurred. The present word rhubarb.

A. C. MOUNSEY.

incumbent of a Balliol College living. Jedburgh,

John PICKFORD, M.A. Houghton Hall, NORFOLK (7th S. ii. 144).

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. The following extracts from the Rev. John H.

Thomas COBHAM (7th S. ii. 169, 210). — I wish Broome's 'Houghton and the Walpoles' (1865) | to thank many contributors to 'N. & Q.' for efforts will interest Mr. PICKFORD. Speaking of the marriage of Dorothy Walpole with Viscount concerning Cobham will not extend far.

to supply particulars as to the above. Curiosity

It is, Townshend, the writer adds :

therefore, principally that the question may be " The marriage is said to have been full of sorrow satisfactorily disposed of in ‘N. & Q., that I put to the Lady Dorothy, and that her days were shortened, Her memory is associated with the ghost story, which on record that I have discovered a full biography

now floats about Rainham, of the lady in of him, from his birth in 1786 to 1822, in the Birbrown' who appears to some one or other of the mingham Theatrical Observer, vol. viii. The parhousehold just before the death of the head of the ticulars in this were obviously supplied by Cobfamily.”—P. 17.

bam himself, who was at the time (1822) acting in With regard to the Prince Regent's visit Mr. Birmingham.

URBAN. Broome says: “ In a number of the Gentleman's Magazine a ghost Dramatic Biography, vol. vi., he was born in

From an article which appears in Oxberry's story is related connected with George IV. and the velvet state bed-chamber,' which had its origin from the early part of 1786 ; was at Penley's West the circumstance of the Prince, when he was Regent, London Theatre, Tottenham Street, in 1810, playsleeping in this chamber, during a visit to the late ing Marmion ; went to East London (Royalty), Marquis. The next morning the Prince appeared in a very disturbed state of mind, and in the course of the day Richard ; at Crow Street, Dublin, in 1817.

whence he was invited to Covent Garden to play requested that he might have another sleeping apart

J. S. BANYARD. ment. Many surmises arose at the time as to the real was at the Coburg in 1824. Cause for this request of the Prince, nor does it now appear. But the opportunity to found a ghost story on

There is an account of the life of Cobham in the circumstance has not been lost by the dealers in Oxberry's · Dramatic Biography,' vol. i., new series the marvellous."-P. 24.

(1827), p. 3. Prefixed to this is a portrait of CobG. F. R. B. ham as 'Marmion.' This is, therefore, doubtless

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the notice referred to by MR. GEORGE Ellis at has been grown to be used when dried as a flavourthe last of the above references. In the Theatrical ing for soups. Gay wrote “Fair is the marigold, Inquisitor (vol. xvi. pp. 298 and 299) there is a for pottage meet." Its young green leaves cut fine criticism of Cobham's two representations of “half suspected ” -are not bad in a salad. A Richard III. at Covent Garden in April, 1816. tea made from the dried flowers was considered If the critic is to be believed, Cobham's perform- strengthening.

H. G. GRIFFINHOOFE. ance of the character was very good, but he did

MR. BOUCHIER asks, “What were snail-water not receive fair treatment from the audience,at and aqua mirabilis ?" He will find both of them least on his first appearance.

J. M. M.

fully described in Hartmann's True Preserver MACAULAY AND Shadwell (7th S. ii

. 184).- Harvey's excellent snail-water against Consumption

and Restorer of Health,' 1682. At p. 21 is “Dr. Snail-water, though doubtless bad enough, was not and Hectick Feavers "; and at p. 140, quite so terrible as Mr. BOUCHIER seems to sug: mirabilis, Sir Kenelm Digby's Way.” Mirabilis, gest. It was a drink made by infusing in water indeed! for it was to cure 'almost every ailment, the calcined and pulverized shells of snails. This, with other strange and nauseous things, such as the bodily and mental. “It preserveth Youth, expels ashes of an old shoe burnt, ashes of oyster-shells Wind, is an Antidote against the Plague, preserves

JAYDEE. burnt, nut-shells, and powdered tobacco pipes, was

from Apoplexy,” &c. used by a Yorkshire farmer, 1695-1731 (Yorksh. and many other contributors are thanked for replies to

[Thus, Mr. Johnson BAILY, MR. E. H. MARSHALL, Arch. Journ., vii. 57).

the same effect.] Sir Kenelm Digby's aqua mirabilis was distilled from sixteen herbs and towers, together with balm,

WHICH IS THE PREMIER Parish CHURCH IN sugar, sack, angelica water, and rose water; it ENGLAND ? (7th S. ii. 168.)- According to the “ preserveth the Lungs without grievances, and helpeth well-known brass plate in St. Peter's-upon-Cornthem : being wounded, it suffereth the Blood not to hill, London, that church's claim to this title must putrifie, but multiplieth the same. This water suffereth not be overlooked. I have no reference at hand, not the heart to burn, nor melancholly, nor the Spleen but, if I mistake not, it claims to date from the to be lifted up above nature : it expelleth the Rheum, time of Lucius (circa a.v. 180) and puts in prepreserveth the Stomach, conserveth Youth, and procureth a good Colour : it preserveth Memory, it'destroyeth the tensions to the see of a metropolitan. " J. J. S. Palsie: If this be given to one a dying, a spoonful of it reviveth him.”—Digby's Closet Opened,' third ed., 1677,

TIKE (7th S. ii. 126). —MR. BIRKBECK TERRY

on this word, in criticizing others, has fallen into Mirabilis, indeed! But not more so than some

error himself. After quoting Dr. Brewer's explapatent medicines of to-day.

W. C. B.

nation, he says, The above is misleading. For

derivation Dr. Brewer seems to have been inIn 'A Collection of above Three Hundred Re- debted to Ogilvie's 'Imperial Dictionary.' I ceipts in Cookery, Physick, and Surgery,' by have Ogilvie's Dictionary! (edit. 1883) before me, Several Hands, seventh edition, 1759, I find the and do not find the quotation as given by Brewer, following for “A very good Snail-Water, for a but, on the contrary, the same derivation as that Consumption":

given by Mr. Terry himself—that of dog or bitch, " Take half a Peck of Shell-Snails, wipe them, and from the Icelandic or Old Norse. bruise them, Shells and all, in a Mortar; put to them a The subject is worth pursuing a little further. Gallon of new Milk; as also Balm, Mint, Carduus, upset It is a curious instance of a double derivation from Hyssop, and Burrage, of each one Handful; Raisins of the Su ston'd, Figs, and Dates, of each a quarter of a the same general signification.

very different sources, ultimately converging into Pound; two large Nutmegs : Slice all these, and put them to the Milk, and distil it with a quick Fire, in a

The word tyke or tike is not found in pure cold Still; this will yield near four Wine-quarts of Water Anglo-Saxon. Neither Bosworth por Ettmüller very good: You must put two Ounces of White Sugar- gives it in his dictionary. It first makes its apcandy into each Bottle, and let the Water drop on it;

Thus, in stir the Herbs sometimes, while it distils, and keep it pearance in the fourteenth century. cover'd on the Head with wet Cloths. Take five Spoon

Piers Plowman's Vision':fuls at a time, first and last, and at four in the After

Now are thei lowe cherleg. noon."

As wide as the world is

Noon of bem ther wonyeth There are several other receipts for spail

But under tribut and taillage water” in the same volume, and the foundation in

As tikes and cherles. each case is a peck or su of snails.

GEO. L. APPERSON.

Here it evidently means villeins, or rude peasants.

In the ‘Mort d'Arthur' we find “thone heythene Wimbledon.

tykes." MR. BOUchier asks, “For what object were Aubrey, speaking of Yorkshire, says, “The in. marigolds cured ?" Since the marigold was intro- digence are strong, tall, and long legg’d'; they call duced into this country-it was here in 1573—it them opprobriously long-leg’d tykes."

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In these and other cases which might be cited equivalent to tick, a word also given by Coles, and there is certainly no reference to the canine race. rendered ricinus.

W. R. TATE. The meaning is that of rude boors. Since the Walpole Vicarage, Halesworth, word does not exist in Anglo-Saxon, we must look elsewhere for its origin. Now in the Celtic lan

BLUE Devils (7th S. ii. 167). – I believe this guages we find strictly analogous terms, from the phrase occurs in Roderick Random,' or radical tioc, pronounced tiac.

In Welsh taiawg

similar work of the same period, but cannot at

the moment trace it. The following quotation Taiarg y bydd taiawg cyd bo coronawg. (A clown will be a clown, though he wear a crown.)

from the Spanish novelist Fernan Caballero may

interest readers of ‘N. & Q':In Gaelic tiach-air, a perverse, ill-mannered

“Vulgar ! A esta palabra, Albion se cubro de su mas person.

espera neblina ; los dandys caen en el spleen mas negro; The word tike occurs three times in Shakespeare. las Ladys se llenan de diablos azules, las Miss sienten In The Merry Wives,'“Ay, Sir Tike, who more?"; hascas. y las modistas se tocan de los nervios.”—“La in 'Henry V.,'“ Base tike, call'st thou me host ?" | Gaviota,' part ii, cap. v." The meaning is evidently that of churl, buse In a note the author says : "To have the blue fellow.

devils, tener los diablos azules ; expresion familiar The Celtic element in the English language is inglesa que corresponde á estar de mal humor.” greater than is commonly supposed.

JAMES HOOPER. Tike as applied to a dog is of Scandinavian Oak Cottage, Streatham Place, S.W. origin. In Icelandic or Old Norse tik is a female Grose's 'Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar dov, a bitch, hundr being the masculine form. Tongue,' third edition, 1796, has “ Blue Devils, The English 'tongne had no need of the importa- low spirits.” The first edition appeared in 1785; tion, having already an equivalent in bicge, a but I am unable to refer to it. bitch ; but doubtless it was introduced by the

F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. Northern rovers, and prevails most in those parts where they settled, especially in the northern friend Reynolds, dated September 22, 1819 : “I

This phrase occurs in a letter from Keats to his counties and in the Lowlands of Scotland. It seems to have been primarily applied to a

have lately shirked some friends of ours, and I collie, a shepherd's dog

advise you to do the same. I mean the blue-devils

-I am never at home to them” (“Life and Letters Thocht he dow not to leid a lyke.—Dunbar,

of Keats,' by Lord Houghton, p. 267). He was a gash and faithfu' lyke

N. H. HUNTER. As ever lap a sheugh or dike?

Burns, 'Twa Dogs.' EFFECTS OF THE English ACCENT (7th S. i. The transition from dogs in general to a snarl. 363, 443, 482 ; ii. 42, 90).— I was surprised, I ing cur was easy and natural

must own, when Prof. SKEAT introduced wbat he Inward, lyke tykes ye byte, but cannot barke. calls his law No. 1 as something quite novel and

Poem, sixteenth century. hitherto unnoticed, for I had thought that the effect Thence its application to the human race. It of the English accent therein described was familiar was said of a stubborn man, “ He's a door tyke." | to every one who had studied English at all. And Grose applies it to "an odd or queer fellow," if I myself had noted down words illustrating that Brockett to "a blunt or vulgar fellow.”

law, it was simply because I imagined that the fact Here the two lines of derivation converge. The that the law found its application especially in the connexion with the rough peasant and the analogy case of compound words had hitherto escaped of the cur both find their expression in the northern notice ; though here I also had been forestalled tyke.

by Koch (see i. 205, 218, 219). But when my The word is not found in modern Danish or attention was called to Prof. SKEat's law No. 2 Swedish. In old German it finds its analogue in - which, in consequence of my absence from zucke, canis foemina, which is connected by Ihre home, did not take place till quite two months with zoh. Hence zohensun, Anglice,

after its appearance - I was fairly thunderstruck; bb."

J. A. PICTON. since there could be no doubt but that this so-called Sandyknowe.

law had long been familiar to very many people. In this town I have heard the word applied to Surely Prof. Skeat must be wholly unacquainted a peevish, tiresome child by its mother, thus,“ You events with the first volume, entitled 'Die Laut

with Dr. Koch’s ‘English Grammar,' or at all are a little tike !"

R. B.

und Flexionslehre der Englischen Sprache" South Shields.

(Weimar, 1863). For, if he had been acquainted This word is thus explained in Coles's 'English with it, he would have hesitated before saying Latin Dictionary,' 1749 : “A tike, ricinus, pedi- anything about his law No. 1, and he certainly culus caninus; a tike (small bullock), buculus, would not have written as if he himself had been bucula." The first use of the word is therefore taken entirely by surprise when DR. MURRAY EX

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