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were now entirely unavailing, and resistance was useless. The soldiers were either cut down or taken prisoners; only about forty men had the good fortune to escape death or imprisonment. Montaussier was resolved to die sword in hand, rather than fall into the hands of the enemy, from whom he could expect no mercy. He had already received two wounds, and could hardly hold himself upon his horse, but he refused all offers of quarter, and fought on until his horse was killed under him, when he fell to the ground and was taken prisoner.
He was brought back with the rest of the prisoners to Lyons, and put in prison, where his fate was soon decided. He was one of the leaders who, in the first few days after the taking of Lyons, were condemned to death. This early execution was a blessing to him, for it spared him the sight of the sufferings which his unhappy townsmen endured afterward, and which he would have felt so deeply. He heard his sentence with composure, like a man who knew his fate before, and did not dread it.
On the 10th of November he was led out on the wall to be shot. He found there one of his friends, who, less accustomed than he to the contemplation of death, showed great fear of it. Montaussier by his conversation inspired him with such confidence that he met his end courageously. Montaussier's turn came next; his last words were a prayer for his native land. He kneeled down, with his eyes unbandaged, and fell without a sound at the first shot.
Thus perished a man, estimable alike as a merchant, a father, a hus. band, and a citizen. By his own exertions he raised himself from very embarrassed circumstances to the highest degree of worldly prosperity and felicity. He fell unexpectedly from this high eminence, but no misfortunes could deprive him of that greatness of mind which raised him above all the trials of life.
Art. IV.-COMMERCIAL DOCKS.
INCREASE OF COMMERCE OF NEW YORK-ATLANTIC DOCK-DOCKS ON THE
THAMES-LIVERPOOL DOCKS-BUTE DOCK-HUMBER AND HULL DOCKS BASINS AT HAVRE, MARSEILLES, ANTWERP, AND ALBANY.
From the period of uniting the waters of the Atlantic with those of Lake Erie, there has been an increase of population, wealth, trade, and commerce in the city of New York, that has been rapid beyond all prece. dent. Possessing, as she does, all the prerogatives that the most sagacious minds and the most intelligent judges can invent or desire, this “queen of cities” is, and will continue to be, the great commercial mart of an almost unlimited territory, intersected by navigable rivers and extensive lakes, the shores of which are bordered with a soil prolific in all the resources of ag. ricultural wealth, as well as in the products of the forests, the mine, and the chase. Her fame is borne in proud, but peaceful triumph, on the wave of every sea, to the bosom of every harbor; and her mercantile navy spreads a cheering welcome to every wind that blows. Her future greatness is marked out by numerous canals, railroads, and other channels of intercourse, to be continued, enlarged, or improved, which are to pour
upon her citizens the rich freights of the north, the east, the south, and the “ far-famed west,” as well as the luxuries of foreign climes, and thereby add to her increase and consequent wealth.
Upon these premises then, let us look about us and see if we are prepared to meet the exigences that this important subject demands.
It will be perceived by referring to a subsequent table, that the increase of population in the city of New York for the last twenty years, is 1523% per cent, and that of the city of Brooklyn, which in the main is indebted for her growth to the increase of New York, is 384,73 per cent. And the present prospect, so far from indicating any diminution in the respective ratios of increase of these two cities, affords the almost certain assu. rance that the period is not very far distant when their joint population will equal or exceed half a million. The amount of tonnage of the vessels entering and departing from New York, has, of course, increased, and will continue to increase, in proportion to the increase of her inland trade. Although her present number of arrivals does not much exceed that of 1810, yet her amount of tonnage has increased more than 150 per cent since 1820—a remarkable coincidence of being of very nearly of the same ratio as her increase of population.* The amount of merchandise annually loaded and unloaded, within these last few years, is estimated at $100,000,000 to $120,000,000. Her tonnage is greater than that of any other city in the world, with the single exception of London, and constitutes more than one sixth of that of all the Uoited States put together! The number of vessels in port in the busy season has been estimated at more than 800, exclusively of a great number of steamboats and smaller craft, the bulk of which usually lies between the Battery and Corlaer's Hook, on East river, and as high up as Canal-street, on North river. These portions of the port, at particular seasons, are often in so crowded a condition, that many vessels necessarily have to anchor off in the stream, and there discharge their freights with lighters or barges, or to wait for a week or ten days be. fore they can secure a proper berth for uploading, and then, oftentimes, the best they can obtain is an outside one, which obliges them to discharge their cargoes over the decks of two or more other vessels. The con. signee of the goods is unable to obtain them, and thereby disappoints his customers, and even frequently loses their sale in consequence of such delay. It is, moreover, a matter so well understood, that an allusion to it hardly seems necessary, that the increase and general use of steamboats, towboats, &c., in various forms, have created a demand for a species of dock room, and a kind of exclusive usc thereof, which could not have been anticipated a few years ago. The increase of stearn navigation has been so great that it has been driven, each year, more and more remote from the centre of business to obtain suitable accommodation, and the arrival of the European steamers which have awakened so lively an interest throughout the community these last three years, cannot fail to suggest that more ample provision will soon be required for this class of vessels. They cannot consistently intermingle with the other shipping at the crowded docks of this port on account of the immense space they occupy, their difficulty of access, and numerous other objections. The piers and
* See “Statistics of Population” in the Merchants' Magazine for the present month. See also“ Commercial Statistics,” page 283.-Ed. Mag.
wharves, during the busy season, are heaped in confusion with produce and merchandise, and the delays and other inconveniences caused by the want of proper accommodation, are often the most harassing, as well as expen. sive to the parties concerned. Circumscribed and limited, then, as the commercial district of New York is, and must continue to be, unless some favorable expedient offer itself, where shall the future increase of shipping that must eventually come to this port, find accommodation ? Where shall we find room for the growing trade of the interior, when our enlarged canal and other great thoroughfares of intercommunication, now in progress,
into the Hudson, and thence to our piers and slips, myriads of "craft" from a “thousand ports,” laden with rich cargoes to be stored, transhipped, or consumed, without incurring expenses for cart. age, warehousing, &c., too heavy to be endured? Can New York ex. tend the limits of her water front, without reaching beyond “ that conveni. ent proximity to the business centre,” which the lower part of the city affords, and which is likely forever to remain where several generations have fixed it? “Nature and common consent have alike determined the point, and it cannot be removed.”
In order to surmount the foregoing difficulties, we think there has been no expedient proposed, if properly carried out, that will be more likely to succeed, and will better answer the desired end, than the ATLANTIC BAsiy, the construction of which has lately been commenced in New York. This noble work has been undertaken by the “ Atlantic Dock Company,” a body corporate by an act of the legislature of the state of New York, pass. ed May 6th, 1840; with a capital of $1,000,000, and with a right to commence the operations of the company when $100,000 are subscribed and paid in, which requisition has been complied with. The shares are $100 each—are deemed personal property, and are transferable on the books of the company, or by an authorized attorney. Each shareholder is entitled to one vote at any election for directors, for every share of stock so held.
The object of the company is to construct piers and bulkheads, forming a basin to embrace a water surface of about 42 acres, to be surrounded by rows of spacious warehouses, to which any class of vessels, from the large ship of war down to the Erie canal boat, can come and discharge or receive freight, and where they can enter at any stage of the tide, and re. main in perfect safety, in all kinds of weather, in every season of the year.
The work is located between Governor's Island and the Long Island shore, as shown on the annexed diagram, and is situated about one and a half miles from the Merchants’ Exchange, in Wall-street. The location has been selected after thorough and careful soundings, and an examina. tion of the ground under water, which was found easy for excavation, and free from rock; and also after considering its relative position and advantages to all the locations in and about this port. The shores of New York, Brooklyn, and Jersey city, have all been examined by experienced and scientific gentlemen, and the result is, that the present location possesses many superior advantages over any other ; being easy of access, and a short distance from the centre of business in New York. The dis. tance of this location from the centre of business, and being on the opposite side of the river, cannot be deemed an objection, as it is not without precedent in other similar works. The “ West India Docks," situated at Blackwall, on the river Thames, are about 31 miles from the London ExVOL. V.-NO. III.
change, or the centre of the main business of London. The “Commer. cial Docks,” constituting the largest basins of London, are situated on the south side of the Thames, while the bulk of business is transacted on the northerly side, where are also the Bank of England, Exchange, &c. The ordinary tides of the Thames are about twenty feet, which renders the crossing at all hours difficult. In our harbor the ordinary tides are only about five feet, and there are no impediments to crossing the East river at all hours, with a safety, certainty, and despatch, unequalled by any other mode of travelling the same distance. The expense also is trifling, and this will rapidly decrease under the present ferry regulations.
The whole work is under contract, and one half of the piers and bulkheads will be ready for the erection of warehouses, and one half of the ba. sin will be ready for use on the 1st of May, 1842. The land and water right designed for this object, embraces about 80 acres. The piers are to be constructed 150 feet wide, forming the front of the basin on the stream, divided by an entrance 200 feet wide. The depth of water in a portion of the basin at low tide is to be 25 feet, and on the outside of the pier as well as in the basin, the depth will be sufficient to moor the largest class of steamships or merchant vessels.
The utility and necessity of the proposed improvements, must be evident from the following considerations :
First. That the main business of New York is now, and in all probability will, for centuries to come, be transacted in and near Wall-street, where are situated the Customhouse, Exchange, Banks, Insurance offices, &c.
Second. That all the docks in New York, from the Battery to Corlaer's Hook, on East river, and as high up as Canal-street, on North river, are now full and crowded, and cannot afford additional accommodation.
Third. That the shipping interest of this port will prefer to go into the docks at Brooklyn, or the Atlantic Basin, rather than go up either river on the New York side further than the points above mentioned—especially when better accommodation can be had elsewhere.
Fourth. The benefit to vessels to be safely moored and protected against heavy gales of wind, tides, and currents, which annually do more or less damage to the shipping in harbors that are not land-locked and surrounded by high grounds or buildings.
Fifth. That vessels in a basin, with proper police regulations, are less liable to fire, robbery, and other depredations ;* and experience has shown that they are better preserved, especially in their rigging and cables, being better sheltered than those inoored at the wharves or in the stream.
Sixth. The erection of a contemplated Floating Dry Dock within the basin, will enable government as well as the shipowner to raise vessels out of the water more economically, expeditiously, and with less risk than by the usual method.
Seventh. From the use of this establishment in warehousing produce or merchandise, commerce will derive incalculable advantages by the despatch in loading and unloading goods, with a great reduction of expenses.
The facility for warehousing heavy goods on the piers and around the
* Previously to the construction of the wet docks on the Thames, the property annu. ally pillaged from ships, was estimated to amount to £500,000 a year.