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The Costs of Providing and Using Roads
The Best Level of Congested Trafﬁc
3 other sections not shown
advantage allocating amount beneﬁts obtainable Britain buses calculations car space car users cent city centres congested roads congestion charges congestion costs congestion taxes costs arising costs imposed costs of providing costs resulting demand for parking difﬁculty economic efﬁcient electricity example ﬁgures ﬁnd ﬁrms ﬁrst place ﬁve ﬁxed ﬂexible ﬂows fuel tax funds Greater London increase investment journeys justiﬁed licence losses miles per hour motor motorists number of parking off-street car parks owners Oxford Street parked cars parkers parking charges parking meters parking restrictions passengers payment possible prepared to pay pricing points pricing system pricing zone private car problem proﬁtable proﬁts provide parking space public transport raise rational reason reduce reﬂect rent revenues road pricing road space road system road use costs road users roads authority self-ﬁnancing street parking space subsidized tion traffic trafﬁc congestion trafﬁc speeds Traﬁic vehicle users vehicle-mile vehicle-mileage Victoria Line