Birth Order: Its Influence on Personality
This study appears at a time when a decisive turn is due in the research on personality development. After many years of stagna tion and misguided research in this field, this book should lead to a thorough revision and a better understanding of current views on the factors which have an influence on personality. Let us consider the unsatisfactory aspects of the recent develop ments in personality studies. At the beginning of this century, the revolutionary insight gained ground that personality is susceptible to various influences, in particular to those resulting from human interaction. This insight swept away many of the old scholastic concepts and gained special importance in the fields of pedagogics and psychotherapy. How ever, in the wake of every great discovery we find inherent dangers. For years, various claims and creeds on the malleability of personality have been put forward as if they were proven facts. Lay literature, too, was permeated with wrong and distorted information on factors which might endanger child development.
Outline of Fallacies in Birth Order Research
Birth Order and Biological Differences
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adolescence adults alcoholics Analgesics association background variables behavior birth order differences birth rank born broken homes cannabis chil child children with sibs College males college students compared Conclusions Table conformity control group control of sibship differences by birth differential Diss Abstr Int dren Earlierborns educational attainment Educational style elementary school evidence Explained variance extraversion Firstborn females firstborn males Firstborns Firstborns high school students hypothesis influence investigated large sibships lastborns laterborns less Macbeth male and female marriage middle children middle-class MMPI mothers neurosis neuroticism normal distribution occupational status older sibs oldest overrepresentation of firstborns overrepresented pairs parents patients personality population psychiatric Psychol Rep questionnaire rated regression analysis representative sample scale schizophrenics school achievement school children scored higher secondborns self-esteem sex of sib sibling sibship size sibships of three single children small sibships social class studies subjects trolled USA high verbal younger sibs youngest children