Brute Science: Dilemmas of Animal Experimentation
Brute Science investigates whether biomedical research using animals is, in fact, scientifically justified.
Hugh LaFollette and Niall Shanks examine the issues in scientific terms using the models that scientists themselves use. They argue that we need to reassess our use of animals and, indeed, rethink the standard positions in the debate.
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THE PRIMAFACIE CASES
THE PROBLEMS OF RELEVANCE
THE FOUNDER OF
THE CURRENT PARADIGM
SPECIES AND SPECIES
THE WIDENING SYNTHESIS
THE MORAL DEBATE IN HISTORICAL
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animal experimentation animal experiments animal models animal research animal tests animals to humans argued arguments assume asymmetry basic research behavior benefits Bernard biochemical biological function biological systems biologists biomedical research biomedically significant cancer carcinogens causal analogical causal disanalogies causal mechanisms cause cell Chapter chemical chimpanzees claim Claude Bernard clinical complex systems creatures defenders of research defense of animal drugs effects evidence evolutionary biology evolutionary theory evolved examples explain extrapolate factors functional properties gene genetic human biomedical phenomena human disease humans and non-human hypotheses infer instance interactions Krogh principle laboratory animals mammals medicine metabolism methodologies mice moral worth morally relevant Moreover natural selection non-human animals nonlinear number of animals organism pain paradigm perimentation phylogenetic physiological polio practice of animal predict primates rats reductionism rodent scientific scientists species differences speciesism speciesists structure studies sub-systems teratogenic thalidomide tissue toxicity toxicology transgenic animals understanding xenobiotics