The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Trees and Shrubs: An Essential Guide to Trees and Shrubs of the World

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MobileReference, 2008 - Reference - 5205 pages
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The Encyclopedia of Trees and Shrubs describes and illustrates over 2,000 varieties. With Over 30,000 color photographs, this encyclopedia is for every naturalist from the novice to the experienced observer. FEATURES: - Information about over 2,000 trees and shrubs. - Over 30,000 color photographs. - Intuitive navigation: navigate from Table of Contents or search for words or phrases. - List of all plants by their common name - List of all plant families by their common name - List of taxonomic families of flowering plants (angiosperms) - List of taxonomic families of non-flowering plants (gymnosperms) - List of all plants by their taxonomic name - The Encyclopedia is stored in your local memory - you get the information fast and do not depend on network/server availability. - The Encyclopedia takes about 30MB.
  

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Contents

All plants by their common name
List of trees and shrubs by taxonomic family
CYCADS
MAIDENHAIR TREES
Pinophyta
Taxonomy and naming
Morphology
Other facts
Summary
Distribution
Uses
Symbolism
Quercus arkansana
Quercus austrina
Swamp White Oak
Summary

Araucariaceae
Agathis
Species list
Uses
Agathis australis
Description
Growth rate and age
Distribution
Regeneration and life history
Ethnobotany
Agathis lanceolata
Agathis robusta
Araucaria
Description
Uses
Araucaria angustifolia
Araucaria araucana
Cultivation and uses
Common names
Araucaria bidwillii
Cultivation
Araucaria columnaris
Araucaria cunninghamii
Araucaria heterophylla
Morphology
Cultivation
Araucaria hunsteinii
Cultivation and uses
Cupressaceae
Classification
Superlatives
Uses
Athrotaxis
Species
Athrotaxis cupressoides
Athrotaxis selaginoides
Callitris
Callitris columellaris
________
Callitris preissii
Callitris verrucosa
Calocedrus
Calocedrus decurrens
Chamaecyparis
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana
Callitropsis nootkatensis
Uses
Chamaecyparis obtusa
Cultivation and uses
Chamaecyparis pisifera
Uses
Chamaecyparis thyoides
Cryptomeria
Description
Symbolism and uses
Cunninghamia
Cupressus
Species
Cupressus guadalupensis
Cupressus macrocarpa
Cultivation and uses
Cupressus sempervirens
Uses
Glyptostrobus
Juniper
Description
Classification
Cultivation and uses
Juniperus ashei
Juniperus chinensis
Juniperus communis
________
Juniperus drupacea
Juniperus excelsa
Juniperus foetidissima
Juniperus occidentalis
Juniperus oxycedrus
Uses
Juniperus sabina
Juniperus scopulorum
Uses
Juniperus virginiana
Description
Ecology
Metasequoia
Appearance
Paleontology
Sequoia
Range and ecology
Statistics
Reproduction
Largest Trees
Tallest Trees
Cultivation and uses
Sequoiadendron
Description
Distribution
Ecology
Discovery and naming
Largest trees
Sequoia superlatives
Uses
Cultivation
Taiwania
Taxodium
Species
Uses
Evolution
Taxodium distichum
Characteristics
Taxonomy WOWEE
Ecology
Cultivation and uses
Taxodium ascendens
Taxodium mucronatum
Thuja
Description
Ecology
Thuja occidentalis
Description
Ecology
Platycladus
Thuja plicata
Uses
Pinaceae
Fir
Classification
Abies amabilis
Abies balsamea
Abies concolor
Abies fraseri
Morphology
Distribution and ecology
Etymology
Abies grandis
Abies guatemalensis
Description
Taxonomy
Abies lasiocarpa
Abies magnifica
Abies nordmanniana
Abies pinsapo
Abies procera
Abies sibirica
Cedar
Description
Taxonomy
Ecology
Etymology
Atlas Cedar
Cultivation and uses
Cedrus deodara
Lebanon Cedar
Taxonomy
History symbolism and uses
Larch
Species and classification
Uses
European Larch
________
Dahurian Larch
Japanese Larch
Subalpine Larch
Western Larch
Siberian Larch
Spruce
Classification
Uses
Norway Spruce
Cultivation and uses
Picea breweriana
Picea engelmannii
________
Picea glauca
Varieties
Uses
________
Picea mariana
Ecology
Uses and symbolism
Picea omorika
Picea pungens
Picea rubens
Picea sitchensis
Uses
Morinda Spruce
Pine
Distribution
Morphology
Classification
Uses
Etymology
Whitebark Pine
Rocky Mountains Bristlecone Pine
________
Jack Pine
Turkish pine
________
Canary Island Pine
Swiss Pine
Summary
Mexican Pinyon
Coulter Pine
________
Pinus echinata
Colorado Pinyon
________
Limber Pine
Spruce Pine
Aleppo Pine
Jeffrey Pine
Uses
Sugar Pine
Folklore
________
Great Basin Bristlecone Pine
Physical characteristics
Age
Singleleaf Pinyon
________
Western White Pine
Mountain Pine
Bishop Pine
Morphology
________
Longleaf Pine
Pinus patula
________
Maritime Pine
Uses
Stone Pine
Ponderosa Pine
Subspecies
________
Table Mountain Pine
________
Parry Pinyon
Monterey Pine
Red Pine
Pitch Pine
Gray Pine
Pond Pine
Eastern White Pine
Description
Uses and symbolism
Scots Pine
Botany
Ecology and conservation
Cultivation and uses
Names
Loblolly Pine
________
Torrey Pine
Virginia Pine
Blue Pine
Uses
Douglasfir
Species and varieties
Uses
Bigcone Douglasfir
Characteristics
Uses
Coast Douglasfir
________
Tsuga
Description
Taxonomy
Ecology
Uses
Tsuga canadensis
Description
Distribution and habitat
Ecology
Cultivation
Tsuga caroliniana
Tsuga heterophylla
Ecology
Tsuga mertensiana
Description
Distribution and taxonomy
Ecology
Podocarpaceae
Taxonomy
Afrocarpus
Podocarpus
Uses
Afrocarpus gracilior
Podocarpus henkelii
Podocarpus macrophyllus
Symbolism cultivation and uses
Podocarpus neriifolius
Sciadopitys
Sciadopitys
Taxaceae
Taxus
Taxus baccata
Description
Etymology
________
Taxus brevifolia
Taxus canadensis
Taxus cuspidata
Uses
Taxus floridana
Cultivation and protection
Taxus wallichiana
Torreya
Torreya californica
________
Torreya taxifolia
________
Cycad
Origins
Taxonomy
History
Uses
Distribution
Extinction
Conservation
Horticulture
Cycas
Cycas circinalis
Cycas micronesica
Cycas pruinosa
Cycas revoluta
Encephalartos
Species
Ginkgoaceae
Ginkgo
Prehistory
Ginkgo biloba
Description
Distribution and habitat
Taxonomy and naming
Prehistory
Cultivation and uses
Hardwood
Aceraceae
Acer saccharum
Ecology
Conservation
Cultivation and uses
________
Acer floridanum
Description
Taxonomy
Distribution and ecology
Cultivation and uses
Acer buergerianum
Acer campestre
Ecology
Cultivation
Acer capillipes
Acer cappadocicum
Acer carpinifolium
Acer circinatum
Acer cissifolium
Acer crataegifolium
Acer davidii
Acer ginnala
Cultivation and uses
Acer glabrum
Ecology
Acer grandidentatum
Acer griseum
Acer japonicum
Acer laevigatum
Cultivation
Acer leucoderme
Acer lobelii
Acer macrophyllum
Cultivation and uses
Acer mandshuricum
Acer maximowiczianum
Acer miyabei
Acer monspessulanum
Cultivation
Acer negundo
Summary
Description
Subspecies
Ecology
Acer nigrum
Acer opalus
Acer palmatum
Summary
Cultivation and uses
Acer pensylvanicum
________
Acer platanoides
Classification and identification
Cultivation and uses
Acer pseudoplatanus
Description
Cultivation and uses
Acer rubrum
Summary
Description
Distribution and habitat
Ecology
Cultivation
Other uses
Acer rufinerve
Cultivation
Acer saccharinum
Description
Cultivation
Acer saccharum
Summary
Ecology
Conservation
Cultivation and uses
________
Acer sempervirens
Cultivation and uses
Acer shirasawanum
Summary
Acer sieboldianum
Summary
Acer spicatum
Summary
Acer triflorum
Acer truncatum
Agavaceae
Genera
Cordyline
Cabbage tree New Zealand
Furcraea
Nolina
Species
Beaucarnea recurvata
Yucca
Summary
Distribution
Species
Cultivars
Joshua tree
Summary
Ethnobotany
Conservation status
Yucca guatemalensis
Summary
Yucca gloriosa
Summary
Distribution
Cultivation
Anacardiaceae
Anacardium
Cashew
Cashew Industry
Uses
Medicine
Smoke tree
Cultivation and uses
Eurasian smoketree
Smoke tree
Cultivation and uses
Mango
Summary
Description
Cultivation and uses
Production and consumption
Cultivars
Mangifera caesia
Mangifera foetida
Mangifera odorata
Mangifera persiciformis
Mangifera siamensis
Mangifera sylvatica
Metopium brownei
Metopium toxiferum
Pistacia
Summary
Chinese Pistache
Terebinth
History
Uses
Pistachio
History
Cultivation and uses
Worldwide production
Sumac
Cultivation and uses
Rhus glabra
Summary
Medicinal Uses
Other Uses
Rhus typhina
Cultivation and uses
________
Schinus
Summary
Schinus molle
Cultivation and uses
Schinus terebinthifolius
Cultivation and uses
Spondias
Tahitian apple
Spondias mombin
Summary
Jocote
Spondias tuberosa Umbú
Toxicodendron
Avoidance treatment and safety
Species of Toxicodendron
Poison sumac
Description
Distribution
Toxicity
Urushiolinduced contact dermatitis
Exposure
Mechanism
Treatments
Annonaceae
Description
Uses
Genera
Annona
Description
Images
Insects and diseases
Annona cherimola
Common names
Distribution
Annona glabra
Common names
Description
Distribution
Annona reticulata
Summary
Distribution and habitat
Uses
Annona squamosa
Summary
Description
Distribution
Uses
Pawpaw
Names
Cultivation
Cultivation and uses
History
Medicinal properties
Asimina tetramera
Asimina triloba
Description
Apocynaceae
Summary
Distribution
Characteristics
Uses
Nerium oleander
Cultivation and uses
Toxicity
Potential medical use
Plumeria
Summary
Etymology and common names
In culture
In Fiction
Plumeria obtusa
Plumeria rubra
Thevetia
Holly
Description and ecology
Selected species
Etymology
Ilex amelanchier
Ilex aquifolium
Ilex cassine
Cultivation
Ilex decidua
Ilex montana
Ilex opaca
Description
Ecology
Cultivation and uses
Ilex vomitoria
Ilex mucronata
Araliaceae
Summary
________
Aralia
Summary
Aralia elata
Aralia spinosa
Description
Distribution
Uses
Cussonia
Summary
Cussonia spicata
Ethnomedical Uses
Schefflera
Summary
Name
Schefflera morototoni
Meryta
Summary
Cultivation
Meryta sinclairii
Description
Discovery
Schefflera actinophylla
Summary
Description
Trivia
Arecaceae
Summary
Morphology
Range and habitat
Taxonomy
Conservation
Uses and cultivation
Symbolism
Acoelorrhaphe
Cultivation and uses
Archontophoenix
Classification
Archontophoenix alexandrae
Archontophoenix cunninghamiana
Summary
Arenga
Bactris
Bactris gasipaes
Bismarckia
Description
Brahea
Brahea armata
Brahea edulis
Butia
Caryota
Chamaerops
Ecology
Cocos
Coconut
Summary
The fruit
Uses
Dypsis
Dypsis decaryi
Threatened Status
Dypsis lutescens
Howea
Howea forsteriana
Hyophorbe
Hyophorbe verschaffeltii
Jubaea
Summary
Livistona
Coco de mer
Summary
Description
Habit
Flowers
Fruit
Phoenix plant
Description
Canary Island Date Palm
Cultivation and uses
Phoenix dactylifera
Summary
Fruit
Cultivars of dates
Production
Food uses
Other uses
Traditional medicinal uses
Phoenix reclinata
Description
Phoenix roebelenii
Phoenix rupicola
Phytelephas
Phytelephas aequatorialis
Raffia palm
Rhapis
Summary
Rhapis excelsa
Description
Rhopalostylis
Summary
Classification
Rhopalostylis baueri
Distribution
Cultivation
Nikau
Summary
Variation
Roystonea
Description
Sabal
Sabal palmetto
Summary
Sabal uresana
Serenoa
Summary
________
Syagrus
Summary
Trachycarpus
Summary
________
Trachycarpus fortunei
Washingtonia
Summary
Washingtonia filifera
Summary
________
Washingtonia robusta
Summary
Wodyetia
Etymology
Distribution
Asphodelaceae
Aloe
Summary
Heraldry
Aloe bainesii
Aloe dichotoma
Asteraceae
Summary
Description
Ecology
Uses
Baccharis
Species
Baccharis halimifolia
Berberidaceae
Nandina
Cultivation
Betulaceae
Evolutionary History
Alder
Summary
Nitrogen fixation
Classification
Alnus acuminata
Alnus cordata
Alnus formosana
Alnus glutinosa
Uses
Alnus incana
Alnus maritima
Alnus nepalensis
Alnus incana
Alnus rhombifolia
Alnus rubra
Uses and cultivation
________
Alnus incana
Alnus viridis
Uses
Alnus subcordata
Alnus incana
Alnus viridis
Uses
Birch
Summary
Species
Uses
Betula alleghaniensis
Summary
Betula glandulosa
Betula lenta
Summary
Betula nana
Summary
Betula neoalaskana
Betula nigra
Cultivation and uses
Betula occidentalis
Betula papyrifera
Summary
Distribution and Conservation
Betula pendula
Summary
Cultivation
Cultural significance
Betula platyphylla
Betula populifolia
Summary
Betula pubescens
Betula pumila
Betula uber
Hornbeam
Summary
Carpinus betulus
Summary
Carpinus caroliniana
Description
Hazel
Species
Uses
Corylus americana
Corylus avellana
Botany
Cultivation and uses
Corylus colurna
Uses
Corylus cornuta
Ostrya
Species
Ostrya virginiana
Bignoniaceae
Summary
Distribution
Reproduction
Amphitecna
Catalpa
Summary
Southern Catalpa
Description
Distribution
History
Northern Catalpa
Jacaranda
Selected species
Cultivation and uses
Blue Jacaranda
Popular culture references
Medicinal uses
Kigelia
Cultivation and uses
Paulownia
Summary
Uses
Species
Paulownia tomentosa
Radermachera
Radermachera sinica
Spathodea
Summary
Tabebuia
Summary
Uses and ecology
Notable species
Tabebuia aurea
Summary
Tabebuia chrysantha
Summary
Habitat
Tabebuia chrysotricha
Tabebuia impetiginosa
Summary
Uses
Tabebuia roseoalba
Tecoma
Tecoma stans
Bombacaceae
Genera
Adansonia
Summary
Uses
In culture
________
Adansonia digitata
Vernacular names
Adansonia grandidieri
Adansonia gregorii
Summary
Alternate names
Adansonia madagascariensis
Summary
Adansonia perrieri
Adansonia rubrostipa
Adansonia suarezensis
Adansonia za
Bombax
Summary
Description
Bombax buonopozense
Summary
Uses
Bombax ceiba
Summary
Ceiba
Summary
Ceibo
Kapok
Summary
Uses
Ceiba speciosa
Uses
Gallery
Durian
Summary
Species
Cultivation and availability
Flavour and odour
History
Uses
Customs and beliefs
Cultural influence
Durio kutejensis
Balsa
Boraginaceae
Genera
Bourreria
Cordia
Species
Cordia alliodora
Burseraceae
Summary
Key characteristics
Tribes subtribes and genera
Order
Biogeography
Economic significance and ethnobotanic uses
Bursera
Bursera simaruba
Summary
Uses
Dacryodes excelsa
Buxaceae
Summary
Buxus
Summary
Buxus colchica
Buxus microphylla
Buxus sempervirens
Summary
Buxus vahlii
Canellaceae
Summary
Capparaceae
Capparis
Uses and ecology
Selected species
Caper
The plant
Culinary Uses
History
Caprifoliaceae
Taxonomy
Uses
Sambucus
Species groups
Uses
Folklore
Viburnum
Cultivation and uses
Viburnum lantana
Viburnum lentago
Uses
Viburnum nudum
Description
Viburnum opulus
Cultivation and uses
Viburnum prunifolium
Uses
Viburnum trilobum
Caricaceae
Carica
Papaya
Summary
Allergies and sideeffects
Casuarinaceae
Casuarina
Selected species
Cultivation
Casuarina cunninghamiana
Casuarina equisetifolia
Celastraceae
Euonymus
Euonymus atropurpureus
European spindle
Euonymus alatus
Euonymus fortunei
Summary
Japanese Spindle
Euonymus occidentalis
Gyminda
Maytenus
Cultivation and Uses
Schaefferia
Schaefferia frutescens
Katsura tree
Summary
Chrysobalanaceae
Summary
Chrysobalanus icaco
Maranthes
Maranthes corymbosa
Clusiaceae
Clusia
Calophyllum
Summary
Garcinia
Mangosteen
Maturation of the exocarp and edible aril
Nutrient content and antioxidant strength
Legend geographic origins and culinary applications
Combretaceae
Conocarpus
Conocarpus erectus
Uses
Laguncularia
Laguncularia racemosa
Terminalia plant
Terminalia catappa
________
Cornaceae
Dogwood
Summary
Characteristics of Dogwood
Etymology and other meanings
The legend of the dogwood
Cornus florida
Ecology
Northern Swamp Dogwood
Pagoda dogwood
Description
Pacific Dogwood
European Cornel
Kousa Dogwood
Cornus drummondii
Cyrillaceae
Cliftonia monophylla
Cyrilla
Cunoniaceae
Davidsonia
Davidsonia jerseyana
Ebenaceae
Diospyros
Species
Black sapote
Ebony
Uses
________
American persimmon
Summary
Description
Distribution
Cultivation
Elaeagnaceae
Elaeagnus
Selected species
Elaeagnus angustifolia
Cultivation
Elaeagnus commutata
Seabuckthorn
Summary
Uses
Organizations
Hippophae rhamnoides
Medicinal Uses
Shepherdia
Shepherdia argentea
Ericaceae
Genera
Arbutus
Species
Uses and symbolism
Pacific Madrone
Cultivation
Strawberry Tree
Description
Cultivation and uses
Clethra
Erica
Erica arborea
Summary
Kalmia
Kalmia latifolia
Description
Cultivation and uses
Toxicity
Lyonia Ericaceae
Sourwood
Description
Cultivation and uses
Rhododendron
Summary
Classification
Toxicology
Use in landscaping
Symbolism
Rhododendron calendulaceum
Summary
Rhododendron catawbiense
Classification
Rhododendron macrophyllum
History and cultivation
Symbolism
Rhododendron maximum
Summary
Ecology
Growth and management
Detrimental effects
Symbolism
Rhododendron occidentale
Rhododendron ponticum
History
Vaccinium
Vaccinium arboreum
Northern highbush blueberry
________
Euphorbiaceae
Uses
Aleurites
Vernicia fordii
Cultivation and uses
Candlenut
Uses
Mythology
Drypetes
Gallery of Drypetes roxburghii
Euphorbia
Summary
Description
Uses
Euphorbia candelabrum
Euphorbia tirucalli
Gymnanthes
Gymnanthes
Para rubber tree
Summary
Uses
Manchineel tree
Summary
Taxonomy
Endangered in Florida
Manihot
Cassava
Summary
History and economic impact
Farming
Ethnomedical uses
Uses
Caribbean
Central America
South America
Countries in Africa
Asia
Animal feed
Cassava pests
Sapium
Chinese tallow
Physical characteristics
Range and habitat
Uses
Savia genus
Fabaceae
Summary
Description
Uses
________
Acacia
Summary
Classification
Geography
Symbiosis
Uses
Phytochemistry of Acacia
Species
Faidherbia albida
Cultivation and uses
Acacia aneura
Summary
Habitat and ecology
Uses
Acacia angustissima
Summary
Natural habitat
Propagation
Acacia dealbata
Summary
Acacia farnesiana
Summary
Common names
Acacia greggii
Summary
Morphology
Botanical varieties
Acacia koa
Summary
Uses
________
Acacia longifolia
Subspecies
Acacia mearnsii
Summary
Habitat description
Weed impacts outside of native range
Geographical range
Management information
Reproduction
Acacia pendula
Acacia pycnantha
Summary
Distribution
Symbolic references
Acacia tortilis
Importance
Acacia tortuosa
Acacia xanthophloea
Albizia
Summary
Taxonomy
Albizia julibrissin
Summary
Names
Description
Cultivation and uses
Albizia lebbeck
Summary
Bauhinia
Description
Bauhinia purpurea
Summary
Bauhinia variegata
Caesalpinia
Summary
Caesalpinia pulcherrima
Medicinal Uses
Caragana
Caragana arborescens
Common names
Adaptation and Soil
Pests
Cassia
Production and uses
History
Ceratonia
Carob tree
Summary
Habitat
History
Traditional uses
Cercis
Cercis canadensis
Summary
Description
Cercis occidentalis
Cladrastis
Cladrastis kentukea
Summary
Distribution
Cultivation
Delonix
Delonix regia
Summary
Flowering season
Erythrina
Summary
Erythrina fusca
Erythrina coralloides
Erythrina falcata
Erythrina humeana
Gleditsia
Medicinal use
Honey locust
Summary
Uses
Kentucky coffeetree
Summary
Taxonomy
Cultivation
Inga
Inga edulis
Synonyms
Laburnum
Cultural references
Laburnum anagyroides
Leucaena
List of species
Leucaena leucocephala
Summary
________
Mimosa
Summary
Species
Parkinsonia
Parkinsonia aculeata
Pithecellobium
Current species
Formerly placed here
Albizia saman
Summary
Names
Prosopis
Species
Phytochemistry
Honey Mesquite
Prosopis juliflora
Names and taxonomy
Prosopis pallida
Summary
Prosopis pubescens
Uses
Robinia
Species
Bristly locust
New Mexican locust
Black locust
Summary
Cultivation
Uses
History
Sophora
Summary
Styphnolobium
Species
Tamarind
Summary
Uses
Tipuana
Tipuana tipu
Fagaceae
Classification
Genera
Distribution
Chestnut
Summary
Uses
Cultivation
American Chestnut
Description
Chestnut blight
Uses
Future
Chinese Chestnut
Cultivation and uses
Castanea pumila
Summary
Castanopsis
Summary
Uses and ecology
Selected species
Castanopsis cuspidata
Summary
Chrysolepis
Beech
Uses
American Beech
European Beech
Habitat
Phenology
Uses
Lithocarpus
Lithocarpus densiflorus
Uses
Oak
Summary
Hybridization
Uses
Diseases and pests
Toxicity
Historical note on Linnaean species
Sawtooth Oak
Coast Live Oak
Quercus alba
Palestine Oak
Quercus chrysolepis
Morphology
Range and habitat
Scarlet Oak
Northern Pin Oak
Quercus falcata
Summary
Hungarian Oak
Summary
Garry Oak
Summary
Georgia oak
Summary
Shingle Oak
Description
Cultivation and uses
Quercus laevis
Laurel oak
Overcup Oak
Bur oak
Blackjack oak
Summary
Swamp Chestnut Oak
Chinkapin oak
Summary
Water oak
Quercus oglethorpensis
Pin oak
Summary
________
Quercus phellos
Cultivation and uses
Chestnut oak
Summary
Description
Northern Red Oak
Summary
Introduced range
Uses
Shumard Oak
Cork Oak
Summary
Post oak
Summary
Eastern Black Oak
Summary
Named Hybrids involving Black Oak
Southern live oak
Ribes
Uses
Ribes alpinum
Blackcurrant
History
Nutrients and uses
Cooking
Redcurrant
Cultivation and uses
Ribes sanguineum
Summary
Gooseberry
Summary
Growth Habit
Climate
Propagation
Pests
Etymology
Other fruits called gooseberries
Hamamelidaceae
Witchhazel
Summary
Hamamelis virginiana
Summary
Sweetgum
Uses
Liquidambar styraciflua
Summary
Distribution
Cultivation
Uses
History
Loropetalum
Loropetalum chinense
Cultivation and uses
Hippocastanaceae
Aesculus
Summary
Description
Cultivation
Uses
Aesculus flava
Aesculus glabra
Aesculus hippocastanum
Summary
Uses
Aesculus parviflora
Aesculus pavia
Illiciaceae
Illicium
Illicium floridanum
Juglandaceae
Hickory
Carya aquatica
Habitat
Life History
Special Uses
Bitternut Hickory
Scrub Hickory
Pignut Hickory
Summary
Life History
Damaging Agents
Special Uses
Pecan
Summary
Uses
Shellbark Hickory
Habitat
Life History
Special Uses
Carya ovalis
Physical Description
Distribution
Shagbark hickory
Mockernut Hickory
Habitat
Associated Forest Cover
Life History
Special Uses
Walnut
Summary
Cultivation and uses
Health aspects of walnuts
Juglans cinerea
Juglans nigra
Lauraceae
Classification
Genera
Cinnamomum
Selected species
Cassia
Production and uses
History
Cinnamomum camphora
Name in other languages
Culinary uses of camphor
Camphor laurel in Australia
Cinnamon
History
Cultivation
Uses
Laurus
Bay Laurel
Uses and symbolism
Chemical constituents
Licaria
Nectandra
Persea
Avocado
Summary
Dispersion beyond Middle America
Nutritional value
Uses
Toxicity to animals
Avocadorelated trade war
Sassafras
Species
Uses
Sassafras albidum
Summary
Ecology
History
Umbellularia
Pathology
Lecythidaceae
List of genera
Brazil nut
Summary
Reproduction
Nomenclature
Uses
Radioactivity
Couroupita
Cannonball tree
Lythraceae
Genera
Lagerstroemia
Crapemyrtle
Selected species
Lagerstroemia indica
Magnoliaceae
Summary
Biogeography
Systematics
Liriodendron
Description
Distribution
Cultivation and use
________
Liriodendron chinense
Cultivation and use
Liriodendron tulipifera
Summary
Distribution
Naming
Cultivation and use
Cultivars
History
Magnolia
Summary
Origin of the name Magnolia
Early references and descriptions
Nomenclature and classification
Selected species of Magnolia
Uses
________
Magnolia acuminata
Summary
Magnolia fraseri
Magnolia grandiflora
Cultivation and uses
Gallery
Magnolia macrophylla
Summary
Magnolia stellata
Description
Cultivation
Magnolia tripetala
Magnolia virginiana
Malpighiaceae
Byrsonima
Malpighia
Acerola
Other uses
Malvaceae
Taxonomy
Description
Uses
Hibiscus
Description
Species
Hibiscus syriacus
Hibiscus tiliaceus
Lagunaria
Thespesia
Portia tree
Uses
Melastomataceae
Genera
Tetrazygia
Meliaceae
Uses
Genera
Cedrela
Uses
Cedrela odorata
Summary
Melia plant
Melia azedarach
Description
Uses and ecology
Swietenia
Swietenia macrophylla
Swietenia mahagoni
Summary
Moraceae
Classification
Antiaris
Antiaris toxicaria
Artocarpus
Species
Breadfruit
Description
Uses
In culture
Jackfruit
Summary
Names
Cempedak
Marang
Brosimum
Breadnut
Broussonetia
Paper Mulberry
Paper Mulberry as an Invasive Species
Cecropia
Ficus
Summary
Ecology and uses
Fig pollination and fig fruit
Selected species
List of famous fig trees
Ficus benghalensis
Summary
Ficus benjamina
Cultivation
Destructive roots
Common fig
Summary
Propagation
________
Ficus elastica
Ficus racemosa
Ficus lyrata
Summary
Ficus macrophylla
Description
A potentially invasive species
Ficus microcarpa
Ficus nota
Sacred fig
Plaksa
Ficus rubiginosa
Summary
Ecology
Ficus sycomorus
Ficus virens
Osageorange
Summary
Description
Distribution
Cultivation
History
Morus plant
Uses and cultivation
Morus alba
Cultivation and uses
Ethnomedical Uses
Morus mesozygia
Morus nigra
Morus rubra
Moringa
Summary
Moringa oleifera
Summary
Malnutrition
Cultivation
Culinary uses
Other uses
Popular beliefs
Muntingiaceae
Muntingia
Myoporaceae
Myoporum
Myoporum laetum
Summary
Toxicity
Myricaceae
Myrica
Summary
Myrica californica
Myrica cerifera
Taxonomy
Uses
Myrsinaceae
Genera
Ardisia
Selected species
Myrsina
Myrtaceae
Genera
Agonis
Agonis flexuosa
Summary
Cultivation
Callistemon
Species
Callistemon viminalis
Summary
Lidflower
Species
Corymbia
Species
Corymbia ficifolia
West Australian Marri
Eucalyptus
Summary
Description
Species and hybridism
Related genera
Tall timber
Animal relationships
Hazards
Cultivation and uses
History
Plantation and ecological problems
Eucalyptus caesia
Summary
Eucalyptus cinerea
Corymbia citriodora
Eucalyptus cladocalyx
Eucalyptus deglupta
Summary
Eucalyptus globulus
Summary
Uses
Eucalyptus grandis
Eucalyptus nicholii
Eucalyptus polyanthemos
Summary
Taxonomy
Distribution
Cultivation
Eucalyptus robusta
Summary
Distribution and habitat
Eucalyptus rudis
Eucalyptus saligna
Eucalyptus sideroxylon
Summary
Uses
Eugenia
Selected species
Eugenia aggregata
Grumichama
Eugenia luschnathiana
Eugenia stipitata
Eugenia uniflora
Eugenia uvalha
Feijoa
Description of fruit and plant
Consumption and uses
Cultivation
Leptospermum
Summary
Leptospermum laevigatum
Lophostemon
Lophostemon confertus
Melaleuca
Summary
Uses
Weeds
Melaleuca linariifolia
Melaleuca nesophila
Melaleuca quinquenervia
Summary
Distribution and habitat
Cultivation
Metrosideros
Distribution
Metrosideros species
Pohutukawa
Description
Conservation
Metrosideros polymorpha
Distribution
Uses
Conservation
Mythology
Metrosideros robusta
Distribution
Hemiepiphytic growth habit
Cultivation
Metrosideros umbellata
Summary
Description
Myrcianthes
Myrtle
Uses in myth and ritual
Guava
Cultivation
Culinary uses
Nutrients and dietary antioxidant value
Selected species
Psidium guajava
Psidium havanense
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa
Cultivation and uses
Syzygium
Summary
Clove
Summary
Uses
Toxicity
Active compounds
Jambul
Syzygium luehmannii
Syzygium oleosum
Syzygium paniculatum
Summary
Syzygium samarangense
Cultivation and uses
Tristaniopsis
Tristaniopsis laurina
Nothofagus
Summary
Taxonomy
Nothofagus antarctica
Summary
________
Nothofagus betuloides
Summary
Nothofagus cunninghamii
Nothofagus dombeyi
Summary
Nothofagus menziesii
Cultivation and uses
Nothofagus moorei
Habitat
Nothofagus nitida
Nothofagus obliqua
Nothofagus pumilio
Nothofagus truncata
Nyctaginaceae
Guapira
Pisonia
Pisonia brunoniana
Summary
In Hawaii
Pisonia grandis
Nyssaceae
Tupelo
In pop culture
Water Tupelo
Black Tupelo
Description
Habitat
Uses
Olacaceae
Schoepfiaceae
Oleaceae
Summary
Description
Uses
Chionanthus
Chionanthus virginicus
Summary
Cultivation and uses
Forestiera
Forestiera acuminata
Ash tree
Summary
Threats
Uses
Other name uses Green Tree
Fraxinus americana
Cultivation and uses
Fraxinus angustifolia
Fraxinus excelsior
Ecology
Fraxinus latifolia
Fraxinus nigra
Ecology
Fraxinus ornus
Cultivation and uses
Fraxinus pennsylvanica
Ecology
Uses
Fraxinus profunda
Ecology
Fraxinus quadrangulata
Fraxinus velutina
Privet
Problems
Ligustrum japonicum
Cultivation and uses
Ligustrum ovalifolium
Ligustrum sinense
Noronhia
Species
Noronhia emarginata
Summary
Olea
Olive
Summary
History
Cultivation and uses
Pests and diseases
Olive as an invasive species
Osmanthus
Oxalidaceae
Averrhoa
Carambola
Summary
Fruit description
Uses for star fruit
History
Pandanaceae
Pandanus
Cultivation and uses
Pandanus utilis
Phyllanthaceae
Bischofia javanica
Uses
Phyllanthus
Summary
Medical interest
Gallery
Otaheite gooseberry
Summary
Origin and distribution
Miscellaneous
Indian gooseberry
Summary
Traditional uses
Other names and uses
Phyllanthus niruri
Pittosporaceae
Pittosporum
Summary
Platanaceae
Platanus
Natural history
Phylogeny
Species
Diseases
American sycamore
Summary
Distribution
History
Platanus orientalis
Summary
Myth and lore
California Sycamore
Poaceae
Summary
Grass evolution
Economic importance
Ecological importance
Grass and society
Dendrocalamus
Summary
Polygonaceae
Summary
Description
Selected genera
Coccoloba
Selected species
Cultivation and uses
Coccoloba diversifolia
Coccoloba uvifera
Classification
Proteaceae
Description
Taxonomy
Cultivation and Uses
Alloxylon
Classification
Alloxylon flammeum
Description
Banksia
Summary
Description
Taxonomy
Distribution and Habitat
Ecology
Uses
Cultural references
Banksia ashbyi
Description
Banksia integrifolia
Summary
Names
Taxonomy
Distribution and habitat
Ecology
Cultivation
Other uses
Banksia seminuda
Summary
Taxonomy
Banksia ser Dryandra
Taxonomy
Banksia proteoides
Taxonomy
Distribution and habitat
Embothrium
Embothrium coccineum
Grevillea
Summary
Uses
Grevillea robusta
Summary
Cultivation
Hakea
Hakea laurina
Leucadendron
Leucadendron argenteum
Summary
Leucospermum
Macadamia
Summary
Macadamia integrifolia
Macadamia tetraphylla
Mimetes
Persoonia
Ecology
Protea
Classification
Species
National symbol
Protea caffra
Description
Protea cynaroides
Stenocarpus
Waratah
Taxonomy
Popular Culture
Telopea speciosissima
Taxonomy
Distribution and habitat
Symbolic and artistic references
Punica
Pomegranate
Summary
Etymology
Cultivation and uses
Pomegranates and symbolism
Other
Rhamnaceae
Genera
Colubrina
Colubrina
Reynosia
Buckthorn
Classification
Rhamnus cathartica
Rhamnus frangula
Rhamnus purshiana
Summary
Ziziphus
Jujube
Summary
Nomenclature
Names in other languages
Rhizophoraceae
Summary
Rhizophora
Rhizophora apiculata
Rhizophora mangle
Summary
Description
Reproduction
Rosaceae
Amelanchier
Selected species
Etymology
Amelanchier alnifolia
Summary
Cultivation and uses
Amelanchier amabilis
Amelanchier arborea
Cultivation
Amelanchier asiatica
Amelanchier bartramiana
Amelanchier canadensis
Amelanchier humilis
Amelanchier interior
Amelanchier laevis
Amelanchier ovalis
Amelanchier sanguinea
Amelanchier sinica
Amelanchier spicata
Amelanchier utahensis
Aronia
Uses
Chaenomeles
Common names
Chaenomeles cathayensis
Chaenomeles japonica
Chaenomeles speciosa
Summary
Cotoneaster
Summary
Crataegus
Selected species
Uses
Folklore
________
Crataegus aestivalis
Crataegus douglasii
Summary
Crataegus flava
Crataegus mollis
Crataegus monogyna
Crataegus phaenopyrum
Quince
Summary
Origins
Cultivation and uses
Cultural associations
Malus
Summary
Uses
Malus coronaria
Description
History
Apple
Summary
Botanical information
History
Apple cultivars
Apple production
Commerce
Human consumption
Health benefits
Malus floribunda
Malus sieversii
Malus sylvestris
Mespilus
Summary
In literature
Mespilus canescens
Mespilus germanica
Photinia
Prunus
Summary
Classification
Uses
Palaeobotanical models
Prunus americana
Prunus andersonii
Apricot
Summary
Cultivation and uses
Etymology
In culture
Wild Cherry
Cultivation and uses
Nomenclature
Cultural history
Cherry plum
Summary
Sour Cherry
Summary
Plum
Cultivation and uses
Etymology
Prunus emarginata
Prunus fasciculata
Uses
Palaeobotanical evidence
Prunus fremontii
Prunus ilicifolia
Damson
Prunus laurocerasus
Prunus lusitanica
Prunus maackii
Summary
Prunus mahaleb
Prunus maritima
Prunus mexicana
Prunus nigra
Summary
Bird Cherry
Summary
Pin cherry
Reproduction
Uses
Peach
Summary
History Of The Peach
Cultivation
Peaches in Asian tradition
Prunus pumila
Capulin
Origin
Season and climate
Nonfood uses of the Capulin
Black Cherry
Summary
Prunus serrulata
Summary
Prunus spinosa
Prunus subcordata
Chokecherry
Pseudocydonia
Pyracantha
Pyracantha coccinea
Pear
Summary
History
Botany
Cultivation
Uses
European Pear
Summary
Cultivation
Pyrus nivalis
Pyrus pyrifolia
Culture
Cultivars
Gallery
Pyrus salicifolia
Rhaphiolepis
Rhaphiolepis indica
Sorbus
Summary
Wine
Sorbus americana
Description
Distribution
Ecological aspects
Sorbus aria
Sorbus aucuparia
Sorbus cashmiriana
Sorbus decora
Sorbus sitchensis
Description
Spiraea
Uses and toxicity
Selected species
Rubiaceae
Casasia
Cephalanthus
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cinchona
Species
Cinchona alkaloids
History of cultivation
________
Cinchona pubescens
Exostema
Guettarda
Hamelia
Hamelia patens
Summary
Morinda
Species
Noni
Summary
Nutrients
Uses
Noni juice
Rutaceae
Characteristics
Notable species
Calodendrum
Calodendrum capense
Citrus
Summary
Description
Uses
List of citrus fruits
Key lime
Bitter orange
Uses in cooking
Health supplement status
Grapefruit
History
Production
Colors and flavors
Kumquat
Summary
Cultivation and uses
Etymology
________
Lemon
Summary
Culinary uses
Nonculinary uses
Lemon alternatives
Citron
Summary
Uses
Origin and distribution
The Citron in antiquity
Mandarin orange
Varieties and characteristics
Ethnomedical uses
Processing
Orange fruit
Fruit
Production
Juice and other products
________
Trifoliate orange
Hoptree
Taxonomy
Zanthoxylum
Summary
Zanthoxylum clavaherculis
Potentially confused species
Zanthoxylum flavum
Salicaceae
Populus
Classification
Cultivation and uses
Populus alba
Cultivation and uses
Populus angustifolia
Populus balsamifera
Summary
Balsam poplar
Eastern Cottonwood
Black Poplar
Populus tremuloides
Populus trichocarpa
Summary
Range
Use as a model species
Genome
Nomenclature
Willow
Summary
Description
Cultivation
Ecological issues
Willow in human culture
Salix alba
Ecology
Uses
Salix amygdaloides
Salix babylonica
Description
Cultivation and uses
Etymology
Salix caprea
Salix discolor
Summary
Salix exigua
Salix floridana
Salix fragilis
Ecology
Salix lucida
Salix lasiolepis
Salix lucida
Salix nigra
Summary
Salix pentandra
Salix purpurea
Summary
Salix scouleriana
Description
Ecology
Reproduction
Benefits
Salix viminalis
Sapindaceae
Characteristics
Classification
Cupaniopsis
Dodonaea
Koelreuteria
Uses
Koelreuteria paniculata
Cultivation
Lychee
Cultivation and uses
Cultivars
Name in different languages
Lychee in space
Sapindus
Sapotaceae
Sideroxylon
Selected species
Sideroxylon lanuginosum
Chrysophyllum
Summary
Chrysophyllum cainito
In Literature
Manilkara
Balatá
Sapodilla
Summary
Other Names
Simaroubaceae
Ailanthus
Species
________
Ailanthus altissima
Summary
Description
Taxonomy
Distribution and habitat
Ecology
Uses
Culture
Alvaradoa
Picramnia
Solanaceae
Summary
Alkaloids
Nutritional importance
Nicotiana
Cultivation
Selected species
Nicotiana glauca
Solanum
Selected species
Staphyleaceae
Bladdernut
Staphylea trifolia
Sterculiaceae
Genera
Brachychiton
Summary
Brachychiton populneus
Summary
Brachychiton rupestris
Cultivation
Kola nut
Summary
Pharmacological effects
Chemical composition
Safety issues
Cola acuminata
Dombeya
Dombeya rotundifolia
Firmiana
Firmiana simplex
Theobroma
Cacao
History of cultivation
Currency system
Cultivation
Pests
Strelitziaceae
Ravenala madagascariensis
Ravenala madagascariensis
Strelitzia
In The Media
Strelitzia nicolai
Cultivation
Styracaceae
Halesia
Taxonomy
Cultivation and uses
Halesia diptera
Halesia tetraptera
Styrax
Uses and ecology
Selected species
Symplocos
Summary
Tamaricaceae
Tamarix
Theaceae
Family Characteristics
Distribution
Camellia
Summary
Cultivation and uses
As a favourite flower
Camellia japonica
Camellia sinensis
Summary
Cultivation
Varieties
Medical uses
Franklinia
Summary
Description
Cultivation
Gordonia
Summary
Loblollybay
Summary
Soils and topography
Life history
Special uses
Genetics
Stewartia
Stewartia malacodendron
Description
Stewartia ovata
Stewartia pseudocamellia
Cultivation
________
Theophrastaceae
Jacquinia
________
Thymelaeaceae
Daphne plant
Daphne laureola
Daphne mezereum
Toxicity
Tiliaceae
Bentham Hooker system
Cronquist system
APG II system
Tilia
Summary
Name
Description
Uses
History
Cultural significance
Tilia americana
Description
Taxonomy
Tilia cordata
Cultivation and uses
Tilia heterophylla
Uses
Tilia platyphyllos
Summary
Medicinal Uses
Tilia tomentosa
Cultivation and uses
Ulmaceae
Summary
Celtis
Description
Selected species
Celtis australis
Summary
History
Japanese Hackberry
Celtis laevigata
Cultivation Uses
Celtis lindheimeri
Celtis occidentalis
Description
Distribution
Cultivation Uses
Celtis tala
Morphology
Celtis tenuifolia
Planera aquatica
Planera aquatica
Elm
Summary
Cultivation and uses
Pests and diseases
Notable elm trees
Ulmus alata
Cultivars
Nurseries
Seed suppliers
Ulmus americana
Summary
Cultivation and uses
Dutch Elm Disease
Cultivars
Hybrid cultivars
Arboreta etc accessions
Nurseries
Seed suppliers
Ulmus bergmanniana Bergmanns Elm
Subspecies varieties
Etymology
Ulmus canescens
Arboreta etc accessions
Chestnutleafed Elm
Summary
Arboreta etc accessions
Ulmus chenmoui
Summary
Hybrid cultivars
Ulmus crassifolia
Summary
Cultivars
Nurseries
Ulmus davidiana
Summary
Recent testing at The Ohio State University
Subspecies varieties
Nurseries
Ulmus davidiana var japonica
Summary
Cultivars
Hybrid cultivars
Nurseries
Ulmus gaussenii
Arboreta etc accessions
Wych Elm
Summary
Subspecies
Dutch Elm Disease
Cultivars
Arboreta etc specimens
Nurseries
Seed suppliers
Ulmus glaucescens
Subspecies varieties
Ulmus harbinensis
Ulmus laciniata Manchurian Elm
Summary
Subspecies varieties
Nurseries
Ulmus laciniata var nikkoensis
Arboreta etc accessions
Ulmus laevis
Summary
Forms
Arboreta etc accessions
Nurseries
Ulmus lamellosa
Summary
Arboreta etc accessions
Ulmus macrocarpa Largefruited Elm
Subspecies varieties
Nurseries
Ulmus mexicana
Uses
Ulmus minor var plotii
Hybrids hybrid cultivars
Arbroreta etc accessions
Ulmus parvifolia
Summary
Cultivation and uses
Species varieties
Hybrid cultivars
Nurseries
Images
Ulmus parvifolia var coreana
Ulmus procera
Summary
Dutch elm disease
Overseas trees
Uses
Nurseries
Ulmus pumila
Summary
Ecology
Cultivation and uses
Subpecies varieties
Arboreta etc accessions
Nurseries
Ulmus rubra
Summary
Uses
Hybrid cultivars
Nurseries
Ulmus serotina
Arboreta etc accessions
Ulmus szechuanica
Summary
Nurseries
Ulmus thomasii
Arboreta accessions
Ulmus uyematsui Arishan Elm
Nurseries
Ulmus villosa
Summary
Arboreta etc accessions
Ulmus wallichiana
Summary
Subspecies varieties
Arboreta etc accessions
Trema
Summary
Zelkova
Summary
Cultivation and uses
Zelkova serrata
Cultivation and uses
Verbenaceae
Avicennia
Avicennia germinans
Summary
Growth
Duranta
Vitex
Vitex agnuscastus
Summary
All plant families by their common name
Taxonomic families of flowering plants angiosperms in alphabetical order
Taxonomic families of nonflowering plants gymnosperms in alphabetical order
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