The preponderance of research regards entrepreneurial entry as a dichotomous choice between paid employment and entrepreneurship. Most classic models on the emergence of entrepreneurship either neglect or exclude the opportunity of engaging in both occupations at the same time. This view stands in contrast to increasing evidence that the majority of firm entry around the world occurs by individuals who simultaneously engage in paid employment and self-employment, an entry mode which has been termed hybrid entrepreneurship. 58% of all start-ups in Sweden have been found to be started in hybrid entrepreneurship and even in R&D-pursuing start-ups in Germany, this type of business entry represents 27% of all entrants. Next to this high prevalence of hybrid entrepreneurs among entrepreneurs, there are at least three reasons why these hybrid entrepreneurs should receive more attention. First, as hybrid entrepreneurs are often better educated than pure entrepreneurs, their business ideas might be expected to result in more high-growth ventures. Second, businesses run in pure entrepreneurship survive longer on average if they have been founded in hybrid entrepreneurship. Third, regardless of whether or not hybrid entrepreneurs generate greater economic impact than pure entrepreneurs, their relevance also emerges from their potential to evolve into valuable full-time businesses that otherwise would not have existed. This thesis therefore aims to advance research on hybrid entrepreneurship by revealing its importance for policymaking and entrepreneurship research, the various areas of research touched by it, and its role in entrepreneurial exit processes.
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Overall summary and conclusion
business exit business idea business outcomes capital investment Ceteris paribus Chapter clustered standard errors compared to pure Constant not reported Current Hybrid datasets determinants of hybrid earnings East Germany effects Yes Yes emergence of hybrid employees entrepreneurship research errors in parentheses Exact Matching exit their business financial distress Firm age firm entry deregulation Firm-level clustered standard Fixed effects Yes Folta et al former hybrid entrepreneurs full-time entrepreneurs full-time entrepreneurship Furthermore future research German citizen GSOEP higher highlight hybrid and pure hybrid entrants hybrid entrepre hybrid entrepreneurship hybrid entry individuals Industry experience Industry Fixed effects job holders Leading Position linear regressions literature streams logistic regression Lohmar main job multinomial logit multiple job holding neurship non-pecuniary benefits paid employment Paxson and Sicherman preneurship pure entrepreneurs Raffiee and Feng real options research on hybrid second job self-employed self-employment Significance levels sunk costs Table reports coefficients thesis University degree Yes Year Fixed