Birth Order: Its Influence on Personality
This study appears at a time when a decisive turn is due in the research on personality development. After many years of stagna tion and misguided research in this field, this book should lead to a thorough revision and a better understanding of current views on the factors which have an influence on personality. Let us consider the unsatisfactory aspects of the recent develop ments in personality studies. At the beginning of this century, the revolutionary insight gained ground that personality is susceptible to various influences, in particular to those resulting from human interaction. This insight swept away many of the old scholastic concepts and gained special importance in the fields of pedagogics and psychotherapy. How ever, in the wake of every great discovery we find inherent dangers. For years, various claims and creeds on the malleability of personality have been put forward as if they were proven facts. Lay literature, too, was permeated with wrong and distorted information on factors which might endanger child development.
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A Survey of World Literature 19461980 C ERNST
Birth Order and Biological Differences
Research on Twins and Only Children
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adults alcoholics analysis anxiety appear associated attainment authors background behavior birth order birth rank borns boys child College compared comparison Conclusions conformity considered consistent control group correlation decrease dependent differences differential discussed distribution educational effects elementary et al evidence expected explained factors father females finding firstborns five four girls given grades hand higher highest homes hypothesis increasing independent influence large sibships larger lastborns later laterborns less lower male and female males mean measured middle middle-class mothers negative occupational older oldest overrepresentation overrepresented pairs parents patients personality points population position presented psychiatric Psychol questionnaire rated relationship reported representative sample scale school achievement scores secondborns selected sibling sibs sibship size significant significantly similar single smaller social social class spacing status studies subjects Table University vari variables variance verbal youngest