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luxury in our own country inducing so great an amount. Even in the articles of silks and satins, laces, velvets, merinoes, and other fabrics of that kind, what a vast quantity must be annually expended, as well as in those finer broadcloths which are worn here by the other sex !
Now we do not mean to maintain that the use of such articles is not to be encouraged, as we hold that every matter of taste should be. No person, certainly, could be a friend to labor, who would wish to see all arrayed in homespun; because it is the consumption of the various articles of manu. facture which furnishes the market for its productions : but it is equally true, that, while in dress, as well as in other species of expenditure, we have as a nation gone beyond our means, we should endeavor to preserve that golden track, which we hold in all opinions and all action ever lies between the extremes! While we indulge in those elegancies and inno. cent enjoyments which throw a charm over the barren track of this working-day world, ought we not to avoid the excesses of expenditure which have sunk many thousands of families in ruin, and many a stout heart in the darkness and despair of blasted hopes ?
In taking a broad survey of the domestic commerce of the country, we are impressed with the beautiful variety of resources which is unfolded by the soil and climate of its different parts. What an animating prospect is spread before the mind in the contemplation of the commercial industry which is acting upon the different portions of our wide empire, and what a vast amount of physical force is now operating in furnishing the materials of trade, as well as in its prosecution! We turn to the north, and we find the manufactures of that section of the territory supplying with its fabrics not only the south and west, but furnishing foreign coun. tries with their products. The west, from its broad resources, returns in exchange its cargoes of wheat and other grains, which are sent down through the western rivers and lakes, supplying the wants of those who do not enjoy the advantages of so fertile a soil. The unbroken wilderness stretching towards the Pacific is sending its freights of rich furs and pel. try to our own ports through the same channels, or packing them in the vessels which are from time to time moored in the Columbia and other streams of the Pacific, in order to their transportation abroad. The fields of the south and southwest are burdened with the abundant harvests of the cotton and tobacco plant, the sugar cane, and the rice field, which are transported to the north or to foreign countries, annually augmenting the amount of our national wealth. The seacoast is sprinkled with the ships which levy tribute upon the ocean for its aquatic tribes, from the mackerel that flashes in its depths like a bar of silver, to the whale that lashes it like the tempest. The ports which stud our Atlantic frontier are made the great reservoirs of commerce, through which are distributed to every part of the nation the comforts and even the luxuries of distant climes, all contributing to adventurous industry, and all adding to the grand aggregate of human power.
Turning from a consideration of our domestic trade, we look abroad upon the ocean, and there we find our commerce floating from the ice. bergs of Greenland to the burning sands of the African desert-from the marble pillars of the Acropolis and the walls of China, to the wigwams of the remotest savage upon the north Pacific and the snow huts of the Es. quimaux. Its sails are filled by the blasts of the polar sky, and the zephyr that breathes upon the sunny fields and crumbling columns of Italy. It VOL. V.-NO. I.
stores its freights in the ports of Liverpool and Marseilles, or takes in its olives and maccaroni by the side of the Venetian gondolier; everywhere increasing the amount of human knowledge, and acting as the agent of that liberty which is destined ultimately to brighten upon the world. The commerce of our own country, advancing with such rapid growth, and to such an influence as it now exhibits, is destined to perform an important part in those benevolent plans which mark the present age. It has been nurtured under the auspices of sound principles, which are interwoven with the structure of our American society; and while it seeks wealth by fair and honorable means, we doubt not that it will in the end give back some return for the blessings conferred upon it by a bountiful Providence, in lending its energies to the amelioration of the condition of mankind.
Art. IV.-MARYLAND, AND ITS RESOURCES.
That which is esteemed an article of merchandise in one country is by no means such in another; and such is the case in reference to different sections of the same country. Commercial men are aware of these truths, without their being specified. Whenever an article is available, and can be transferred to market upon such terms as will cover the expense of transportation, however small may be the profits realized, it then consti. tutes an article of merchandise, and becomes one of the resources, either naturally or acquired, but in either case commercially, of such place. And such resources are denominated great, in proportion as the demand for them exists, and as the expense becomes inconsiderable in getting them to market, compared to the great profits realized. Such resources as are indispensable to subsistence are usually considered, as in fact they are, of paramount importance among all other classes of merchandise ; and if in making up a cargo luxuries can be safely introduced, it is sometimes of advantage : for merchants prefer generally consigning their cargoes where they are the more likely to have their orders filled with as little delay as possible; and such districts usually have communication opened with points in the interior, from which such supplies as will constitute a return freight for the merchant are received, or the trade is incomplete, or not mutual.
Baltimore is the only port of entry of note in the state of Maryland, and is situated at the head of an estuary of the Patapsco river, from twelve to fifteen miles west of the Chesapeake Bay, and about one hundred and eighty miles southeasterly from Cape Henry. The port is approachable at all seasons; and even in winter the navigation is kept open by the aid of two powerful steam ice-breakers and tow-boats, which are always in readiness for active service; and ships of the largest class, as the charts will show, can enter the harbor, and load or unload alongside the wharves, the water being twenty feet, and off the wharves at Canton twenty-six feet deep. The internal improvements of the state are of great importance, as tending each successive year to develop new resources, and attach to them a real value which previously existed only in a warm imagination. The canals and railroads will, ere long, it is to be hoped, have reached the mineral and forest regions, as they are already approximating them,
insomuch that companies and individuals are already incited to acts of en. terprise, as will be shown in the course of this article.
The soil of the state, except in a few portions of it, is well adapted to agricůlture; the numerous never-failing streams, with gradual falls at suitable distances, particularly in the vicinity of Baltimore, for manufactures; and for commercial pursuits, having reference to the advantages before enumerated, Maryland is not excelled by any state in the Union. The great American Mediterranean sea, whose borders she skirts, will be a wall of defence about her in time of war, as an invading foe would scarcely dare withdraw himself so far from the ocean-field, in this improved age of invention, lest his retreat might be intercepted when he found it neeessary to “about ship;" and the bosom of that sea will in early after-time waft treasures upon it, that whether in the character of imports or exports, they will add to her riches. Nature has incontestibly provided for this result; and the founders of Baltimore, not that any thing like prescience is to be ascribed to them as regards the state of improve. ments as they exist even at present, so located it, that it becomes a point of concentration, from whence again all the travel diverges, if economy as to distance be considered, whether the direction be from north to south or east to west, and vice versa. The near proximity of the seat of the na. tional government is no drawback upon, but adds to her value ;-and should congress in its wisdom authorize the establishment of a national bank, where is there a city, all matters in reference to other banks and places considered, more eligible and safe for the parent, than Baltimore ?
Nearly all the great prominent agricultural productions of the United States are grown in Maryland, except cotton,* sugar,t and rice, and each year further developments are made in reference to some exotics. If there were agricultural societies and fairs held, as in some of the eastern states, where the choice productions of the earth could be exhibited, and competent persons appointed to pronounce upon them, and award premi. ums, it would act as a great stimulant to enterprise, aside from the profits immediately resulting to the grower. So with live-stock of all descriptions : but these subjects are somewhat neglected by the present tillers of the soil, and those of politics have to too great an extent usurped their places. Some fifteen or twenty years since, when Maryland was luxuri. ating in a more palmy sunshine of favors than at present, such exhibitions were then not unfrequent, and politics slept ; there may be a recurrence of a similar prosperous period. Corn, wheat, and oats thrive kindly in every county ; but the crop of wheat did not exceed an average one last year. Rye is not so generally cultivated, and the western counties appear more congenial to its growth, although the yield in two or three of the southern was respectable in the year 1839. Buckwheat, barley, and pulse are not so specially attended to. The yield of flaxseed is only middling,
* Some efforts have been made to introduce the culture of cotton, but their continuance will probably be found a waste of time.
+ A company has been formed, and a year or two since preparations were made to commence operations in making sugar from the beet, as the land is very favorable in many places for its culture, and particularly along some of the shores of the Chesapeake Bay; but recently the enterprise appears to have been suspended. It may possible be resumed next year. Small parcels of maple sugar are made in Allegany county, say 30 to 40,000 pounds annually, but not probably as an article of merchandise.
compared with that of other grains. Potatoes are of excellent favor, and the crops fair, but not sufficiently large to supply the consumptive demand. Small parcels of the sweet are to be met with in the Baltimore market, brought chiefly from the southern or eastern shore counties. Hay is the growth of the western shore counties, and consists chiefly of timothy, with some clover; but the quantity made never exceeds the home demand. The same counties are better adapted to the growth of fruit—apples and peaches in particular; some of which are very fine and most deliciously flavored. Melons, in their greatest varieties, are grown in all the counties. Tobacco, one of the principal staples of export of the United States, is cultivated in eleven counties of the twenty of this state; but mostly in Prince George's, Calvert, Charles, St. Mary's, Anne Arundel
, and Montgomery-in the first-named county over 9,000,000 pounds in 1839; and in the latter five, over 12,000,000. Each county is more or less favor. able for raising good stocks of horses, mules, neat cattle, sheep, and swine. Of any of the other counties, that of Frederick excels; the returns by the marshals amounting to 11,259 horses and mules, 24,933 cattle, 26,309 sheep, and 54,049 swine. [Here it may not be out of place to remark, that the bacon cured in this county will generally command from one quarter to one half cent per pound more in the Baltimore market, than the same description of any other western.] All the counties contribute proportionably the yield of wool, which is not large; the stock of the state not exceeding 500,000 pounds per annum : of this quantity, however, as well as of butter and cheese, Frederick is the largest contributor, that of wool amounting to 59,000 pounds. All the counties are well wooded and timbered, with descriptions peculiar to the middle states. Of the most conspicuous for fuel, are the various species of oak, hickory, beech, and dogwood—the first selling usually in the Baltimore market, in all seasons, from $4 to $5 50 per cord; and the three latter at $5 to $7. Pine abounds plentifully; but the white and pitch, the first well known in the eastern states, and the latter in North Carolina, are not among the species here. In the western parts of this state terminates, except a small portion of the Allegany mountains in Virginia, the boundary on the south of the growth of the hemlock tree, so common in the New England states, where its bark is use for tanning. There is no better oak timber for shipbuild. ing, aside from the live-oak, than this state produces; and much of it is easy of access. The celebrated dam across the Kennebec river at Au. gusta, in Maine, was built of oak timber cut from lands in Baltimore county, near to one of the tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay, through which a canal to connect Havre-de-Grace, the head of tide water in the bay, is now much needed, and to obtain a charter for which efforts are at this time making, or were at the last session of the legislature. Cedar and locust are likewise abundant in some portions of the lower counties; where they are purchased, and with the oak taken to the eastern states, and used freely in shipbuilding. Considerable parcels of cedar and locust are also shipped to different points to aid in the construction of railroads. The shores of the Chesapeake Bay are well indented with navigable streams, extending back, some of them, to a considerable distance, insomuch that great facilities for coastwise navigation are afforded ; in this manner much wood, lumber, bark, grain, live-stock, &c., the growth of the state, are taken to other markets, of which not a correct estimate can be formed, and therefore none will be hazarded.
The coal region is at present one of the unproductive portions of the state, and the most prominent adverted to about the commencement of this communication. It lies principally in Allegany county, and is mostly of the bituminous description. The expense already incurred in providing means for bringing it to market, by opening a canal from the Potomac river, at Georgetown, in the District of Columbia, denominated the Chesepeake and Ohio canal, having exceeded the estimates of engineers previously employed in the service; and a yet further heavy expense to com. plete it to the coal beds being ascertained to be necessary, before a profit can be realized, have placed the prospects of the party prosecuting very far in the background; at such a distance that, under existing circum. stances, it is quite uncertain when this work of internal improvement will be completed. The distance yet to be opened is about fifty miles; and unfortunately, being the western terminus, the site is more than ordinarily broken, rocky, and even mountainous. That which is denominated the Frostburg Coal Basin, is particularly noticed by Prof. Ducatel, the state geologist, and his remarks in reference thereto will show in part the char. acter of the region to which it is intended the canal shall extend. This basin is forty miles in length, and five miles in width, and contains 86,847 acres ; which, at 4,840 square yards to the acre, and fifteen yards in depth, as it is known the bed of coal is, gives 6,305,137,287 cubic yards: and as one ton of coal occupies by estimation one cubic yard, there is in the basin named the number of tons of coal as expressed by the aforesaid figures! By a similar process, the quantity of iron ore ascertained to be imbedded in what is termed the Lonaconing section, in the same county, amounts to 3,237,576,144 tons; enough to yield, as demonstrated by ac tual practice, 1,079,191,714 tons of crude iron.* Notwithstanding the dis tant prospect, in reference to time, of making this portion of Maryland productive, or in other words, converting the minerals of it into merchandise, there are twelve incorporated companies already within its limits, with a chartered capital of $6,700,000,+ ready to make a demonstration, whenever an opportunity shall present, either by the canal before mentioned, or by the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, which will have reached within about ten miles of the nearest coal bed in the course of next year, 1842. One of the prominent companies, which has already performed much in exploring, testing, analyzing, &c., the different minerals, is the Maryland and New York Iron and Coal Company, whose capital is ade. quate to the enterprise in which the company is engaged. And another, the George's Creek Coal and Iron Company, have carried their plans so far into operation, for the purpose of testing the qualities of the material, expense of operating, &c., that they have erected a furnace and foundry; the former 50 feet high, with boshes of 4 feet; and when in blast, the consumption of coal was 1,200 tons per month. The campaign was nearly of four months' duration, during which 900 tons of iron were made; the highest yield per week being 92 tons. The lump coal at the opening of the drift cost 50 cents per ton, and the iron ore $2 50 per ton.
In other counties, which include Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Cecil, Fred. erick, Harford, and Washington, there are furnaces, foundries, rolling. mills, &c., established, at which some of the best and heaviest work in the United States has been executed. Two shafts for the Russian steamer
* Ducatel, Geolog. Report, 1840.