## Introduction to Population EcologyIntroduction to Population Ecology is an accessible and up-to-date textbook covering all aspects of population ecology.
- Discusses field and laboratory data to illustrate the fundamental laws of population ecology.
- Provides an overview of how population theory has developed.
- Explores single-species population growth and self-limitation; metapopulations; and a broad range of interspecific interactions including parasite-host, predator-prey, and plant-herbivore.
- Keeps the mathematics as simple as possible, using a careful step-by-step approach and including graphs and other visual aids to help understanding.
Artwork from the book is available to instructors online at www.blackwellpublishing.com/rockwood and by request on CD-ROM. |

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### Contents

Part I Singlespecies populations | 1 |

1 Densityindependent growth | 5 |

12 Fundamentals of population growth | 7 |

13 Types of models | 10 |

14 Densityindependent versus densitydependent growth | 12 |

16 Exponential growth in populations with overlapping generations | 15 |

17 Exponential growth in an invasive species | 19 |

18 Applications to human populations | 20 |

66 Cost of reproduction and allocation of energy | 147 |

67 Clutch size | 148 |

68 Latitudinal gradients in clutch size | 149 |

69 Predation and its effects on lifehistory characteristics | 150 |

610 Bet hedging | 151 |

612 Conclusions | 153 |

Part II Interspeci c interactions | 155 |

7 Interspeci c competition | 159 |

19 The nite rate of increase l and the intrinsic rate of increase r | 23 |

110 Stochastic models of population growth and population viability analysis | 24 |

111 Conclusions | 32 |

2 Densitydependent growth and intraspeci c competition | 33 |

22 Density dependence in populations with discrete generations | 36 |

23 Density dependence in populations with overlapping generations | 42 |

24 Nonlinear density dependence of birth and death rates and the Allee effect | 47 |

25 Time lags and limit cycles | 52 |

26 Chaos and behavior of the discrete logistic model | 54 |

27 Adding stochasticity to densitydependent models | 56 |

28 Laboratory and eld data | 58 |

29 Behavioral aspects of intraspeci c competition | 60 |

210 Conclusions | 65 |

3 Population regulation | 66 |

32 What is population regulation? | 67 |

33 Combining densitydependent and densityindependent factors | 68 |

34 Tests of density dependence | 69 |

35 Conclusions | 76 |

4 Populations with age structures | 77 |

42 Survivorship | 79 |

43 Fertility | 86 |

44 Mortality curves | 88 |

45 Expectation of life | 89 |

46 Net reproductive rategeneration timeand the intrinsic rate of increase | 91 |

47 Age structure and the stable age distribution | 93 |

48 Projecting population growth in agestructured populations | 94 |

49 The Leslie or population projection matrix | 96 |

410 A second version of the Leslie matrix | 97 |

411 The Lefkovitch modi cation of the Leslie matrix | 99 |

412 Dominant latent roots and the characteristic equation | 100 |

413 Reproductive value | 102 |

sensitivity analysis | 105 |

5 Metapopulation ecology | 108 |

52 Metapopulations and spatial ecology | 109 |

53 MacArthur and Wilson and the equilibrium theory | 112 |

54 The Levins or classical metapopulation | 115 |

55 Extinction in metapopulations | 118 |

57 Source sink metapopulations and the rescue effect | 120 |

58 Nonequilibrium and patchy metapopulations | 121 |

510 Minimum viable metapopulation size | 126 |

511 Assumptions and evidence for the existence of metapopulations in nature | 127 |

512 Conclusions | 130 |

6 Lifehistory strategies | 131 |

62 Power laws | 136 |

63 The metabolic theory of ecology | 139 |

64 Cole and Lewontin | 140 |

65 The theory of r and K selection | 145 |

early experiments and the competitive exclusion principle | 160 |

73 The Lotka Volterra competition equations | 162 |

74 Laboratory experiments and competition | 168 |

75 Resourcebased competition theory | 170 |

76 Spatial competition and the competition colonization tradeoff | 176 |

77 Evidence for competition from nature | 179 |

78 Indirect evidence for competition and natural experiments | 181 |

79 Conclusions | 187 |

8 Mutualism | 188 |

82 Modeling mutualism | 191 |

the costs of mutualism | 192 |

9 Host parasite interactions | 194 |

92 Factors affecting microparasite population biology | 196 |

93 Modeling host microparasite interactions | 197 |

94 Dynamics of the disease | 198 |

95 Immunization | 201 |

96 Endangered metapopulations and disease | 203 |

97 Social parasites | 205 |

98 Conclusions | 206 |

10 Predator prey interactions | 207 |

102 The Lotka Volterra equations | 216 |

103 Early tests of the Lotka Volterra models | 218 |

104 Functional responses | 220 |

105 Adding prey density dependence and the type II and III functional responses to the Lotka Volterra equations | 224 |

106 The graphical analyses of Rosenzweig and MacArthur | 227 |

107 Use of a halfsaturation constant in predator prey interactions | 231 |

108 Parasitoid host interactions and the Nicholson Bailey models | 232 |

eld studies | 236 |

1010 Trophic cascades | 246 |

1012 Escape from predation | 247 |

1013 Conclusions | 251 |

11 Plant herbivore interactions | 252 |

112 Classes of chemical defenses | 254 |

113 Constitutive versus induced defense | 259 |

114 Plant communication | 261 |

116 A classic set of data reconsidered | 262 |

118 Detoxi cation of plant compounds by herbivores | 263 |

119 Plant apparency and chemical defense | 264 |

1110 Soil fertility and chemical defense | 265 |

1112 Modeling plant herbivore population dynamics | 266 |

the complexities of herbivore plant interactions | 272 |

Appendix 1 Problem sets | 277 |

the basics | 281 |

Mathematical symbols used in this book | 287 |

294 | |

315 | |

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### Common terms and phrases

adult age class alkaloids Allee effect animals average behavior birds capita growth carrying capacity Chapter coexistence column competitors compounds constant curve cycle death rate density-dependent dependence disease dN/dt ecologists ecosystem effect eggs environment equilibrium example exponential feeding female fertility Figure functional response growth rate habitat patches Hanski herbivores host infected intraspecific competition intrinsic rate island isocline iteroparity K-selection larvae limit linear logistic equation Lotka MacArthur and Wilson males matrix metapopulation mortality rate mutualism mutualistic nest niche Nt+1 number of individuals number of species oscillations Paramecium parameter parasites parasitoid phenolic plant population density population ecology population growth predator predator population predator–prey interactions predicted prey population prey species produce r-value rate of increase relationship resource result semelparous slope snowshoe hare spatial stable age distribution stable point stochastic studies survival survivorship survivorship curve Table theory tion Turchin versus zero