Source Book in Astronomy, 1900-1950

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Harvard University Press, 1960 - Science - 423 pages
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The phenomenal growth of modern astronomy, including the invention of the coronagraph and major developments in telescope design and photographic technique, is unparalleled in many centuries. Theories of relativity, the concept and measurement of the expanding universe, the location of sun and planets far from the center of the Milky Way, the exploration of the interiors of stars, the pulsation theory of Cepheid variation, and investigations of interstellar space have profoundly altered the astronomer's approach.

These fundamental discoveries are reported in papers by such eminent scientists as Albert Einstein, Sir Arthur S. Eddington, Henry Norris Russell, Sir James Jeans, Meghnad Saha, Otto Struve, Fred L. Whipple, Bernard Lyot, Jan H. Oort, and George Ellery Hale. The Source Book's 69 contributions represent all fields of astronomy. For example, there are reports on the equivalence of mass and energy (E = mc2) of the special theory of relativity; building the 200-inch Palomar telescope; the scattering of galaxies suggesting a rapidly expanding universe; stellar evolution; and the Big Bang and Steady State theories of the universe's origin.

 

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Contents

INSTRUMENTATION
1
THE SUN
31
van de Hulst Prediction of 21cm Interstellar Ra dio Signals 289
48
Hiltner and Hall The Polarization of Star Light
49
THE PLANETARY SYSTEM
53
THE POSITIONS AND MOTIONS OF THE STARS
103
Wilson A Great Catalogue of Stellar Positions and Proper Motions
124
Ambartsumian Expanding Stellar Associations
130
Baade Types of Star Population
269
INTERSTELLAR PHENOMENA
281
Hartmann The Discovery of Interstellar Calcium
283
Bok Wolfs Method of Measuring Dark Nebulae
285
Interstellar Particles
293
STELLAR EVOLUTION
299
Bok Concerning Protostars
300
Spitzer The Formation of Stars
307

Wright The Galaxies as Anchors for Stellar Proper Motions
140
THE SPECTRA OF STARS AND NEBULAE
147
Cannon Pioneering in the Classification of Stellar Spectra
149
Adams and Kohlschiitter Spectral Peculiarities Re lated to Stellar Luminosity
159
Adams Spectroscopic Parallaxes
162
Bowen Solution of the Mystery of Nebulium
165
Morgan Keenan and Kellman The TwoDimen sional Classification of Stellar Spectra
168
Luyten White Dwarfs and Degeneracy
173
Merrill Iron in the Stars
179
VARIABLE STARS
185
Leavitt Discovery of the PeriodMagnitude Rela tion
186
Shapley The Pulsation Hypothesis
190
Joy Radial Velocities of Cepheid Variable Stars
198
Stebbins SixColor Light Curves of Delta Cephei and Polaris
205
Kopal Some Unsolved Problems in the Theory of Eclipsing Binaries
208
STELLAR STRUCTURE
211
Michelson and Pease The Diameter of Betelgeux
213
Eddington The Interior of a Star
215
Kuiper The Empirical MassLuminosity Relation
230
Russell Stellar Energy and Bethes Carbon Cycle
233
Chandrasekhar TurbulenceIntroduction to a Physical Theory of Astronomical Interest
243
SPECTRUMLUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIPS
247
Hertzsprung Giants and Dwarfs
248
Russell The SpectrumLuminosity Diagram
253
Trumpler Spectral Types in Open Clusters
263
GALAXIES
317
Shapley From Heliocentric to Galactocentric
319
Oort Confirming Lindblads Hypothesis of the Ro tation of the Galaxy
325
Hubble A Relation between Distance and Radial Velocity among Extragalactic Nebulae
330
Hubble and humason The VelocityDistance Re lation among Extragalactic Nebulae
335
Humason The Large Apparent Velocities of Extra galactic Nebulae
337
RELATIVITY AND COSMOGONY
341
Jeans On the Transformation of Matter into Energy
342
Einstein The E Me2 Equation
344
Poincare Cosmogonical Hypotheses
347
Campbell and Trumpler Testing the Theory of Relativity
351
Eddington The End of the World
356
Lemaitre The Beginning of the World
363
de Sitter From Newton to Einstein
365
Einstein Remarks on the General Theory of Rela tivity
372
Lemaltre The Primeval Atom
374
Bondi and Gold The Perfect Cosmological Principle
382
SURVEYS OF ASTROPHYSICAL PROGRESS
387
Rosseland Introduction to Theoretical Astrophysics
388
Wildt The Chemistry of the Cosmos
394
Struve Fifty Years of Progress in Astrophysics
402
APPENDIX Identification and Sources
411
Index of Names
419
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About the author (1960)

Born on a Missouri farm, Harlow Shapley became interested in astronomy by accident. As told by Shapley, he went to the University of Missouri expecting to enroll in the journalism school. However, the school of journalism was not scheduled to open until the following year, so he decided to study astronomy. Shapley earned his Ph.D. from Princeton University and then moved to the Mt. Wilson Observatory. There he did his most celebrated work, such as demonstrating experimentally for the first time that earth is not at the center of the Milky Way galaxy but on the outskirts---once again illustrating that earth does not occupy a central location in the cosmos. Consequently, many of his colleagues and fellow astronomers began referring to Shapley as the "modern Copernicus." In 1921 he became director of the Harvard College Observatory, transforming the observatory into a world-famous institution during his 30-year tenure. Shapley also continued his research program, which included the discovery of the first small galaxies, called the Sculptor and Fornax dwarf galaxies after the constellations in whose direction they are oriented. He was also a well-known writer, lecturer, and public scientist, playing a major role in founding UNESCO.

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