The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards, Volume 2
Atomic frequency standards are very stable and accurate frequency sources. They are now used, for example, in high-speed communication, in navigation systems and in time-keeping. This study, which examines present knowledge regarding the operation of such devices, is designed to be used by the newcomer to the field as well as by the experienced researcher.
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The Hydrogen Maser
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The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards: Recent Developments
Jacques Vanier,Cipriana Tomescu
No preview available - 2015
according amplitude angular frequency Appendix applied approximation assumed atoms beam tube becomes bulb caesium beam calculated cell close component condition Consequently considered constant defined depends derived described detected detector difference distribution effect equal error signal et al factor figure filter fluctuations flux fractional frequency modulation frequency shift frequency stability frequency standards function given by equation gives hydrogen atoms hydrogen maser hyperfine interaction interaction regions interrogation light loop magnetic field magnetic induction means measurement method microwave cavity microwave field modulation noise obtained occurs operated optical oscillation output passive phase phase modulation population difference possible present probability properties pumping quality factor quantity Ramsey reference relaxation represents resonance resonant frequency respectively response shown shown in figure shows spin-exchange square wave storage synchronous detection temperature term tion transition tuned variation wall width