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Lines addressed to Byron, M. C. de Lamartine. Circa August 27,1748, and he was buried in the church 1822.

of Richmond, Surrey, without an inscription; but Fugitive Pieces. By Countess of Blessington, Genoa,

a monument has been erected to his memory in 1823.

Westminster Abbey.
Poem on the Death of Byron. From the Gedichte.
Wilhelm Müller. 1824.

Dr. Johnson quotes a letter which he had obLament for Lord Byron. •Noctes Ambrosianæ,' xv. tained from Boswell to prove the amiability of June, 1824.

Thomson's character. He gives a very different Childe Harold's Last Pilgrimage. Rev. W. L. Bowles. account of David Mallet :1824, A Poet's Thoughts at the Interment of Lord Byron.

“He was by origin one of the Macgregors, a clan that William Howitt. 1824.

became about sixty years ago, under the conduct of Monody on the Death of Lord Byron. T. Maudo. Robin Roy, so formidable and so ipfamous for violence 1824.

and robbery, that the name was annulled by a legal Ode to the Memory of Lord Byron. Translated from abolition; and when they were all to denominate them. & Greek Journal, in the Literary Gazette, Printed in selves anew, the father, I suppose, of this author called Medwin's Conversations.' 1824.

himself Malloch......His first production was • William On the Death of Byron. An elegiac stanza in Greek. and Margaret'; of which, though it contains nothing John Williams, 1824,

very striking or difficult, he has been envied the reputaBologna. From Italy.' Samuel Rogers. Circa 1825. tion; and plagiarism has been boldly charged, but never The Course of Time, Book IV. Robert Pollok. Circa proved." 1827.

Dr. Johnson adds in a note :-
Lord Byron : a Poem. E. Bagnell. 1831.
Euphorion. Second Part of. Faust.' Goethe, Circa

“Mallet's "William and Margaret' was printed in 1825.

Aaron Hill's Plain Dealer, No.36, July 24, 1724, In its Lord Byron. A poetical defence in regard to the original state it was very different from what it is in the Stowe scandal. 16 pp. Anon. 1869.

last edition of his works." Lines on the National Byron Memorial.' Spenser, "William and Margaret' was Mallet's first stanzas xv. Anon. November, 1876.

forgery, and it imposed upon Bishop Percy, who RICHARD EDGCUMBE. printed one of the forged copies in his ‘Reliques of 33, Tedworth Square, Chelsea.

Ancient Poetry,' vol. iii. p. 310, 1765. It is re(To be continued.)

markable how long a time the theft should have remained undetected, for it was printed correctly

in Ambrose Phillips’s ‘Collection of Old Ballads,' 'RULE BRITANNIA.' -—A subscriber to the 1725, vol. iii. p. 218, and in The Hive : a CollecStrathearn Herald has favoured me with a copy tion of Songs," vol. i., 1726, third edition, p. 159. of that paper of June 5 with the query, "Who Neither of the above gives the true old tune, which wrote Rule Britannia'?”. As this is a matter of is now only to be found in my edition of the 'Rox. public interest, pray permit me to answer through burghe Ballads," vol. iii. p. 669, or in the British your columns. Dr. Arne wrote the music, and Museum Library by giving the reference, 1876, James Thomson, the well-known poet of The f. i. p. 107, Lond., fol., n.d. That edition is only Seasons,' wrote the words. The music was first one of Queen Anne's reign, but the ballad is printed at the end of the masque of 'The Judg; quoted by Old Merrythought in Fletcher’s ‘Knight ment of Paris,' which appeared before 'Alfred,' \ of the Burning Pestle'; therefore, there are still Arne having composed the music to both. The object of the writer in the Strathearn lightly the forging of an old English ballad; but when

earlier copies. Our Scotch friends may view very Herald seems to be to claim a share of the credit it leads up to robbing a famous Scotsman of his for having written the words of 'Rule Britannia' deserved merit, no one will wonder that, as said for David Mallet; but he is not well informed as to the date of Thomson's death, after which by Dr. Johnson of Mallet,“ What other proofs he Mallet put in a pretentious claim, against all gave of disrespect to his native country I know not ; evidence. Dr. Johnson was the contemporary of Scot whom Scotchmen did not commend.”

but it was remarked of him, that he was the only both Thomson and Mallet, and wrote the lives of the two in his 'Lives of the Poets,' 1779-80, from was employed by Lord Bolingbroke in an office

“Not long after this,” says Chalmers, “Mallet which I extract the following :

[to attack Pope) which be executed with all the " James Thomson, the son of a minister well esteemed malignity that his employer could wish.” That is the for bis piety and diligence, was born September 7, 1700, at Ednam, in the shire of Roxburgh, of which his father man. Chalmers’s ‘Biographical Dictionary,'p. 195. was pastor."

WM. CHAPPELL. Thomson received a pension of 1001, a year from EDITIONS OF THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD.'— Frederick, Prince of Wales, and was soon after Since the publication in 1885 of the tentative employed in conjunction with Mallet to write the Bibliography of the Vicar of Wakefield,'” premasque of ' Alfred,' which was acted before the fixed to Mr. Elliot Stock’s facsimile reprint of the Prince at Cliefden House, Maidenhead, August 1, editio princeps, my attention has been called to the 1740. A fover put an end to Thomson's life, following additional issues. I record them in the

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and that its meaning is “ warriors"? Another Yet, in spite of all this, the latest and best
reason for regarding them as a Celtic people is the biographer of Bunyan, the Rev. John Brown, of
terminations of their local names. Zeuss considers Bedford, has the weakness to claim for him a
them Celts, and that, even if they claimed kinship remote connexion with a Norman family that came
with the Germani, it was from the desire to be over with the Conqueror! Mr. Brown collects all
separately regarded from the beaten and subdued the names of Bonyons and Bunians who figure in
Gauls. For a like reason Tacitus (“Germania,' ancient archives to prove that “the Bunyan family
28) thinks the Treviri and Nervii called them- flourished before gipsies were heard of in England.”
selves Germani. Rhys ("Celtic Britain,' p. 276) Mr. Simpson shrewdly remarks that we might as
asserts that there is “no reason to suppose that the well affirm that a Lancashire or Cheshire gipsy,
Belga were Teutons." After reading Guest assuming and bearing the name of Stanley, must
(Origines Celticae ') and Beale Poste ('Belgæ of belong necessarily to the house of the Earls of
Britain,' Journal Archeolog. Assoc., xi. 205) I Derby, because he is the head of the Stanleys.
feel satisfied that the Belga were of the same race Mr. Brown's book is so meritorious in the main,
as the Galli, but that there were German fugitives that this weak point, of ignoring the disputed
amongst them, and that some few of the tribes question of Bunyan's gipsy origin, is the more to be
comprehended within the fifteen or sixteen na- regretted. Mr. Simpson, in a review of Mr. Brown's
tions of the Belgic confederation may have been book, has noticed the omission; and among other
Germanic originally. But in spite of this, before interesting facts as to there being no discredit in
the arrival of Cæsar, the Celtic element prepon- gipsy blood, reminds us that Dr. Robert Gordon,
derated and they had practically become one peo- formerly minster of the High Church of Edinburgh,
ple, Celtic in sentiment, manners, and speech. a divine and preacher well known and much

J. MASKELL. honoured, was of gipsy origin ; and that Mrs.

Thomas Carlyle had pride in telling that her

grandmother was a Baillie, one of a gipsy tribe WAS JOHN BUNYAN OF GIPSY ORIGIN? who had adopted the name of an ancient Scottish Io his own account of himself and his family, family. This explains her reference to Tennyson John Bunyan speaks of his “ father's house being as “having something of the gipsy in his appearof that rank that is meanest and most despised of ance, which to me is perfectly charming.”. all the families in the land." It bas always

That the popular idea of Bunyan's origin prebeen popularly understood that this admission, vailed throughout his own lifetime we know from coupled with the fact of his employment at first the famous anecdote about Charles II. and Dr. being that of a tinker, pointed to gipsy birth and Owen. The king asked the doctor“ how a learned origin. In another notable passage of his auto- man, such as he was, could sit and hear an illiterate biography, “the Bedfordshire tinker” tells us that tinker prate.”. “May it please your Majesty,” at one time he wondered whether his family were was Dr. Owen's reply, “could I possess the tinker's of the Israelites," another of the meanest and most ability for preaching, I would gladly relinquish all despised” races in England. This was when he my learning.” I do not affirm the gipsy origin of was troubled about his soul's salvation, and he

“the immortal dreamer," but only say that the thought he could take some comfort if he were one question has not been settled by showing that of God's chosen people, though they were now down there were Bunyans in England ever since the trodden and in exile. "At last,” he says, “I asked Conquest; nor is it fair to ignore the discussion, in my father of it, who told me, 'No, we were not.''

the face of Bunyan's own statements in his autobioThis answer threw him back on the tinkers, as the graphy, as has been done not only by Mr. Brown, mixed gipsy race were usually called.

but also by Mr. Froude in his memoir. This led Sir Walter Scott to say that “Bunyan

JAMES MACAULAY, M.D. was most probably a gipsy reclaimed”; and led Mr. Offor, a laborious editor of Bunyan's works,

BYRONIC LITERATURE. to say “ His father must have been a gipsy.” With still more elaborate statement and cogent argument,

(Continued from p. 426.) Mr. James Simpson, a Scotchman long resident

Class III.-Poetry relating to Byron. in New York, author of a “ History of the Gipsies,

Five fugitive pieces addressed to Lord Byron at affirms that the Bunyan family were gipsies, who, various intervals. Rev. F. Hodgson. Circa 1910. og settling in Bedfordshire, took the name of the and 4: Smith. Circa 1812.

Cui Bono. From the Rejected Addresses.' Horace family on whose soil they chiefly lived, as had been Anti Byron : a Satire. Circa 1814. the common usage since feudal times.

Julian and Maddalo. Percy B. Shelley. 1818. That this humble origin, so far from being a

Childe Harold's Monitor. Rev. F. Hodgson. 1818. disgrace or discredit to the illustrious John

Lines written among the Euganean Hills. Percy B. Banyan, gives greater lustre to his genius and

Shelley. 1818.

Adonais. Stanza xxx. Percy B. Shelley. Pisa, 1821. worth we have always been accustomed to think. Uriel : Poetical Address to Lord Byron. 1822.

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Linee addressed to Byron. M. C. de Lamartine. Circa August 27, 1748, and he was buried in the church nigoliva l'iecos. By Countess of Blessington. Genoa, a monument has been erected to his memory in

of Richmond, Surrey, without an inscription;

but P**** on the Death of Byron. From the Gedichte. Westminster Abbey.

Dr. Johnson quotes a letter which he had obWhen Willer. 1824. ob i Lord Byron. • Noctes Ambrosianæ,' zv. tained from Boswell to prove the amiability of

Thomson's character. Ho gives a very different Blvhls Last Pilgrimage. Rev. W. L. Bowles.

account of David Mallet :a t'honestlita at the Interment of Lord Byron. became about sixty years ago, under the conduct of

origin one of , . * the Death of Lord Byron. T. Maude. Robin Roy, so formidable and so infamous for violence

and robbery, that the name was annulled by a legal dow Wower of Lord Byron. Translated from abolition; and when they were all to denominate them. in the Literary Gazette. Printed in selves anew, the father, I suppose, of this author called

himself Malloch......His first production was William I WA doo ***.448' 1824. a textollAn elegiac stanza in Greek. and Margaret'; of which, though it contains nothing

very striking or difficult, he has been envied the reputair Samuel Rogers. Circa 1825. tion; and plagiarism has been boldly charged, but never IV. Robert Pollok. Circa proved."

Dr. Johnson adds in a note :este lagnell, 1831,

Circa

“Mallet's William and Margaret' was printed in Vasche Faust. Goethe,

Aaron Hill's Plain Dealer, No.36, July 24, 1724, In its la planeta de verence in regard to the original state it was very different from what it is in the

last edition of his works."
1809).
v Memorial,' Spenser,

William and Margaret' was Mallet's first
Led ISTO,

forgery, and it imposed upon Bishop Percy, who NARD EDGCUMBE.

printed one of the forged copies in his ‘Reliques of

Ancient Poetry,' vol. iii. p. 310, 1765. It + + + + + a )

markable how long a time the theft should have remained undetected, for it was printed correctly

in Ambrose Phillips’s ‘Collection of Old Ballads,' heriber to the

1725, vol. iii. Hientesh me with a copy tion of Songs,' vol. i., 1726, third edition, p. 159.

P.

218, and in 'The Hive : a Collecwith whe query, "Who Neither of the above gives the true old tune, which

How is a matter of is now only to be found in my edition of the 'Roxwo wo wo wwwor through burghe Ballads,' vol. iii. p. 669, or in the

British vive une musio, and Museum Library by giving the reference, 1876, *** Man of "The f. i. p. 107, Lond., fol., n.d." That edition is only the ww was first

one of Queen Anne's reign, but the ballad is ww with Judge; quoted by Old Merrythought in Fletcher’s ‘Knight wa Allrod,'| of the Burning Pestle'; therefore, there are still

earlier copies. Our Scotch friends may view very celo Southern lightly the forging ofan old English ballad; but when Patinho credit it leads up to robbing a famous Scotsman of his

deserved merit, no one will wonder that, as said Wie moment na by Dr. Johnson of Mallet,“ What other proofs he

gave of disrespect to his native country I know not; nike all but it was remarked of him, that he was the only

Soot whom Scotchmen did not commend."

“Not long after this,” says Chalmers, “Mallet al

4 I

was employed by Lord Bolingbroke in an office Ga.

to attack Pope! which he executed with all the

weathed malignity that his employer could wish.” That is the betw:

mall, Chalmers’s ‘Biographical Dictionary,'p. 195.

WM. CHAPPELL. (iv. 17 being ch

Editions of 'THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD.'— admitted

ito Nieve the publication in 1885 of the tentative specially

Hübliography of the Vicar of Wakefield,”” premans" in

and to Mr. Elliot Stock's facsimile reprint of the I believe ti

i princeps, my attention has been called to the torians conteni

blowing additional issues. I record them in the

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hope that they may be of interest to some readers 9. The Vicar of Wakefield. By Oliver Goldsmith. of N. & Q., and perhaps elicit further contribu- With Prefatory Memoir by George Saintsbury, and 114 tions to the literature of the subject :

coloured illustrations. London: John C. Nimmo. 1885. 1. The Vicar of Wakefield : a Tale. Supposed to be an English edition to accompany the illustrations written by Himself. “Sperate miseri, cavete fælices." of No. 8. ** Let the wretched hope and the happy be cautious." 10. The Vicar of Wakefield. By Oliver Goldsmith, In 2 vols. London : Printed in the Year M.DCC, LXVI. London: George Routledge & Sons, &c.

1886. Pp. x, 2. The Vicar of Wakefield : a Tale. Supposed to be 320. written by Himself. Sperate miseri, caveto fælices.” One of Routledge's “ Pocket Library.” In 2 vols. Dublin : Printed for W. and W. Smith, &c. 1766. 12mo.

11. The Vicar of Wakefield, By Oliver Goldsmith. These (1 and 2) are unauthorized reprints of the Introduction (by G. T. Bettany, M.A.),

London : Ward, Lock & Co., &c. | 1886.] Title,

PP., text, first edition, published for the proprietors by pp. 7 to 134. Francis Newbery, March 27, 1766. This is ap- One of Ward & Lock's “ Popular Library of parent from the fact that they follow that edition Literary Treasures.” AUSTIN Dobson. in its solitary use, in chap. xi., of Mr. Burchell's famous “fudge,” which in the second and all

St. Moritz. — A very curious statement is subsequent issues is repeated several times.

ascribed to Paracelsus in most of the books about 3. The Vicar of Wakefield. A Tale. By Oliver Gold. that very popular spot St. Moritz, and it is repeated smitb, M.D. "Sperate miseri ; cavete felices." (" Hope, in the latest guide-book to that place, although I ye miserable; beware, ye happy.”) 2 vols. in 1. New York: Printed and sold by James Óram, No. 114, Water pointed out its inaccuracy some twelve years ago. Street. 1807. 12mo., pp. 206, with four full-page wood Paracelsus is made to say that “the spring runs cuts by Alexander Anderson.

most acid in the month of August,” whereas what 4. The Vicar of Wakefield. A Tale. By Oliver Gold- he really said was that “the narrower the channel, smith, M.D. “Sperate miseri, cavete felices." Phila- the more acid was the water.” It is true that in delphia : Printed and published by William Duane, the Geneva edition of his collected works in 1658 No. 98, Market Street, 1809. 12mo., pp. 240, with a copperplate frontispiece by Fairman and four woodcuts the words are,"cujus scaturigo mense Augusto by Alexander Anderson.

acetosissima profluit," but in the second revised 5. The Vicar of Wakefield. A Tale. “Sperate edition of bis book, ‘De Morbis Tartareis,' Basle, miseri; cavete felices.” Published by Johnson and

1570, the passage runs, Warner, and for sale at their bookstores in Phila

ea aqua, quo angustiore delphia, Richmond, Va., and Lexington, Ken, Brown alveo clauditur, eo magis acetosa ést.” Some odd and Merritt, Printers. 1810. 24mo., pp. 136, copper- mistake seems to have been made between the plate frontispiece by C. Fairman and four woodcuts by words "angustiore ” and “ Augusto.” Alexander Anderson.

J. MACPHERSON. I derive Nos. 3, 4, and 5 from an interesting ‘Brief Curzon Street, Catalogue of Books illustrated with Engravings by Dr. Alexander Anderson, with a Biograpbical Wasted INGENUITY.-Addison, in the fiftySketch of the Artist,' New York, 1885. Anderson, eighth Spectator, speaks of that famous picture of born at New York in 1775, died at Jersey City in King Charles the First, which has the whole Book 1870, was a follower of Thomas Bewick, and the of Psalms written in the lines of the face and the first engraver on wood in America.

hair of the head," and he goes on to say that 6. The Vicar of Wakefield. A Tale. By Dr. Gold when “he was last at Oxford he perused one smith. "Sperate miseri, cavete felices. London: of the whiskers, and was reading the other," Printed and Published by Lewis, St. John's Square, &c. As Addison is not only one of our most and sold by all Booksellers, 1818. 276 pp., with memoirs delightful but one of our slyest humourists, it of Oliver Goldsmith, and steel frontispiece drawn by is not always easy to tell when he is stating a Craig, engraved by Lacey—“ The Vicar discovers his positive fact or when he is poking & quiet bit of daughter Olivia." From information supplied by a correspondent.

fun at us. In this respect he somewhat resembles

Charles Lamb. Was there ever such a portrait as 7. The Vicar of Wakefield. 1824. 24mo., with frontispiece and vignette.

the above mentioned, and does it still exist ? From a bookseller's catalogue.

There is no particular reason why one should 8. Le Vicaire de Wakefield. Traduction nouvelle et various useless ingenuities over which people have

doubt it when one reads on good authority of the complete par B.-H. Gausseron. Paris : A. Quantin, Imprimeur-Editeur, 7, Rue Saint-Benoit (1885). Title, wasted their time. For instance, Robert Anderpp. x (comprising prefatory memoir by the Translator son, the author of the 'Cumberland Ballads,' himand bastard title), 297, and coloured illustrations by self tells us in the short autobiography prefixed V. A. Poirson.

to the Wigton edition of his works, how he In his memoir M. Gausseron speaks of a forth- “ wrote the Lord's Prayer, Creed, Ten Commandcoming étude of the Vicar' by M. Émile Chasles, ments, a short Psalm, and his name, on a piece which is to be characterized by “vues nouvelles et of paper the size of a sixpence, which he presented profondes."

to his friend, Mr. Palmer, of Drury Lane Theatre.”

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I do not in the least doubt Anderson's word; but carried under cover to her destination. (See the I confess I am at a loss to understand how note by A. J. M., 6th S. xii. 498.) There is a such a thing could be done with the point of possibility, therefore, of the revival in Bath of the finest needle that was ever manufactured the sedan chairs described in the thirty-fifth chapter It is also difficult to understand how any of' Pickwick'; though the readers of ibat book will reasonable mortal who was not shut up in the remember in its twenty-fourth chapter) the inBastille could employ his time in accomplishing cident connected with the sedan chair at Ipswich. such a sorry piece of ingenuity, which, when

CUTHBERT BEDE. accomplished, could be of no sort of use or orna

HAIR TURNED WHITE BY SORROW.- I believe ment to any man, woman, or child! It reminds that modern scientific students deny the possibility one of dearly beloved Monsieur Jourdain's taking of the human bair suddenly becoming white infinite pains to learn exactly how he put his tongue, teeth, and lips when he pronounced the this was formerly believed is certain, and many

through intense sorrow or a sudden shock. That different letters of the alphabet, a scene which is, not otherwise ill-informed persons still cling to I imagine, the best satire on useless knowledge the opinion. In a letter from D. Evans to Thomas that was ever written.

Hearne, the Oxford antiquary, dated November 10, The Oxford picture mentioned by Addison and 1709, the following passage occurs : "D. Jones.... Anderson's lilliputian liturgy naturally bring to shew'd me his head, & his coal black hair was one's remembrance the old saying of the ' Iliad' in turned milk white of a night, he said, for ye a nutshell. Pickering's diamond edition of Homer greatness of his troubles (Letters to Thomas (1831) contains both the 'Iliad' and the ‘Odyssey,' Hearne,' ed. Ouvry, p. 31).

ANON. and this would, I should say, certainly go into a large cocoa-nut shell. The book is beautifully, and, TRADES AND STREETS.-Prof. Maine writes, in so far as I am able to judge, very correctly printed, his 'Village Communities,' second edition, 1872, but it is almost useless for all practical purposes. p. 126:It is only useful for occasional reference, as one "There are several English parishes in which certain would require a magnifying-glass to read it for pieces of land in the common field have from time fifteen minutes consecutively.

immemorial been known by the name of a particular

trade ; and there is often a popular belief that nobody, not Haydn, in his ' Dictionary of Dates' (ed. 1866), following the trade, can legally be the owner of the lot gravely tells how among the thousands of volumes associated with it. And it is possible that we here have burnt at Constantinople, A. D. 477, were the works

a key to the plentifulness and persistence of certain of Homer written in golden letters on the gut of a

names of trades as surnames among us." dragon 120 ft. long. Was this the Dragon of The following particulars supply an illustration Wantley, or the dragon that Sir Otto in Hood's not only of the custom, but also of its survival poem vanquished ? It is true that Haydn quali- down to quite recent times. In the little East fies this remarkable statement by the words,

Yorkshire town of Hedon there is a street now said to have been." There is much virtue” in called Souttergate, and a pretty numerous family on dit, as well as in Touchstone's “if."

bearing the name of Soutter. The street and its JONATHAN BOUCHIER.

name are ancient, for the “via sutorum " is menRopley, Hante.

tioned 1389-90, although Poulson clumsily trans

lates it “ Cobler-street” (* Holderness,' ii. 116, ANTICIPATED REVIVAL OF SEDAN CHAIRS. — 117). The notes on the subject of sedan chairs were on I cannot, unfortunately, connect the family of their disuse (6th S. xii. 308, 332, 498 ; 7th S. i. 37). Soutters, in the past or the present, with SoutterWhen I was at Bath, in the past month of May, gate, but doubtless evidence of the connexion I was told, on good authority, that there was an could be found. John Soutter there has been, but idea of reviving the use of sedan chairs in that I do not known that he was, like Tam O'Shanter's city. By level entrances, specially arranged for friend, "Souter Jobnny.” Nevertheless, original that purpose, the Bath chairs can be drawn inside evidences which I have seen show that“ a messuage the Assembly Rooms and Pump Rooms, and the or tenement and burgage house in Soutergate" was occupants of the Bath chairs can thus get out of occupied from 1670 to 1717 by James Hunter, them under cover. But they may have had to “cordwinder or shooemaker.” After a time there get into them during a pelting storm or fall of was formed in part of the same premises a separate snow, as it is, in most cases, impracticable to get shop, which in 1707 was held by Jeremiah Berry, the Bath chairs up the flights of steps and into cordwainer, and by him was transferred in 1717 the entrance halls of the private houses. But this to William Ward, cordwainer. In 1762 the whole can be done with sedan chairs ; and the lady, in property passed to John Beedall, of Hornsea, full dress for her ball at the Assembly Rooms or cordwainer, was occupied in 1786 by Benjamin elsewhere, can in her own hall step into the sedan Bedell, cordwainer, and in 1792 became the posseschair, and not emerge therefrom until she has been sion of John Hansley, of Hedon, cordwainer. Here

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