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enactment of the celebrated Valeriae et Horatiae in the Capitoline Fasti, as L. f. L. N., and conselages, which secured the liberties of the plebs, and quently a son of No. 4, was consular tribune six gave them additional power in the state. 1. The times, namely, in B. c. 386, 384, 380, 377, 370, first law is said to have made a plebiscitum binding and 367. (Liv. vi. 6, 18, 27, 32, 36, 42.) on the whole people, but Niebuhr supposes that 6. C. VALERIUS Potirus, a son of No. 3, judgthe sanction of the senate and the confirmation of ing from his praenomen, was consular tribune, B.C. the curiae were necessary to give a plebiscitum the 370. (Liv. vi. 36.) full force of a lex. (Comp. Prilo, p. 298, a.] 7. C. VALERIUS Poritus Flaccus, probably 2. The second law enacted that whoever should son or grandson of No. 6, was consul B. c. 331, procure the election of a magistrate without appeal with M. Claudius Marcellus. Livy says, that in should be outlawed, and might be killed by any some annals Valerius appeared with the cognomen one with impunity. 3. The third law declared of Potitus, and in others with that of Flaccus (Liv. that, whoever harmed the tribunes of the plebs, viii. 18). Orosius, who mentions Valerius (iii. the aediles, the judices, or the decemvirs, should 10), calls him simply Valerius Flaccus, without be outlawed and accursed. It is doubtful who are the cognomen of Potitus. It is probable that he meant by the judices and decemvirs : various conjec- was the first of the family who assumed the surtures have been made on the point by modern writers name of Flaccus, and that his descendants dropped (Niebuhr, Hist. of Rome, vol. ii. p. 368 ; Arnold, the name of Potitus. If this supposition is correct, Hist. of Rome, vol. i. p. 319). After the enact the Flacci, who became afterwards a distinguished ment of these laws, the consuls proceeded to march family of the Valeria gens, would be sprung from against the foreign enemies of the state. The this Valerius Potitus. [FLACCUS, VALERIUS.] people flocked to the standards of the popular con- 8. L. VALERIUS Poritus, probably a brother suls, and fought with enthusiasm under their orders. of No. 7, was magister equitum in B. c. 331, to the They accordingly met with great success ; Valerius dictator Cn. Quintilius Varus. (Liv. viii. 18.) defeated the Aequi and the Volsci, Horatius the 9. M. VALERIUS MAXIMUS Porirus, consul Sabines, and both armies returned to Rome covered B. C. 286. [MAXIMUS, VALERIUS, No. 6.] with glory. The senate, however, refused to grant POTO'NE. (PERICTIONE.] a triumph to these traitors to their order ; where- PRACHIAS, artist. [PRAXIAS.] upon the centuries conferred upon them this honour PRAECI'LIUS, the name of a father and a by their supreme anthority, regardless of the oppo- son, whom Cicero recommended to Caesar in B. C. sition of the senate. (Liv. iii. 39–41, 49–55, 61 45. (Cic. ad Fam. xiii.) -64 ; Dionys. xi. 4, &c. 45, &c. ; Cic. de Rep. ii. PRAECONI'NUS, L. VALERIUS, a legatus 31, Brut. 14 ; Niebuhr, Hist. of Rome, vol. ii. pp. who was defeated and killed by the Aquitani a 345–376.) In B. C. 446 Valerius was chosen by year before Caesar's legatus, P. Crassus, made war the centuries one of the quaestores parricidii (Tac. upon this people, B. c. 56 (Caesar, B.G. iii. 20). Ann, xi. 22 ; respecting the statement in Tacitus, This defeat of Praeconinus is not mentioned by site Dict. of Antiq. 8. v. Quaestor).

any other writer, and we know nothing of him or 3. C. VALERIUS Potitus VOLUsus, described of the history of the war. in the Capitoline Fasti as L. f. Volusi N., was PRAENESTI'NA, a surname of the Roman consnlar tribune B.C. 415 (Liv. iv. 49), and consul Fortuna, who had a temple and oracle at Praeneste. with M'. Aemilius Mamercinus, B. C. 410. In his (Ov. Fast. vi. 62; Suet. Domit. 15 ; comp. Forconsulship he distinguished himself by his opposition TUNA.)

[L, S.) to the agrarian law of the tribune M. Maenius; and PRAESENS, BRU'TTIUS, to whom one of he recovered the Arx Carventana, which had been Pliny's letters is addressed (Ep. vii. 3.), was protaken by the Volsci, in consequence of which he bably the father of the following Praesens. entered the city in an oration. He was consular PRAESENS, BRUTTIUS, the father of tribune a second time in B. c. 407, and a third time Crispina, wife of the emperor Commodus. He is in B. C. 404. (Liv. iv. 57, 61.)

generally supposed to be the C. Bruttius Praesens 4. L. VALERIUS Potitus, described in the Ca- who appears in the Fasti as consul for A. D. 153, and pitoline Fasti as L. f. P. N., consular tribune five again for a. D. 180. There is also a C. Bruttius times, namely in B. C. 414, 406, 403, 401, 398 Praesens marked as having been consul for the (Liv. iv. 49, 58, v. 1, 10, 14). He was also twice second time in A. D. 139, and another as consul in consul ; first in B.C. 393, with P. Cornelius Malu- A. D. 217. (Capitolin. M. Aurel. 27 ; Lamprid. ginensis Cossus, in which year both consuls had Commod. 12 ; Censorin. 21.) [W.R.] to resign, through some fault in the auspices (vitio PRAETEXTA'TUS, C. ASI'NIUS, consul fucii), and L. Lucretius Flavus Tricipitinus and A. D. 242, with C. Vettius Atticus. (Fasti ; Car Ser. Sulpicius Camerinus were chosen in their pitol. Gord. 26.) stead ; and a second time in the following year, PRAETEXTATUS, ATEIUS. [Argius.] 3. C. 392, with M. Manlius, in which year both PRAETEXTATUS, SULPI'CIUS. 1. Q. the consuls celebrated the great games, which had SULPICIUS PRAETEXTATUS consular tribune, B. C. been vowed by the dictator M. Furius, and also 434. There was considerable difference in the carried on war against the Aequi. In consequence annalists respecting the supreme magistrates for of their success in this war, Valerius obtained the this year; we learn from Livy that Valerius Antias honour of a triumph, and Manlius of an ovation and Q. Tubero made Q. Sulpicius one of the consuls (Liv. v. 31 ; Dionys. i. 74). In the same year for the year. (Liv. iv. 23 ; Diod. xii. 53.) Valerius was the third interrex appointed for hold- 2. SÆR. SULPICIUS PRAETEXTATUS, four times ing the comitia (Liv. v. 31), and in B. C. 390, the consular tribune, namely in B. c. 377, 376, 370, year in which Rome was taken by the Gauls, he was 368. He married the elder daughter of M. Fabius magister equitum to the dictator M. Furius Camillus. Ambustus ; and it is said that the younger daugh(Liv. v. 48.)

ter of Fabius, who was married to Licinius Stolo, 5. P. Valerius Potitus PUBLICOLA, described | ruged on her husband to procure the consulship fox the plebeians, as she was jealous of the honours of what the poet could have done with a chorus of her sister's husband. Niebuhr has pointed out the Satyrs, in place of the ocean nymphs, in the worthlessness and contradictins in this tale. (Liv. Prometheus Bound. The innovation of Pratinås at vi. 32—34, 36, 38 ; Niebuhr, Hist. of Rome, vol. once relieved tragedy of this incubus, and gave iii. pp. 2, 3.)

the Satyrs a free stage for themselves; where, by PRAETEXTATUS, VETTIUS AGO- treating the same class of subjects on which the RIUS, a senator of distinguished ability and un- tragedies were founded, in a totally different spirit, corrupted morals, was proconsul of Achaia in the the poet not only preserved so venerable and poreign of Julian, Praefectus Urbi under Valen-pular a feature of his art as the old chorus, but tinian I., and Praefectus Praetorio under Theo also, in the exhibition of tetralogies, afforded a dosius. He died in the possession of the last office, wholesome relaxation, as well as a pleasant diwhen he was consul elect. (Amm. Marc. xxii. 7, version, to the overstrained minds of the specxxvii. 9, xxviii. 1; Zosim. iv. 3 ; Symmach. Ep. tators. x. 26; Valesius, ad Amm. Marc. xxii. 7.) It It has been suggested by some writers, that was at the house of this Vettius Praetextatus that Pratinas was induced to cultivate the satyric Macrobius supposes the conversation to have taken drama by his fear of being eclipsed by Æschylus place, which he has recorded in his Saturnalia. in tragedy ; a point which is one of pure conjec[See Vol. II. p. 888.)

ture. It is more to the purpose to observe that PRA'TINAS (Ipativas), one of the early tragic the early associations of Pratinas would very propoets who flourished at Athens at the beginning bably imbue him with a taste for that species of of the fifth century, B. C., and whose combined the drama ; for his native city, Phlius, was the efforts brought the art to its perfection, was a neighbour of Sicyon, the home of those “ tragic native of Phlius, and was therefore by birth a choruses," on the strength of which the Dorians Dorian. His father's name was Pyrrhonides or claimed to be the inventors of tragedy : it was Encomius. It is not stated at what time he went adjacent also to Corinth, where the cyclie choruses to Athens, but we find him exhibiting there, in of Satyrs, which were ascribed to Arion, had been competition with Choerilus and Aeschylus, about long established. (Herod. v. 67 ; Themist. Orat. Ol. 70, B. C. 500—499. (Suid. 8. v., Aloxúxos, xix. ; Aristot. Poët. 3 ; Bentley, Phal.) Npativas.) of the two poets with whom he then The innovation of Pratinas, like all the great contended, Choerilus had already been twenty improvements of that age of the development of the years before the public, and Aeschylus now ap- drama, was adopted by his contemporaries ; but peared, for the first time, at the age of twenty- Pratinas is distinguished, as might be expected, five ; Pratinas, who was younger than the former, by the large proportion of his satyric dramas ; but older than the latter, was probably in his full having composed, according to Suidas, fifty plays, vigour at this very period.

of which thirty-two were satyric. He gained but one The step in the progress of the art, which was prize. (Suid. 8. v.) Böckh, however, by an alteration ascribed to Pratinas, is very distinctly stated by in the text of Suidas, 16 for 16, assigns to Pratinas the ancient writers ; it was the separation of the only twelve satyric dramas, thus leaving a sufficient satyric from the tragic drama (Suid. . V., ap@tos number of tragedies to make three for every satyric šypaxe Latúpous ; Acro, ad Hor. Art. Poët. 230, drama, that is, twelve tetralogies and two single reading Pratinae for Cratini ; respecting the al plays. (Trag. Gr. Princ. p. 125.) In merit, the leged share of Choerilus in this improvement, see satyric dramas of Pratinas were esteemed the first, CHOERILUS, Vol. I. p. 697, b.) The change was a except only those of Aeschylus. (Paus. ii. 13. $ 16.) very happy one ; for it preserved a highly charac- His son Aristias was also highly distinguished for teristic feature of the older form of tragedy, the his satyric plays. (ARISTIAN.) entire rejection of which would have met with Pratinas ranked high among the lyric, as well serious obstacles, not only from the popular taste, as the dramatic poets of his age. He cultivated but from religious associations, and yet preserved two species of lyric poetry, the hyporcheme and it in such a manner as, while developing its own the dithyramb, of which the former was closely capabilities, to set free the tragic drama from the related to the satyric drama by the jocular charicfetters it imposed. A band of Satyrs, as the ter which it often assumed, the latter by its ancient companions of Dionysus, formed the original chorus choruses of Satyrs. Pratinas may perhaps be of tragedy ; and their jests and frolics were inter- considered to have shared with his contemporary spersed with the more serious action of the drama, Lasus the honour of founding the Athenian school without causing any more sense of incongruity of dithyrambic poetry. Some interesting fragments than is felt in the reading of those jocose passages of his hyporchemes are preserved, especially a conof Homer, from which Aristotle traces the origin siderable passage in Athenaeus (i. p. 22, a.) which of the satyric drama and of comedy. As however gives an important indication of the contest for tragedy came to be separated more and more from supremacy, which was then going on both between any reference to Dionysus, and the whole of the poetry and music, and between the different kinds heroic mythology was included in its range of of music. The poet complains that the voices of subjects, the chorus of Satyrs of course became the singers were overpowered by the noise of the more and more impracticable and absurd, and at flutes, and expresses his desire to supplant the prethe same time the jocose element, which formed an vailing Phrygian melody by the Dorian. It is essential part of the character of the chorus of impossible to say how much of his lyric poetry Satyrs, became more and more incongruous with was separate from his dramas; in which, both the earnest spirit and thrilling interest of the from the age at which he lived, and from express higher tragic dramas. It is easy to enter into the testimony, we know that great importance was fun of the Promethens the Fire-kindler, where assigned not only to the songs, but also to the an old Satyr singes his beard in attempting to em-dances of the choruz In the passage just cited brace the beautiful fire; but it is hard to fancy | Athenaeus mentions him as one of the pocts whe

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were called ópXnotiKOL, from the large part which I heart was the source of the nerves (an opinion tne choral dances bore in their dramas.

which he held with Aristotle), and that the rami(Casaub. de Satyr. Poes. Graec. lib. i. c. 5; fications of the artery, which he saw issue from Näke, Choeril. p. 12; Müller, Dorier, vol. ii. pp. the heart, were ultimately converted into nerves, 334, 361, 362, 2nd ed., Gesch. d. Griech. Lit. vol. ii. as they contracted in diameter (Galen, de Hippocr. p. 39, Eng. trans. vol. i. p. 295 ; Ulrici, Gesch. d. et Plat. Decr. i. 6, vol. v. p. 187).*

Some parts Hell. Dichtka vol. ii. pp. 497, f. ; Bode, Gesch. d. of his medical practice appear to have been very Hell. Dichtk. vol. iii. pt. i. pp. 79, f. ; Welcker, bold, as, for instance, his venturing, in cases of die Grieck. Trag. pp. 17, 18, Nachtr. z. Aesch. ileus when attended with introsusception, to open Trilog. p. 276; Kayser, Hist. Crit. Trag. Graec. the abdomen in order to replace the intestine p. 70.)

[P. S.]

(Cael. Aurel. de Morb. Acut. iii. 17, p. 244). He PRAXA'GORAS (Tlpatayopas), an Athenian, wrote several medical works, of which only the lived after the time of Constantine the Great, pro- titles and some fragments remain, preserved by bably under his sons He wrote at the age of Galen, Caelius Aurelius, and other writers. Å nineteen, two books on the Athenian kings; at fuller account of his opinions may be found in the age of twenty-two, two books on the history of Sprengels Hist. de la Méd., and Kühn's ComConstantine ; and at the age of thirty-one, six mentatio de Praxagora Coo, reprinted in the second books on the history of Alexander the Great. All volume of his Opuscula Academica Medica et Philothese works were written in the lonic dialect. logica, p. 128, &c. There is an epigram by CrinaNone of them has come down to us with the ex- goras, in honour of Praxagoras in the Greek ception of a few extracts made by Photius, from Anthology. (Anth. P’lan. 273.) (W. A. G.) the history of Constantine. In this work Praxa- PRAXASPES (IIpatáoans), a Persian, who goras, though a heathen, placed Constantine before was high in favour with king Cambyses, and acted all other emperors. (Phot. Cod. 62.)

as his messenger. By his means Cambyses had PRAXA'GORAS (Tlpatayopas), a celebrated his brother Smerdis assassinated. In one of his physician, who was a native of the island of Cos. fits of madness, Camby ses shot the son of Prax(Galen, de Uteri Dissect. c. 10, vol. ii. p. 905, et aspes with an arrow through the heart, in the alibi.) His father's name was Nicarchus* (Galen, presence of his father. When the news of the loco cit.; de Facull. Nat. ii. 9, vol. ii. p. 141, de usurpation of Smerdis reached Cambyses, he naTremore, c. 1, vol. vii. p. 584), and he belonged to turally suspected Praxaspes of not having fulfilled the family of the Asclepiadae (id. de Meth. Med. his directions. The latter, however, succeeded in i. 3, vol. 3. p. 28). He was the tutor of Philoti- clearing himself. After the death of Cambyses, mus (id. loco cit.; de Aliment. Facult. i. 12, vol. vi. the Magians deemed it advisable to endeavour to p. 509), Plistonicus (Cels. de Med. i. praef. p. 6), secure the co-operation of Praxaspes, as he was and Herophilus (Galen, de Differ. Puls

. iv. 3, the only person who could certify the death of vol. viii. p. 723, de Meth. Med. i. 3, vol. x. Smerdis, having murdered him with his own p. 28, de Tremore, c. 1, vol. vii. p. 585); and as hands. He at first assented to their proposals, he was a contemporary of Chrysippus, and lived but having been directed by them to proclaim to shortly after Diocles Carystius (Cels. de Med. i. the assembled Persians that the pretender was praef., p. 5; Pliny, H. N., xxvi. 6), he may be really the son of Cyrus, he, on the contrary, desafely placed in the fourth century B. C. He be- clared the stratagem that was being practised, longed to the medical sect of the Dogmatici (Galen, and then threw himself headlong from the tower Introd. e. 4, vol. xiv. p. 683), and was celebrated on which he was standing, and so perished. (Herod. for his knowledge of medical science in general, iii. 30, 33, 34, 62, 66, 74.) {C. P. M.] and especially for his attainments in anatomy and PRA'XIAS (Tlpațias), artists. 1. An Athenian piysiology. He was one of the chief defenders sculptor of the age of Pheidias, but of the more of the humoral pathology, who placed the seat of archaic school of Calamis, commenced the execution all diseases in the humours of the body (id. ibid. of the statues in the pediments of the great temple of c. 9, p. 699). He is supposed by Sprengel (Hist. de Apollo at Delphi, but died while he was still enla Méd., vol. i. p. 422, 3), Hecker (Gesch. der Heilk. gaged upon the work, which was completed by vol. i. p. 219), and others, to have been the first another Athenian artist, Androsthenes, the disciple person who pointed out the distinction between of Eucadmus. (Paus. x. 19. $ 3. 6. 4.) the Feins and the arteries ; but this idea is con- The date of Praxias may be safely placed about troverted (and apparently with success) by M. 01. 83, B.C. 448, and onwards. His master CalaLittré (Euvres d'Hippocr. vol. i. p. 202, &c.), who mis flourished about B. c. 467, and belonged to the shows that the distinction in question is alluded to last period of the archaic school, which immediately by Aristotle (if the treatise de Spiritu be genuine), preceded Pheidias. (See Paedias, p. 245, b.) Hippocrates (or at least the author of the treatise Moreover, the indications which we have of the de Articulis, who was anterior to Praxagoras), time when the temple at Delphi was decorated by Diogenes Apolloniates, and Euryphon. Many of a number of Athenian artists, point to the period his anatomical opinions have been preserved, which between B. c. 448 and 430, and go to show that show that he was ir advance of his contemporaries the works were executed at about the very time ia this branch of medical knowledge. On the other hand, several curious and capital errors have * As the word veüpov sometimes signifies a ligabeen attributed to him, as, for instance, that the ment, as well as a nerve, in the ancient writers (see

note to the Oxford edition of Theophilus de Corp. In Galen, Comment. in Hippocr. “ Aphor.” Hum. Fabr. p. 204, l. 5), Sprengel and others have i. 12, vol. xvii. pt. ii. p. 400. Nikávopou must be supposed that the word bears this meaning in the a mistake for Nixdpxou. In some modern works passage referred to, but Kühn, with more probability his father is called Nearchus, but perhaps without considers that the more common signification of the any ancient authority.

word is the true one (Opusc, vol. ii. p. 140).

when the temples of Athena at Athens, and of Zeus species. (Ath. xv. p. 694, a.) She was believed at Olympia, were being adorned by Pheidias and by some to be the author of the scolion preserved his disciples. (Comp. Pheidias, p. 248, b. ; Poly- by Athenaeus (p. 695, c.), and in the Greek AnGNOTUS, p. 467, b.; and Müller, Phid. pp. 28, 29.) thology (Brunck, Anal. vol. i. p. 157), which was

The sculptures themselves are described by extremely popular at Athens (Paus. ap. Eustath. Pausanias (i.c.) very briefly as consisting of Arte ad I. ii. 711 ; Aristoph. Vesp. 1231, et Schol.). mis and Leto, and Apollo and the Muses, and also She also composed dithyrambs (Hephaest. 9, p. 22, the setting sun and Dionysus and the women ed. Gaisf.) called Thyiades. In all probability, the first col- This poetess appears to have been distinguished lection of statues, those connected with the ge for the variety of her metres. The line of one nealogy of Apollo, occupied the front pediment, and of her dithyrambs, which Hephaestion quotes in the other pediment was filled with the remaining the passage just referred to, is a dactylic hexasculptures, namely those connected with the kin- meter : it must not, however, be inferred that her dred divinity Dionysus, the inventor of the lyre dithyrambs were written in heroic verse, but rather and the patron of the dithyramb. As the temple that they were arranged in dactylic systems, in was one of the largest in Greece, it is likely that which the hexameter occasionally appeared. One there were, in each pediment, other figures subor- species of logaoedic dactylic verse was named after dinate to those mentioned by Pausanias. (Welcker, her the Praxilleian (llpažímelor), namely, die Vorstellungen der Giebel felder und Metopen an dem Tempel zu Delphi, in the Rheinisches Museum, 1842, pp. 1-28).

as in the following fragment : 2. A vase-painter, whose name appears on one

ώ διά των θυρίδων καλών εμβλέπουσα, of the Canino vases, on which the education of

παρθένε ταν κεφαλάν, τα δ' ένερθε νύμφα, Achilles is represented. The name, as reported by M. Orioli, the discoverer of the vase, is Mpaxias, which only differs from the Alcaic by having one CPA + IAS, a proper name, so totally unknown, as more dactyl. (Hephaest. 24, p. 43; Hermann, to raise a strong suspicion that the name has either Elem. Doct. Metr. p. 231.) Another verse named been miswritten or misread, and that it ought to after her was the Ionic a Majore trimeter brachy. be CPA + SIAS. There is a similar diversity in catalectic. (Hephaest. 36, p. 63.) the name of the vase-painter Exechias. (Raoul- The few fragments and references to her poems, Rochette, Lettre à M. Schorn, p. 57. Comp. pp. which we possess, lead to the supposition that the 44, 45, and De Witte, in the Revue de Philologie, subjects of them were chiefly taken from the erotic 1847, vol. ii. p. 422.)

[P. S.] stories of the old mythology especially as connected PRAXI'DAMAS (IIpati8duas). 1. A writer with the Dorians. In one of her poems, for example, on poetry or music, probably the latter. Suidas is she celebrated Carneius as the son of Zeus and the only author who expressly mentions him (s. v. Europa, as educated by Apollo and Leto, and as Inéseiv). Harpocration (s. v. Movoaios) seems beloved by Apollo (Paus. iii. 13. $ 3, s. 5 ; Schol. to allude to memoirs of Praxidamas, written by ad Theocr. v. 83): in another she represented Dia Aristoxenus. He must, therefore, have lived be nysus as the son of Aphrodite (Hesych. s. e. tween the time of Democritus, B. C. 460, and that Bák you Alávns): in one she sang the death of of Aristoxenus, B. C. 320. (See Jonsius, de Script. Adonis (Zenob. Prov. iv. 21), and in another the Hist. Phil. i. 14. 8, &c.)

rape of Chrysippus by Zeus. (Ath. xiii. p. 603, a.) 2. The first athlete who erected a statue of him- She belongs decidedly to the Dorian school of lyric self at Olympia (01. 59, B. c. 544), to commemo- poetry, but there were also traces of Aeolie influence rate his victory with the cestus. (Paus. vi. 18; in her rhythms, and even in her dialect. Tatian Pindar. Nem. vi. 27, &c.)

(W. M. G.) (adv. Graec. 52, p. 113, ed. Worth) mentions a PRAXIDICE ([patidian), i. e. the goddess statue of her, which was ascribed to Lysippus. who carries out the objects of justice, or watches (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ii. pp. 136, 137; Müller, that justice is done to men. When Menelaus Hist. of Greek Lit. vol. i. pp. 188, 189; Bode, arrived in Laconia, on his return from Troy, he set Gesch. d. Hellen. Dichtkunst, vol. ii. pt. 2. p. 1). n. up a statue of Praxidice near Gytheium, not far 120, f.)

[P. S.) from the spot where Paris, in carrying off Helen, PRAXION (Ipatiwv), a Greek writer, on the had founded a sanctuary of Aphrodite Migonitis history of Megara (Suidas, Harpocrat. and Phot (Paus. iii. 22. & 2). Near Haliartus, in Boeotia, s. v. Ekipov ; Schol. ad Aristoph. Eccles. 18.) we meet with the worship of Praxidicae, in the PRAXIPHANES (Πραξιφάνης). ]. A Periplural (ix. 33. $ 2), who were called daughters of patetic philosopher, was a native either of Mytilene Ogyges, and their names are Alalcomenia, Thel- (Clem. Alex. i. p. 365, ed. Potter), or of Rhodes xinoea, and Aulis (ix. 33. § 4; Suid. s. v.; Steph. (Strab. xiv. p. 655). He lived in the time of De Byz. s. v. Tpeuían). Their images consisted metrius Poliorcetes and Ptolemy Lagi, and was a merely of heads, and their sacrifices only of the pupil of Theophrastus, about B. c. 322 (Proclus heads of animals. With the Orphic poets Praxi- i. in Timaeum ; Tzetzes, ad Hesiod. Op.el Dies, I.) dice seems to be a surname of Persephone. (Orph. He subsequently opened a school himself, in which Argon. 31, Hymn. 28. 5; comp. Müller, Orchom. Epicurus is said to have been one of his pupils (Diog. p. 122, 2d edit.)

(L, S.] Laërt. x. 13). Praxiphanes paid especial attention PRAXILLA (Ilpáčix/a), of Sicyon, a lyric to grammatical studies, and is hence named along poetess, who flourished about Ol. 82. 2, B. c. 450, with Aristotle as the founder and creator of the and was one of the nine poetesses who were dis- science of grammar (Clemens Alex, l. c. ; Bekker, tinguished as the Lyric Muses (Suid. s. v. ; Euseb. Anecdot. ii. y. 229, where [lpatıpárous should be Ckron. . a.; Antip. Thess. Ep. 23; Brunck, Anal. read instead of 'Emipávous). Of the writings of vol. ii. p. 114, Anth. Pal. ix. 26.) Her scolia were Praxiphanes, which appear to have been numerolis, Among the most celebrated compositions of that two are especially mentioned, a

Dialogue departe TOUNTRY (Diog. Laërt. iii. 8.) in which Plato and The position occupied by Praxiteles in the his Is crates were the speakers, and which is perhaps tory of ancient art can be defined without much preserved in the book Nepl toimuátwv discovered difficulty. He stands, with Scopas, at the head at Pompeii, and an historical work cited by Mar- of the later Attic school, so called in contradiscellinus in his Life of Thucydides (§ 29) under tinction to the earlier Attic school of Pheidias. the title of slepi iotopías. (For further particulars, Without attempting those sublime impersonations see Preller, Disputatio de Praxiphane Peripatetico of divine majesty, in which Pheidias had been so inter antiquissimos grammaticos nobili, Dorp. 1842.) inimitably successful, Praxiteles was unsurpassed

2. A Scholiast on Sophocles. (Schol. ad Sophs in the exhibition of the softer beauties of the Oed. Col. 894.)

human form, especially in the female figure. WithPRAXITAS (lipažítas), a Lacedaemonian, out aiming at ideal majesty, he attained to a perwho, in B. C. 393, was stationed as polemarch, fect ideal gracefulness; and, in this respect, he with his mora, at Sicyon. The Corinthians, Pa- occupies a position in his own art very similar to simelus and Alcimanes, being desirous of restoring that of Apelles in painting. In that species of Corinth to her connection with Lacedaemon, of the art to which he devoted himself, he was as fered to admit Praxitas by night within the long perfect a master as Pheidias was in his departwalls that joined Corinth with Lechaeum. In this ment, though the species itself was immeasurably they succeeded, and in the engagement which took inferior. In fact, the character of each of these place next day with the Argive forces, the La- artists was a perfect exponent of the character edæmonians slaughtered great numbers of the of their respective times. The heroic spirit and latter. After this victory, Praxitas, having been the religious earnestness of the period precedjoined by his allies, demolished the long walls, ing the Peloponnesian War gave birth to the and then crossing the isthmus, took and garrisoned productions of the one ; the prevailing love of Sidus and Crommyon. (Xen. Hellen. iv. 4. $ 7 pleasure and sensual indulgences found its appro-13.)

(C. P. M.) priate gratification in the other. The contrast PRAXITELES (Dpatitéans), one of the most was marked in their subjects as well as in their distinguished artists of ancient Greece, was both style. The chryselephantine statue of Zeus at a statuary in bronze and a sculptor in marble; but Olympia realised, as nearly as art can realise, the bis most celebrated works were in the latter ma- illusion of the actual presence of the supreme terial. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8. 8. 19. & 10, xxxvi. divinity ; and the spectator who desired to see its 5. 8. 4. $5) It is remarkable how little is known prototype could find it in no human form, but only of his personal history. Neither his country, nor in the sublimest conception of the same deity which the name of bis father or of his instructor, nor the the kindred art of poetry had formed: but the date of his birth or of his death, is mentioned by Cnidian Aphrodite of P.axiteles, though an ideal any ancient author. As to his country, sundry representation, expressed the ideal only of sensual conjectures have been founded on detached pas-charms and the emotions connected with them, siges of some of the later ancient authors, but none and was avowedly modelled from a courtezan. of them are sustained by sufficient evidence even | Thus also the subjects of Praxiteles in general to deserre discussion (see Sillig, Cat. Art. s. v.): were those divinities whose attributes were conall that is known with certainty is, that Praxiteles, nected with sensual gratification, or whose forms if not a native, was a citizen of Athens, and that were distinguished by soft and youthful beauty, his career as an artist was intimately connected Aphrodite and Eros, Apollo and Dionysus. His with that city. This fact is not only indicated by works were chiefly imitated from the most beauthe constant association of his name with the later tiful living models he could find ; but he scarcely Attic school of sculpture, and by Pliny's reference ever executed any statues professedly as portraits, to his numerous works in the Cerameicus at Quintilian (xii. 10) praises him and Lysippus for Athens, but there is an inscription still extant, in the natural character of their works. which he is expressly called an Athenian. (Böckh, His works are too numerous to be all mentioned Cup. Inscr. No. 1604).

here individually. The most important of them With respect to his date, he is mentioned by will be described according to the department of Pliay (H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19) as contemporary with mythology from which their subjects were taken. Euphranor at the 104th Olympiad, B. c. 364. 1. Stutues of Aphrodite. By far the most cePausanias (viii. 9. $ 1) places him in the third lebrated work of the master, and that in which he generation after Alcamenes, the disciple of Phei- doubtless put forth all his power, was the marble dias; which agrees very well with the date of statue of Aphrodite, which was distinguished from Pliny, since Alcamenes flourished between Ol. 83 other statues of the goddess by the name of the and 94, B. c. 448–404. Vitruvius (vii. Praef. Cnidians, who purchased it. The well-known $ 13) states that he was one of the artists who story, related by Pliny (H. N. xxxvi. 5. s. 4. $ 5), adorned the Mausoleum of Artemisia ; and, if so, is that the artist made two statues of Aphrodite, of he must have lived at least as late as Ol. 107, which the one was draped, the other not. In his B. C. 350. If we were to accept as genuine the own opinion, they were of equal value, for he will of Theophrastus, in which he requests Praxi- offered them for sale together at the same price. teles to finish a statue of Nicomachus (Diog. Laërt. The people of Cos, who had always possessed a v. 14), we must extend the time of Praxiteles to character for severe virtue, purchased the draped about the year B. c. 287, in which Theophrastus statue, “ severum id ac pudicum arbitrantes ;” the died; but it is not safe to rest much upon such other was bought by the Cnidians, and its fame documents, occurring in the work of Diogenes, almost entirely eclipsed the merits of the rival nor is it Ekely that Praxiteles lived so late. It is work. It was always esteemed the most perfectly most probable that the date assigned by Pliny is beautiful of the statues of the goddess. According about that of the beginning of the artistic career of to Pliny, it surpassed all other works, not only of Praxiteles

Praxiteles, but in the whole world ; and many

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