Grand Phases On The Sun: The case for a mechanism responsible for extended solar minima and maxima
It was one more defeat in our long and losing battle to keep the Sun perfect, or, if not perfect, constant, and if inconstant, regular. Why we think the Sun should be any of these when other stars are not is more a question for social than for physical science. John A. (“Jack”) Eddy Delineator of the Maunder Minimum On the human Idée fi xe as to why the Sun must be seen energetically as a linear entity. Around 1904, Kapteyn noticed that the stars did not move randomly through space, but that their movements had preferential directions... there was regularity in something astronomers had always thought to be chaotic. Adriaan Blaauw, emeritus director of the Kapteyn Institute, Groningen, Netherlands On Jacob Cornelius Kapteyn’s discovery of star streaming: the concept of galactic rotation and so, proof of some regularity in stellar behavior.
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1 Comprehending and contemplating deep time
2 What is a grand solar phase versus a regular solar phase?
3 Grand solar phases in possible civilizationaltering contexts
what does the Sun and other star phenomena produce in the Sunearth climate connectionand what could it do to Earth?
a linear view of the nonlinear as an introduction to helioseismology
6 Total solar energy and particles climate Earths orbital considerations and the solar dynamo in the de JagerDuhau synthesis
7 What a grand solar phase mechanism might reveal in the short term
8 A summary some observations and some closing thoughts
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aamin amplitude areas astronomer Carbon centers of activity Chapter chromosphere climate change cloud condensation nuclei cooling cosmic rays diagram drought Duhau dynamic dynamo theory Earth climate Earth’s atmosphere Earth’s surface effects electromagnetic emissions emit energy ENSO Figure flux geomagnetic Geophysical Gleissberg Cycle global grand phases grand solar graph Hadley Cell Hallstatt Hallstatt Cycle heliosphere Holocene human Ibid irradiance isotope Jager Kelvin layer magnetic field magnetosphere mathematical Maunder Minimum maximum measured minima and maxima modulation motion Nature nonlinear Northern Hemisphere observations Observatory oscillations particles perhaps periods physical plasma poloidal proxy radiation record regular Schwabe Cycles scientists semi-secular SEPs shown solar activity solar cycles solar dynamo solar flares solar forcing solar minima solar wind space Spörer stars stratosphere Sun-earth Sun’s Sunspot Cycle sunspot groups sunspot number tachocline temperature term theory things toroidal transition point troposphere variable variations warmer warming wavelength weather