A Life of Sir Francis Galton : From African Exploration to the Birth of Eugenics: From African Exploration to the Birth of Eugenics

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Oxford University Press, Sep 28, 2001 - Science - 432 pages
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Few scientists have made lasting contributions to as many fields as Francis Galton. He was an important African explorer, travel writer, and geographer. He was the meteorologist who discovered the anticyclone, a pioneer in using fingerprints to identify individuals, the inventor of regression and correlation analysis in statistics, and the founder of the eugenics movement. Now, Nicholas Gillham paints an engaging portrait of this Victorian polymath. The book traces Galton's ancestry (he was the grandson of Erasmus Darwin and the cousin of Charles Darwin), upbringing, training as a medical apprentice, and experience as a Cambridge undergraduate. It recounts in colorful detail Galton's adventures as leader of his own expedition in Namibia. Darwin was always a strong influence on his cousin and a turning point in Galton's life was the publication of the Origin of Species. Thereafter, Galton devoted most of his life to human heredity, using then novel methods such as pedigree analysis and twin studies to argue that talent and character were inherited and that humans could be selectively bred to enhance these qualities. To this end, he founded the eugenics movement which rapidly gained momentum early in the last century. After Galton's death, however, eugenics took a more sinister path, as in the United States, where by 1913 sixteen states had involuntary sterilization laws, and in Germany, where the goal of racial purity was pushed to its horrific limit in the "final solution." Galton himself, Gillham writes, would have been appalled by the extremes to which eugenics was carried. Here then is a vibrant biography of a remarkable scientist as well as a superb portrait of science in the Victorian era.
  

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Contents

Prologue
1
ANTECEDENTS AND BEGINNINGS
11
An Enviable Pedigree
13
Metamorphosis From Birth to Medical School
23
A Poll Degree from Cambridge
37
Drifting
47
GEOGRAPHY AND EXPLORATION
59
South Africa
61
Gemmules Rabbits Germs and Stirps
173
Nature and Nurture
187
Sweet Peas and Anthropometrics
195
Probing the Mind
215
Fingerprints
231
The Birth of Biometrics
250
Galtons Disciples
269
Evolution by Jumps
286

Making Peace with Jonker Afrikaner
67
Expedition to Ovampoland
79
Fame and Marriage
93
Riding High with the Royal Geographical Society I The Great Lakes of Africa
107
Riding High with the Royal Geographical Society II Stanley Faces Off with the Geographers
123
Weather Maps and the Anticyclone
140
THE TRIUMPH OF THE PEDIGREE
153
Hereditary Talent and Character
155
The Mendelians Trump the Biometricians
303
The Triumph of the Pedigree Eugenics
324
Out of Pandoras Box The First International Congress of Eugenics
345
Notes
359
Bibliography
390
Index
398
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