"Enough to Keep Them Alive": Indian Welfare in Canada, 1873-1965

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University of Toronto Press, 2004 - History - 441 pages
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Far from being a measure of progress or humanitarian aid, Indian welfare policy in Canada was used deliberately to oppress and marginalize First Nations peoples and to foster their assimilation into the dominant society. 'Enough to Keep Them Alive' explores the history of the development and administration of social assistance policies on Indian reserves in Canada from confederation to the modern period, demonstrating a continuity of policy with roots in the pre-confederation practices of fur trading companies.

Extensive archival evidence from the Indian Affairs record group at the National Archives of Canada is supplemented for the post-World War Two era by interviews with some of the key federal players. More than just an historical narrative, the book presents a critical analysis with a clear theoretical focus drawing on colonial and post-colonial theory, social theory, and critiques of liberalism and liberal democracy.

 

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Contents

Themes and Issues
3
The Context of Relief Policy Development at the Time of Confederation
25
The Development of Rudimentary Relief Administration during the Initial Period of Subjugation 18 731912
41
Relief Policy and the Consolidation of Subjugation 19131944
93
Other Influences The Transition to the Period of Citizenship 19181944
134
Citizenship The General Context of Postwar Indian Welfare Policy
171
The Influence of the Social Sciences The Secular Understanding of the Other
207
The Emergence of Indian Welfare Bureaucracy 19451960
228
The Indian in Transition Social Welfare and Provincial Services 19591965
260
Shooting an Elephant in Canada
322
Notes
343
Bibliography
403
Index
417
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About the author (2004)

Hugh E.Q. Shewell is an associate professor in the School of Social Work at York University.

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