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Rhine, was inhabited by the same people (the Replies.

Belgians) ; but it is in direct contradiction to that BRITANNIA.

of Cæsar, who makes the Seine the western (7th S. i. 361, 422.)

boundary of the Belgians, and says that their

language was different from that of the Celts; Whenever Canon Taylor writes on “names while Strabo says these languages were nearly the and places” his views are certain to deserve atten- Now if Strabo, as seems likely, mistook tion, but I cannot think that in this case they are the north-western Gauls for Belgians, contrary to destined to command acceptance. The Cassiterides, the fact, it is no wonder that he should fancy the of which Herodotus tells us he knows nothing, are Belgian language differed but slightly from the almost certainly neither the British nor the Scilly Celtic, erroneously taking the north-western lanislands, but, as Mr. Elton has shown ( Origins of guage to be Belgian when it was not. We must English History,' p. 18), “the islands situated in the therefore conclude it was Gaelic, for Cæsar is more neighbourhood of Vigo Bay,” off the Spanish coast. trustworthy than Strabo, and it is likely that the St. Michael's Mount, again, cannot have been the language of all Gallia Lugdunensis, including what point from which British tin was exported to the was afterwards called Bretagne, was originally Continent, for two reasons : one, that even at Gaelic, which as to its vocabulary is utterly difthe close of the bronze period in our island ferent from Welsh, though a comparatively few “the Mount" seems to bave been situated some words have found their way from one to the other. considerable distance inland (see Pearson's 'His

If Gaelic were the language of all Gallia Lugtorical Maps,' p. xiii, particularly note 10); and dunensis, its remains would probably be found in the other, that no merchant would risk a voyage the modern French. With very imperfect know. from the Cornish coast when safer and easier routes ledge of that language or of Irish, and very little were open. If, however, Canon Taylor prefers a Cornish locality as the likeliest to have given its

examination, I have found the following coinci

dences. name to the whole island, it is strange that he

French.

Irish. should have overlooked the claims of Carnbrea (or Epouser, to marry... Posadh, marriage. Cairn-Bre, or whatever may be the correct spell- Cul, the rump or breech Cul, the back. ing), where the find of a hoard of British coins--a Eau, water ...

Abh (pronounced ou), water. phenomenon unique in that part of the country

Parler, to speak

Bearla, language.

Aller, to go might seem to ler

Aill, go thou, or come. some small countenance to his Allodial, the most ancient theory.

tenure of land

Allod, ancient. As to the name Albion being "doubtless de- Garçon, a boy

Garsun, a little boy. rived from the white cliffs of Dover," Prof. Rhys, Moulton (now moulon), a in the work Canon Taylor refers to, expressly Chaque, every

sheep or wether ... Molt, a wether.

Cach, every. says, “Its meaning is utterly unknown, in spite of guesses both new and old : possibly the word is I believe this question has dever been investigated. not Celtic."

A, Z. I am not quite sure that I understand CANON

It will be useful to call attention to the facts Taylor's proposition : “When the island had which have been published by myself. In a paper once been discovered, the ports of Cornwall were which was read by me in 1871 before the Society more frequented than those of Kent.” On the of Antiquaries, entitled 'The Name Britappia and other hand, when he represents me as contending its Relationship to Prehistoric Populations,' it was that "the name of the whole island would be shown that the name Britannia was formed on the derived from the name of that part which lies same principles as other ancient geographical names. nearest to the Continent,” he has evidently failed One conclusion was, however, erroneous, that this to understand my proposition, which is that bret.= class of name was identical with river names in. straits, and British=situated on the straits. stead of being founded on the same principles. Britannia, therefore, assuming that the tan = terri

In 1883 the same subject was discussed by me tory, means, according to my notions," the terri- before the Royal Historical Society in a paper tory on the straits”-a territory of which Caithness called The Iberian and Belgian Influence and and Cornwall are as much parts as Kent or Sussex. Epochs in Britain.' Much will there be found on

BROTHER Fabian.

Britannia and Hibernia in relation and comBROTHER FABIAN seems to agree with Nie- parison with ancient geographical names. Those bubr that the original language of Brittany may who wish it will find there the collection of facts. have been the same as the British or Welsh, Both forms enter largely into island names, al. and he also agrees with Pliny that there were though they are not confined to them. B is not Britanni in North-East Gaul, or Belgium. This a part of the root of Britannia, nor is nia. The would agree with the statement of Strabo that the root form is rd (=rt, tr, lt), and for Hibernia br whole of Northern Gaul, from the Loire to the (=pr, pl, phl). The various island names of the

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two forms are found in pairs (p. 7). Convenient termination, would be reconverted into Low Lat. as examples are :

primayranus, the very word in Ducange ; and Rd.

Br.

this derivation not only gives the word its exact Britannia

Hibernia.

meaning, but accounts for its extraordinary form, Brattia

Pbarus (Adriatic), in both which respects the derivation from preKreta

Kuprus. Hydrea

Tiparenus.

mierain signally fails. I may be as ignorant of Thera

Hippuris.

phonetic laws as PROF. SKEAT supposes, but if Rhodos

Karpathos.

either of us has fallen into a trap, I do not think HYDE CLARKE.

it is BROTHER FABIAN,

As to the main question, PROF. Skeat cannot SUZERAIN (7th S. i. 101, 146, 170, 232, 270, 349, point to any occurrence of his suseranus any more 389, 452). – I plead “not guilty” to the charge of than I can to my subsupranus, so that in this misrepresenting Prof. SKEAT. Here are his words: respect neither can claim any advantage. Should

Suzerain, a feudal lord (F.,-L.). Not in Jobo- one or the other turn up, either the pros or the son, hardly an E. word. F. suzerain, sovereigo, cons would be materially strengthened. Meanfet subaltern, superior, but not supreme,' Cot. A while it is gratifying to learn, as I do on excellent coined word; made from F. sus, Lat. 'susum or authority, that Mr. Freeman has seen reason to surfum, above, in the same way as sovereign is abjure the word suzerain, and that it is destined made from Lat. super ;

corresponds with a Low to disappear from future editions of The Norman Lat. type suseranus*, for surseranus*.” My point Conquest.'

BROTHER FABIAN. is that the word has nothing to do with the F. sus or the Lat. susum, and I fail to see any misrepre

Ham (7th S. i. 427). —MR. TURNER inquires for sentation in the use of the word “ derived "instead the derivation of the word ham, used in North of " coined ” or “made ” from. If PROF. SKEAT's Devon and West Somerset for“patches of pasture contention is that the word is “ coined" or made

by the rivers." I believe that the fundamental from,” but not“ derived,” from the F. sus, Lat. meaning of the word is simply a patch or separate susum, be indirectly adopts my proposition that portion of something, as seen in the Old Dutch suzerain cannot be extracted from susum by any hamme, ham, a hunch or piece of something eatknown philological rules. I am not aware, how-able; in Flanders, a pasture, meadow (Kilian); ever, of any recognized technical limitation of the modern Dutch boterham, a piece of bread and butter. word “derived" which precludes my using it in In East Friesland ham is the tract of fen belonging the sense I did.

to a village ; Old Dutch, hamme van wilghen, an The real difference between us is simple. Prof. osier bed. In Dorset, ham, an enclosed mead Skeat affirms that the word is coined or made (Barnes). from susum, in the same way as sovereign is made

Whether this is a distinct word from the Norfolk from the Lat. super.

This is demonstrably in- ham, a home, Gothic haims, a village, is not so correct. Super, by the addition of an adjectival clear. We see an analogous train of thought in termination, becomes superanus, exactly=F. sou

German fleck, a rag, piece of stuff, a patch, a tract terain. But the same process in the other case

of country, portion of land, spot; flecken, a village, only gives an impossible Lat. susumanus, with open town. In Switzerland ham, heim, is the piece a corresponding barely possible F. susain, the of enclosed ground in which the dwelling stands, latter represented by the sozain or souzoein to which the house and dwelling-place itself. Mr. Tew again calls attention, the reference having

H. WEDGWOOD. been already once given by Dr.CAANCE. Obviously, Your correspondent rightly points to the differtherefore, whether suzerain is made from susum or ence of the meaning of ham, by a river, and that pot, it is not made“ in the same way" as sovereign of “a home” to which it is so very commonly refrom super. There is no evolving the er except on ferred. Often it is, as he says, used for patches of DR. CHANCE's bypothesis that the case is what a pasture by the rivers, but not because they are naturalist would call a case of "simulation."

patches of pasture. It is because they are peninAs to premerain, both Prof. SKEat and Dr. sular, either caused by the windings of a river or Chance have confused the adj. premierain with by being the piece of land which is peninsular at the adjectival subst. primayrain, which has quite the confluence of two rivers. He supplies a fresh a different origin. There are sundry mediaeval example of the latter. He says, “In West Somerofficials, apparently both clerical and lay, whose set, at a spot where two small rivers join, & bridge title in Low Latin appears as prior-major. This is called Couple Ham Bridge.” Without denying compound, like the simple Lat. major, would have that ham may sometimes have more than one two corresponding F. representatives, one derived other meaning, I believe that in topographical from the accusative prior(em).major(em), or prieur- dames this (of a river peninsula) is by very much majeur, and the other from the nominative prilor), the most frequent. I have several times already major, or pri-mayre. The last, with an adjectival urged it, with examples thi tsuch peninsular spots

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now known by ham have been formerly holm. really long. A few instances are celtenhom ('C.
Evesham is a case that is well known and undeni. D.,' 184), werahom ('C. D.,'224), hunighamme......
able. Durham= Dunelmum is another, and others andlang streámes (C. D.;' 664), and flodhammas
may be cited. Holm seems to have meant either (*C. D.,' 224).
an island or a peninsula, the latter distinguishing

Various fields near the Thames here are called word not having contributed to old names.

THOMAS KERSLAKE.

hams. I have one between the river and a branch Bristol.

called the Little Ham. The terminations ham,

cot, and ton are used around here for parishes, but The term ham, in the sense to which Mr. wick and throp (sic) for smaller groups of old Turner refers, is not only in use in North Devon houses. A fence of any kind is called a mound. and West Somerset. There are pieces of meadow

OSWALD BIRCHALL. adjoining the Thames in the parish of Iffley, near Buscot Rectory, Lechlade. Oxford, which are so called, as they bave been for centuries. In a terrier of the estate of Lincoln Parish REGISTERS (7th S. i. 447).—Two cases College, in that parish, of Nov. 13, 1661, by of missing registers, one burnt in a fire," the Richard Ffeshir, the miller, there occurs :- other “lost," induce me to say that every arch

“One little ham, about halfe a yeard of ground, be it deacon bas, or should bave, copies of all parish more or lesse, beeing in Tidnum; Two hams in Mr. registers. At every visitation it is the duty of the James his greate kiduey, being about balf-an-acre, be incumbent of a parish to present to the registrar it more or lesse; Another ham in the Towne meade

a copy of all entries made in the parish registers over against those two hams, being about half an acre more or lesse ; one bam," &c.

during the year. It is equally the duty of churchED. MARSHALL.

wardens to see that this copy is presented. Speaking Mr. Turner's acute topographical observation I can say that these copies (generally dating from

for the Archdeaconries of Canterbury and Maidstone, affords a valuable confirmation of the conclusions about 1560) are well kept and easily accessible. I of philologists. Prof. Leo, in his 'Rectitudines,' have found them invaluable in the case of doubtful following Grimm's well-known etymological distinction, points out that in the A.-S. charters In the St. Dunstan's (Cant.) registers alone I have

readings or the more serious case of lost leaves. good MSS. distinguish between hám, the equiva: supplied about a thousand entries from these lent of the German heim, home, which denotes the copies. I should add that for about twenty years dwelling place of the united family, and ham, (1640-1660) no copies were presented, at all events without the accent, used to designate a spot, fre, in this diocese. These copies are often useful in quently a riverside meadow, which is “hemmed another way. They were usually signed by the in” by forest, fence, or stream. The former, which incumbent, and from them one can generally is usually preceded by the name of a family or an obtain the name of the parson in any given year. individual, as in the case of Æslingabám or Cry- H. D. E. should write to his archdeacon; then, mesbám, is common to England and Germany;

the when permission is obtained, copy the missing other, rarely linked with a personal name, is almost exclusively confined to England and Friesland. portions and present his copy to the parish.

J. M. CowPER. In addition to the authorities cited by Leo, I would

Canterbury. refer Mr. Turner to Koolman's Ostfriesisches Wörterbuch,' vol. ii. p. 21, where there is a good SLARE (7th S. i. 489).—The statement that this article on the Frisian usage.

word cannot be found in a dictionary is a little Mr. Monkhouse, in his scarce little book 'Ety- odd. A good deal depends upon knowing where to mologies of Bedfordshire,' pp. 8-13, has success- look, and what to look for. I found it in the first fully applied the distinction between húm and ham book I opened, and found some light upon it in to the explanation of the names of places along each of the next six books which I consulted. the banks of the Ouse, such as Felmersham, Paven. Peacock’s ‘Dictionary of Manley Words' (E. D. S.) ham, and Brombam, which are girdled either by gives : Slare, to make a noise by rubbing the the sinuous S-shaped windings of the river or by boot-soles on an uncarpeted floor. Crockery-ware, tributary brooks.

Isaac TAYLOR. when washed in dirty water, or dried badly so as P.S.-I observe that Prof. SKEAT (766 S. i. to leave marks thereupon, is said to be slared.” It 444) denies the existence of this distinction. I is even in Halliwell's Dictionary, the best-known would ask him how he explains names in -ham and most accessible of all dialect dictionaries. My applied to riverside meadows which have never larger 'Etymological Dictionary' gives such an been sites of habitation; how he would deal with account of slur as to throw much light on the Belgian names in them which appear in charters of word. (In the smaller one, I find, to my surprise, the eighth and ninth centuries, and how he ac- slur bas been omitted, purely by accident.) The counts for the A.-S. names in hom, and the re- Icelandic Dictionary' gives slóra, to trail, conduplication of the m, if the preceding vowel is traction of sloðra, from slóð, a trail, slot. Rietz's

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'Provincial Swed. Dict.' gives slöra, to be negli. To me Barnes seems neither fool nor knave, bu
gent. Aasen’s ‘Norweg. Dict.' gives slöre, to sully, simply a scholar of large learning and no incon-
slöe, short for slöde, to trail, and so on. Still closer siderable original talents, whose brain had been
in form is the Icel. slæður, a gown that trails on gently touched by the hand of a not unkindly
the ground, which would give slæur by the loss of lunacy. This view is borne out by all that I have
(crossed) d. I have already said that “the key ever seen of his works, and, without claiming any
to slur is that a th or d has been dropped ; it special acquaintance with them, I have looked at
stands for slother or sloder; cf. prov. E. slither, and read what I found readable in all that were
to slide ; slodder, slush.” Similarly slare is for to be found in “my time” in Emmanuel College
sladder or slather. Halliwell gives, Slather, to library, while his Homer has been the edition to
slip or slide (Cheshire); sladdery, wet and dirty." which I have constantly been in the habit of refer-
Also “ Slair, to walk slovenly; slairg, mud; slare, ring for near upon forty years.
to smear ; slary, bedaubed." Also“ Slidder, to As to the evidence bearing on the point at issue,
slide," with its contracted form “Slir, to slide.” MR. NORGATE is mistaken in asserting that in

WALTER W. SKEAT. the passage I quoted in a former letter Barnes
The 'Manley and Corringham Glossary' (E.D.S.)

"rigidly abstains from all expression of opinion has slare with various shades of meaning : "Slare, about the personal history of Homer.” He disV., to make a noise by rubbing the boot-soles on tinctly asserts, on the contrary, that all the peran uncarpeted floor," exactly fits the case of the sonal history of Homer related by other authors Epworth ghost.

St. SWITHIN is “inconsistent, irreconcilable, and self-contra

dictory." Nor is it more accurate to say that The verb to slare=to smear occurs in Wright's he reveals nothing as to his own views ; for he 'Provincial Dictionary.' There is also the sub- asserts as distinctly that they were of such a stantive.

ED. MARSHALL. character that he thought it best to suppress

them, lest they should be made use of to damage GRACE AFTER DINNER (7th S. i. 466).— With his work. regard to the old customs of "asking a blessing" The difficulty of believing that a son of the and "returning thanks” before and after meals, sweet psalmist of Israel could possibly be the I cannot help thinking that the custom of an old sweet psalmist of Hellas is perhaps insuperable Norfolk worthy ought to be immortalized in by modern scholarship; but in estimating this 'N. & Q.' He naturally felt that the break difficulty it was to be remembered that Barnes, between dinner proper and dessert was a mistake ; like Chapman and many another Homeric scholar, and so always waited until the decanters were put devoutly believed in the divine inspiration not before him. Then, with a benign hand laid upon only of the epics but of the minor poems attributed each of them, he said : "For these, and for all his to Homer. The pious prayer with which Chapman mercies, the Lord's name be praised.” CLK.

concludes his translation of the ‘BatrachomyoWhat does MR. WYNNE E. Baxter mean by machia' and the hymns is in itself enough to show "David's connexion with Beersheba"? Is it a

-in Coleridge's words—“his complete forgetfulmistake for Bathsheba ; or does it allude to some

ness of the distinction between Christianity and pursuit of the Philistines to the place mentioned?

idolatry under the general feeling of some reliC. S. JERRAM.

gion," and Barnes's preface abundantly proves [Other contributors call attention to the same substi- that he shared Chapman's feelings in this respect. tution of name.]

If "plenty of remarks" are to be found in

Barnes's notes opposed to my theory, MR. NORJoshua Barnes (7th S. i. 141, 226, 292, 371, 394, Gate has pitched upon an unlucky instance to 476).—That Joshua Barnes attributed the author- quote. In the ‘Hymn to Apollo' is an apostrophe ship of Homer to Solomon is not in dispute. The to the maidens of Delos, in which the pseudoreal question is whether his advocacy of the theory Homer adjures them, if they are asked who is the was honest or dishonest. MR. NORGATE thinks mightiest master of song, to answer, that he merely pretended to adopt it in order to

The sightless man obtain funds from his wife to publish his Homer.

Of stony Chi08.—Chapman, 1. 267. I think that he advocated it because he believed Barnes, annotating hereupon, observes :-"Hence, in its truth. Regarded as a question of ethics, it I conceive, the handle was first seized hold on for is remarkable that MR. NORGATE should accuse the belief that Homer was blind, but that he me of an endeavour to make Barnes appear "a was of Chios is gathered [colligitur, not, as it disgrace to his university” because I wish to vin- would have been if Barnes had intended to indidicate his good faith, and equally remarkable that cate acquiescence, colligi potest] both from this MR. NORGATE should claim a superior generosity passage and elsewhere." From this note MR. for himself because be does his best to prove NORGATE thinks that we get a distinct revelathat Barnes was a mean swindler of his own wife. tion" of Barnes's “ opinion on the vexed question

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of Homer's birthplace." I fail to see how the Roman Emperor Constantius, she gave birth at words can be so twisted as to lend themselves to York to Constantine, afterwards called the Great. any such interpretation. The former clause of the There was a day when that city had three churches sentence implies that Barnes did not himself which were her pamesakes ; now it has only one, believe in Homer's blindness, and the latter clause and that, alas! was scheduled last year by a certain is wholly mismatched unless it conveys a like committee whom the Archbishop called into intimation of incredulity. Reading the note in counsel, as being of the number of superfluous connexion with Barnes's declaration that he intends sacred buildings which it might be well to disshortly to publish to the world “the true name, use or to remove. It is something to be thankful age, country," &c., of Homer, it is clear that he for that St. Helen still occupies her “coign of meant to call attention to the absence of any real vantage." As for poor St. Crux-named perhaps proof either of Homer's blindness or of his birth in in memory of the Empress's “Invention," as Dal. Chios, although he admits that the evidence in the ling Church, Norfolk, is said to have been—its latter case is somewhat stronger than in the condition is deplorable. A sadder ruin I have former. So far, then, from supporting Mr. Nor- never seen. I think I am right in saying that GATE's contention, the passage supplies a further appeal has been made for money to build it up corroboration of Barnes's good faith.

short of the clearstory in some form that may MR. NORGATE says that the story of Barnes commend itself for parochial uses. But the clear shamming belief in Solomon's authorship of story was the glory of St. Crux, and one can Homer - which I thought might possibly have hardly expect anybody outside the parish to be been the invention of Farmer- was in print when moved to liberality by a scheme which proposes Farmer was a mere child. Will MR. NORGATE to put such beauty as that away for ever. kindly give the reference, as I have not been for

ST. SWITRIN. tunate enough to trace it so far back ?

Keeping in mind the connexion between the BROTHER FABIAN.

Empress Helena and York, it is pot surprising THE TRANSMISSION OF FOLK-Tales (7th S. i. that St. Helen should be frequently met with in 364).- There is a version of the Rhampsinitus the north of England. May 3, when her finding story current among the Sinbalese. See the of the true Cross is commemorated, has been comOrientalist, vol. i. pp. 56, 120; vol. ii. pp. 48-9 monly called St. Helen's Day, down to a time long (the Orientalist is the journal referred to by Mr. after the Reformation. See ‘Newminster CartuW. A. Clouston, 7th š. i. 125). I have perhaps lary,' 1530, 258 ; Best’s ‘ Farming Book,' 101, 118, been too hasty in assuming that the Sinhalese 119 (both Surtees Soc.); Plompton Corresp., could not have got the story from Herodotus; but Camd. Soc., 71; Boothroyd's 'Pontefract, 427; may they not have got it from the adventurous Yorksh. Arch. Journ., vii. 51, 53. The church of merchants of Egypt and Arabia," to whom, ac- Stillingfleet, on the river Ouse, south of York, is cording to Sir J. Emerson Tennent, Ptolemy was dedicated to St. Helen; is it unlikely that the mainly indebted for his information respecting name represents St. Helen's-fleet ? W. O. B. Ceylon (Tenpent's Ceylon, fourth edition, vol. i. p. 561)? Col. Prideaux says that the story un

I believe the authority referred to by MR. doubtedly originated in Egypt. In any case the Round is Vestiges of the Supremacy of Mercia existence of the story among the Sinhalese is in- in the South of England,' a paper which in 1879 I teresting as bearing the question mooted by contributed to the Bristol and Gloucestershire him--whether the story has survived indepen. Archæological Society. dently of Herodotus. Can Col. PRIDEAUX in

The proper home of dedications of St. Helen is form us whether it has been met with in India ?

the ancient kingdom of Northumbria, with the J. P. LEWIS.

northern half of Lincolnshire and NottinghamBlackheath.

shire, perbaps a Southumbria. Throughout this

district they are most plentiful, no doubt from a ST. HELEN (7th S. i. 488).—I presume that it precedent cause. My inference was that this dediwas the sanctity of this lady, her fame as the dis- cation was adopted by Offa, and that where it coverer of the true Cross, and the tradition that occurs south of this district it has been planted by she was a native of this island that caused so many him in most places where by his agressions he had churches to be dedicated in her name. She was realized a new frontier. the heroine of more than one medieval romance, In doing this I accidentally omitted the exand fancy has altogether embroidered the history treme western example on his southern line of of her life. She is said to bave been the daughter these dedications, that on Lundy Island. This was of old King Cole or Coel, of Colchester, a monarch unfortunate, because in the earlier pages I had whose merriment still infects our nurseries with made a similar induction with respect to Æthelhilarity; and the tale goes—at least one of them bald and his vagrant dedications of his kingdoes — that, having been taken to wife by the woman St. Werburgh ; a part of which induction

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