Gastrointestinal Microbiology, Volume 1

Front Cover
Roderick Mackie, Bryan White, Richard E. Isaacson
Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 31, 1997 - Science - 658 pages
Extremely diverse and complicated bacterial and protozoan populations inhabit the rumen and intestinal tract of animals, and there is a delicate balance among the individual populations within this complex microbial community. This authoritative edited volume, the first in a two-volume set, reviews the gut environment and the fermentations taking place in animal digestive tracts. It is an essential source of reference for microbial ecologists and physiologists, medical microbiologists and gastroenterologists, biochemists, nutritionists, veterinarians and animal scientists, and wildlife ecologists.
 

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Contents

Introduction to Gastrointestinal Microbial Ecology
3
Future Directions in Gut Microecology
9
Types of AnimalMicrobe Relationships
21
Synopsis
31
Foregut Fermentation
39
The Ruminant Animal
62
Fermentation of Feedstuffs
68
Conclusions
75
Uptake and Metabolism of Monosaccharides and Disaccharides
357
Genetic Manipulation of the Fibrolytic Capability of Ruminal and Nonruminal Bacteria
358
Future Prospects in Ruminant and Nonruminant Animal Feeding
359
References
360
A Model for Metabolism of Nitrogen Compounds in Gastrointestinal Environments
380
Degradation of NitrogenContaining Compounds in the Rumen
381
Peptide Metabolism
392
Deamination
397

Fermentation in the Hindgut of Mammals
84
Digesta Flow and Digestion in Cecum Fermenters
91
Summary and Conclusions
107
An Elusive
116
Role of Gut Microbes in the Physiology of the Avian Host
124
Microbes and Nitrogen Digestion
133
Conclusions
143
Fermentation and Gastrointestinal Microorganisms in Fishes
156
Diversity of Gastrointestinal Symbionts
170
Enzyme Activities of the Gastrointestinal Microorganisms
176
Uptake and Metabolism of SCFA
185
References
192
Fermentation in Reptiles and Amphibians
199
Gastrointestinal Tract Morphology of Anuran Tadpoles
218
Microbial Fermentation in Insect Guts
231
Fermentation in Guts of Other Insects
251
Carbohydrate Fermentation Energy Transduction and
269
Fermentation Reactions in Gut Anaerobes
279
Hydrogen Metabolism in the Colon
293
References
309
Polysaccharide Degradation in the Rumen and Large Intestine
319
The Plant Cell Wall and Its Polymers
320
Polysaccharides and Monosaccharides Metabolized by Ruminal Microorganisms
323
Adhesion of Ruminal Microorganisms to Plant Cell Walls and to Plant Polysaccharides
327
General Mechanisms for the Degradation of Plant Cell Walls Cellulose and Hemicellulose
330
Mechanisms of Cellulose and Hemicellulose Degradation by Ruminal Bacteria and Fungi
334
Pectin Degradation by Ruminal Bacteria and Fungi
344
Effect of Lignin and Tannins on Cell Wall Polymer Degradation
346
Starch Structure and Degradation by Ruminal Microorganisms
347
Microbial Interactions
351
General Features of the Microbial Fermentation in the Large Intestine
352
Enzymology of Polymer Degradation by Intestinal Microorganisms
355
Urea Metabolism
403
Nucleic Acid Metabolism
405
Coordination of Nitrogen and Carbohydrate Metabolism
407
Conclusions
412
Biosynthesis of NitrogenContaining Compounds
424
Ammonia Assimilation and Biosynthesis of Glutamate Glutamine and Asparagine
426
Control of Assimilatory Pathways
435
Biosynthesis of Other LAmino Acids
442
Biosynthesis of Polyamines
448
Biosynthesis of Pyrimidines and Purines
451
Conclusions
457
Biotransformation of Bile Acids Cholesterol and Steroid Hormones
470
Metabolism of Bile Acids by the Intestinal Microbiota
474
Metabolism of Cholesterol by the Intestinal Microbiota
488
Metabolism of Steroid Hormones by the Intestinal Microbiota
491
Summary
497
References
498
Gastrointestinal Toxicology of Monogastrics
511
Toxins from Animal Sources
512
Toxins from Plant Sources
515
Toxins from Food Processing
525
Toxins from Food Additives
530
Toxins from Pharmaceutical Agents
536
Bacterial Toxins Produced in the Gastrointestinal Tract
539
Biotransformation Mechanisms of Toxins in the Monogastrics
547
Conclusions
560
Gastrointestinal Detoxification and Digestive Disorders
583
Ruminal Detoxification of Phytotoxins and Mycotoxins
591
Ruminal Digestive Disorders
612
Conclusion
620
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