Labeling People: French Scholars on Society, Race, and Empire, 18151848

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McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP, Aug 20, 2003 - Biography & Autobiography - 245 pages
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Nineteenth-century French scholars, during a turbulent era of revolution and industrialization, ranked intelligence and character according to facial profile, skin colour, and head shape. They believed that such indicators could determine whether individuals were educable and peoples perfectible. In Labeling People Martin Staum examines the Paris societies of phrenology (reading intelligence and character by head shapes), geography, and ethnology and their techniques for classifying people. He shows how the work of these social scientists gave credence to the arrangement of "races" in a hierarchy, the domination of non-European peoples, and the limitation of opportunities for ill-favored individuals within France.
 

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Contents

III
3
IV
23
V
49
VI
85
VII
122
VIII
158
IX
191
X
193
XI
195
XII
202
XIII
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XIV
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About the author (2003)

Martin S. Staum is professor of history at the University of Calgary.

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