Guano and the Opening of the Pacific World: A Global Ecological History
For centuries, bird guano has played a pivotal role in the agricultural and economic development of Latin America, East Asia, and Oceania. As their populations ballooned during the Industrial Revolution, North American and European powers came to depend on this unique resource as well, helping them meet their ever-increasing farming needs. This book explores how the production and commodification of guano has shaped the modern Pacific Basin and the world's relationship to the region. Marrying traditional methods of historical analysis with a broad interdisciplinary approach, Gregory T. Cushman casts this once little-known commodity as an engine of Western industrialization, offering new insight into uniquely modern developments such as environmental consciousness and conservation movements; the ascendance of science, technology, and expertise; international relations; and world war.
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The Guano Age
Where Is Banaba?
Conservation and the Technocratic Ideal 1 3 6
The Most Valuable Birds in the World 1 67
When the Japanese Came to Dinner
The Road to Survival
Guano and the Blue Revolution
Select Bibliography 3 5 1
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agricultural Aldo Leopold American anchoveta Arundel Australia Avila BCAG beneﬁt Blue Revolution British CAG’s Callao Central Paciﬁc century Chile Christmas Island coast coastal coconut colonial conﬂict conservation cotton country’s crops Cushman drought earth Easter Island ecological Ellis environment environmental excrement export farmers fertilizer ﬁelds ﬁg ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁsh ﬁshery ﬁshing industry ﬁshmeal ﬂood frigatebirds Gilbert Islands global growth guanays guano age guano industry guano islands History human Humboldt imperialism indigenous inﬂuence Japan Japanese Kiritimati land Latin America Leopold Lima living Malthusian manure marine Maude MCAG Mexico million modern natural Nauru Niﬁo nitrate nitrogen Niue Ocean ofﬁcials Paciﬁc Paciﬁc Islanders Paciﬁc World Peru Peru’s guano birds Peruvian guano Pesca Phoenix Islands phosphate plant political population production Rapanui region Revolution Science scientiﬁc scientists signiﬁcant soil South species technocratic tion trade UWDC—ALA Vogt Vogt’s William Vogt Williams and Macdonald York Zealand