The Hundred Languages of Children: The Reggio Emilia Approach--advanced Reflections

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Carolyn P. Edwards, Lella Gandini, George E. Forman
Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998 - Education - 488 pages
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The city-run early childhood program of Reggio Emilia, Italy, has become recognized and acclaimed as one of the best systems of education in the world. Over the past forty years, educators there have evolved a distinctive innovative approach that supports children's well-being and fosters their intellectual development through a systematic focus on symbolic representation. Young children (from birth to age six) are encouraged to explore their environment and express themselves through many languages, or modes of expression, including words, movement, drawing, painting, sculpture, shadow play, collage, and music. Leading children to surprising levels of symbolic skill and creativity, the system is not private and elite but rather involves full-day child care open to all, including children with disabilities.

This new Second Edition reflects the growing interest and deepening reflection upon the Reggio approach, as well as increasing sophistication in adaptation to the American context. Included are many entirely new chapters and an updated list of resources, along with original chapters revised and extended. The book represents a dialogue between Italian educators who founded and developed the system and North Americans who have considered its implications for their own settings and issues. The book is a comprehensive introduction covering history and philosophy, the parent perspective, curriculum and methods of teaching, school and system organization, the use of space and physical environments, and adult professional roles including special education. The final section describes implications for American policy and professional development and adaptations in United States primary, preschool, and child care classrooms.

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Page 135 - A culture is constantly in process of being recreated as it is interpreted and renegotiated by its members. In this view, a culture is as much a forum for negotiating and renegotiating meaning and for explicating action as it is a set of rules or specifications for action.
Page 5 - A hundred always a hundred ways of listening of marvelling, of loving a hundred joys for singing and understanding a hundred worlds to discover a hundred worlds to invent a hundred worlds to dream. The child has a hundred languages (and a hundred hundred hundred more) but they steal ninety-nine. The school and the culture separate the head from...
Page 5 - The school and the culture separate the head from the body. They tell the child: to think without hands to do without head to listen and not to speak to understand without joy to love and to marvel only at Easter and Christmas. They tell the child: to discover the world already there and of the hundred they steal ninety-nine. They tell the child: that work and play reality and fantasy science and imagination sky and earth reason and dream are things that do not belong together and thus they tell...
Page 283 - Ferrara, R. (1985). Diagnosing zones of proximal development. In JV Wertsch (Ed.), Culture, communication, and cognition: Vygotskian perspectives (pp. 273-305). New York: Cambridge University Press. Brown, AL, & French, LA (1979).
Page 171 - An environment is a living, changing system. More than the physical space, it includes the way time is structured and the roles we are expected to play. It conditions how we feel, think, and behave; and it dramatically affects the quality of our lives.
Page 78 - ... 2. Creativity seems to emerge from multiple experiences, coupled with a well-supported development of personal resources, including a sense of freedom to venture beyond the known. 3. Creativity seems to express itself through cognitive, affective, and imaginative processes. These come together and support the skills for predicting and arriving at unexpected solutions.
Page 309 - Communities, in the sense in which we are using the term, have a history — in an important sense they are constituted by their past — and for this reason we can speak of a real community as a "community of memory," one that does not forget its past.
Page 85 - Learning and teaching should not stand on opposite banks and just watch the river flow by; instead, they should embark together on a journey down the water. Through an active, reciprocal exchange, teaching can strengthen learning how to learn.
Page 286 - Rogoff, B., Radziszewska, B., & Masiello, T. (1995). Analysis of developmental processes in sociocultural activity. In L. Martin, K. Nelson, & E. Tobach (Eds.), Cultural psychology and activity theory (pp.

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About the author (1998)

CAROLYN EDWARDS is Professor of Psychology and Family and Consumer Sciences at the University of Nebraska./e

LELLA GANDINI is United States Liaison for the Reggio Emilia Program in the United States and Adjunct Professor at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst./e

GEORGE FORMAN is Professor of Education at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst./e

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