A History of Christianity in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, 1450-1990: A Documentary Sourcebook

Front Cover
Klaus Koschorke, Frieder Ludwig, Mariano Delgado, Roland Spliesgart
Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2007 - Religion - 426 pages
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in cooperation with Roland Spliesgart

The map of world Christianity has changed dramatically in just the last century. Today the majority of Christians live in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, making Christianity a world religion as never before in history.

Given that global reality, Klaus Koschorke, Frieder Ludwig, and Mariano Delgado have created the first comparative documentary history of Christianity for these regions covering the period 1450?1990. Taking the changing ecumenical conditions into account, this volume enlarges the horizon of classical church historiography. In contrast to the prevailing Western perspectives on the history of Christianity in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, voice is given here to the multitude of local initiatives, specific experiences, and varieties of Christianity in very diverse cultural contexts ? addressing such questions as the colonial conquest, slavery, and the demand for ecclesiastical independence.

  

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Contents

I ASIA 14501600
3
2 Nestorians and Armenian Christians in Southern Asia 1508
4
3 Jews and Christians in China
6
B Early Portuguese Contacts
7
5 Fictitious and Actual Contacts with the St Thomas Christians
8
a Visiting a Church in Calicut 1498
9
b Failure with the Samorin in Calicut 1498
10
6 The Arrival of the Portuguese from an Arab Perspective
11
d Colonization and Mission in German East Africa 1886
210
f Bruno Gutmann on the Lutheran Mission 1909
211
168 Rebellion and Pacification Efforts
212
The Christian Companies of the Basel Mission
213
169 African Christians and Adaptation of European Ideas
214
Pastor Robert Kwamis Luther Play 1900
215
B Concepts of Ecclesiastical Independence
216
Christian Revival in Africa
217

7 St Thomas Christians on the Arrival of the Portuguese 1504
12
C The Organization of Colonial Churches
13
b The Exercise of Patronage in the Philippines 1580
14
a The Raising of Goa to the Seat of the Bishopric 1534
15
d The Introduction of the Inquisition in Goa 1543
16
D Francis Xavier in Asia 15421552
17
The Sultanate of Ternate
18
12 Japan
19
13 Plans for China
20
E Intercultural Contacts
21
b Filipino Religion as The Work of the Devil
22
Religious Debates between Jesuits and Buddhists 1551
23
F Forms of Local Christianity
24
The Martyrs of Mannar 1544
26
G St Thomas Christians and the Portuguese before 1599
27
20 Forced Integration at the Synod of Diamper 1599
28
II ASIA 16001800
30
22 Jesuits at the Court of Mogul Emperor Akbar I
31
a Edict on the Closure of the Land June 1636
32
B Accommodation Strategies and the Rites Controversy
33
a Letter from November 13 1584
34
c The True Meaning of the Doctrine of the Lord of Heaven 1603
35
d A Chinese Voice on Ricci
36
Instruction of the Propaganda of 1659
38
Emperor Kang Hsis Edict of Tolerance 1692
39
C Colonial Forms of Protestantism
41
30 The English in Bombay 1698
42
31 Life in Dutch VOC Churches
43
D Indigenous Forms of Christianity
45
33 Autonomously Founded Communities in Korea since 1784
46
Extracts from the Essentials of the Lords Teaching by Chong Yakjong Augustine ca 1796
47
c The First Martyrs 1791
48
E Tranquebar 1706 and Its Consequences
49
35 Religious Dialogue with Hindu Brahmans
50
36 Conflicts with the Colonial Authorities
51
b Slave Trade as One of the Controversial Issues
52
38 Ordination of the First Indian Pastor Aaron 1733
54
III ASIA 18001890
55
41 Debates about the Admission of Missionaries to British India 1813
56
a Protests against the Socalled Missions Clauses
57
A New Beginning in Serampore 1800
58
44 Bible Translations and Book Printing 1811
59
45 The Founding of Serampore College 1818
60
46 Ecumenical Visions
61
C Mission as a Means of Modernization
62
49 Struggle Against the Social Evils of Hinduism
63
A Missionary at the Royal Court in Mandalay 1868
64
D Public Response NonChristian Voices
65
b An Appeal to the Christian Public 1823
66
52 Religious Debates in Colonial Ceylon 1873
67
Buddhist Voices on Christianity
68
A Forced Opening
69
Forced Missionary Protectorate from 1842
70
b The Bejing Convention of 1860
71
a The Trial of a Foreigner
72
b Forced Opening 1853ff
73
d Repeal of the AntiChristian Edict 1878
74
Edict against the Christians 1851
75
Protestant Beginnings since 1884
76
b The First American Missionaries
77
F Indigenous Versions of Christianity
78
b From Their Scripture The Beginning of Heaven and Earth
79
Migrants as Multipliers 1854
80
The Taiping Rebellion 18501864
81
b The Ten Commandments and the Lords Prayer among the Taiping
82
c Taiping as a Popular Movement
83
d Taiping China and the Christian Nations
84
IV ASIA 18901945
85
b The Goals of the Indian National Congress 1885
86
64 The Rise of Buddhism in Ceylon Sri Lanka
87
b The Situation around 1900
88
B Attempts at Indigenization in the Protestant Churches
89
a Indian Christians and the Vision of an Indian Church 1908
90
c Characteristics of a Native Church in China 1924
91
68 Christian Ashrams 1921
92
C Local Ecumenical Initiatives and Edinburgh 1910
93
70 The World Missionary Conference in Edinburgh 1910 as a Catalyst
94
b Message from the Conference on World Christianity
95
72 Local Forms of Cooperation
97
74 Indigenous Bishops in China
99
75 The Abolition of the AntiRites Oath 1939
100
Petition for an Independent Native Church 1878
101
The National Church of India Madras 1886
102
c National Church and Mission Churches
103
Kanzo Uchimuras NonChurch 1901
104
Aglipays Iglesia Filipina Independiente 18981902
105
F Developments in the 1920s and 1930s
106
b Massacre in a Village Church
107
The AntiChristian Movement 19221925
108
Gandhi on Christianity
109
b Western Christianity and the Sermon on the Mount 1921
110
b Tambaram and the Young Churches
111
G The Asian Churches during World War II
112
85 Persecution of Christians in Territories Occupied by Japan
113
V ASIA 19451990
114
a The South India Church Merger in 1947
115
c Restriction of Missionary Activities
116
a From the Declaration of Independence 1945
117
Japanese Christians Confession of Responsibility 1946
118
B Under Communist Rule
119
c Expulsion of Foreign Missionaries
120
e Consecration of Bishops without Romes Consent
121
Kim Il Sung on the Sermon on the Mount
122
C Developments in the 1960s
123
Buddhist Nationalism and the Churches
124
a Cultural Revolution as a Permanent Process
125
Explosive Church Growth
126
The Coup of 1965 and Its Consequences
127
99 The Christian Conference of Asia 1973
128
100 The Concept of Contextualization 1972
129
102 Theology of Liberation and Asian Religiosity
131
D Trends at the End of the 1980s
132
104 The Rosary Revolution in the Philippines
133
b The Ecclesiastical Broadcasting Station Veritas February 1986
134
106 Warning of Exaggerated Contextualization 1982
135
107 A New Urgency for Interreligious Dialogue 1986
136
AFRICA
137
I AFRICA 14501600
139
a The Conversion of the Queen of Sheba
140
EthiopianEgyptian Contacts 1540
141
Traces of Nubian Christianity
142
B European Expansion and New Discoveries
143
113 The Papal Privileges of Portugal
144
114 Mission and Violence
145
116 Destruction of Eastern African City States 1505
146
C Encounters
147
118 An African Ambassador from Benin in Portugal
148
b Local African Recollections
149
D African Catholicism in the Congo
150
121 The Manikongo Complains about Unfit Priests 1514
151
122 Complaints about the Slave Trade 1526
153
E Ethiopia and Portugal
154
124 The War against the Muslims in the Kings Chronicle
155
125 The Confessio Fidei of Emperor Galawdewos 1555
157
126 Lent and Easter in the Ethiopian Church
159
II AFRICA 16001800
160
Trade in Africa
161
129 A Protestant on the Portuguese Slave Trade
162
130 Account of the Slave Trade by an African Priest
163
131 Mission to Slaves in South Africa 1658
164
B Catholic Rulers
165
Complaints about Shortage of Priests 1692
166
Baptism of King Manamotapa 1652
167
C Catholic Experiments and Failures
168
Report of a Jesuit 1723
169
Traditions Difficult to Overcome
170
139 Execution of Three Capuchins in Ethiopia 1684
171
Lutheran Mission Initiatives 1673
172
141 An African Pastor Concerning India as Model
173
142 The Moravians in South and West Africa
174
b Moravian Baptisms Rejected 1743
176
The Beginnings in West Africa 1737
177
Letter of Application 1735
178
D Protests against the Slave Trade
179
Speech at the Parliament 1789
180
146 Olaudah Equiano on His Enslavement 1789
181
147 Opposition to the Anti Slavery Movement
182
III AFRICA 18001890
184
149 The Tasks of the Church Missionary Society
185
Samuel Ajayi Crowther 1837
186
151 AfroAmerican Missionaries for Liberia 1833
188
a Commerce Civilization Christianity
189
154 Negotiations of the Basel Mission in Ghana 1835
190
Openings in Swaziland 1860
191
156 Casalis and Chief Moshesh in Lesotho 1833
192
Cardinal Lavigerie ca 1877
193
C Livingstone and Other Explorers
194
An Open Door for Missions
195
A German in Muslim West Africa
196
Conversion of Sechele
197
D Mission Initiatives and African Rulers
198
b Missions Prohibited by Queen Ranavalona I 1835
199
c Resolution on Missionary Supervision
200
164 Buganda Uganda
201
c Invitation to All European Nations 1890
202
British and Protestant
203
e Triumph Song of the Ugandan Protestants
204
Africas Potential 1868
206
166 South African Voices
207
IV AFRICA 18901945
208
Englands Destiny as a Christian Nation 1886
209
Inaugural Sermon in the African Church 1902
218
171 Ethiopianism in South Africa
219
b Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God
220
172 Prophetic Movements in Southern Africa
221
b Early Accounts of Visions and Miracles
222
Garrick Braide in Nigeria
223
b Liberation from Evil Spirits
224
d James Johnson Elijah II
225
Orthodox and Independent
226
An Article in Pantainos 1947
227
C Developments within the Roman Catholic Church
228
a A Missionary Chronicle about Hutus and Tutsis 1905
229
The First Ordination of an African 1931
230
New Orientation in Education 1928
231
D Themes of the 1920s and 1930s
232
c J E K Aggrey Called to Achimota Ghana
233
United we stand divided we fall 1920
234
183 Italian Occupation of Ethiopia and Nigerian Critique
235
Christianity and Social Renewal
236
African Experiences in India
237
E National Movements and Christianity
238
Criticism of Missionary Work
239
Religious Tolerance
240
Protest 1924
241
Christianity and Individualism 1938
242
193 Julius Nyerere and the Maryknoll Fathers
243
V AFRICA 19451990
244
195 PanAfrican Congress Manchester 1945
245
197 All Africa Conference of Churches 1963
246
198 Unity and Freedom in the New Tanganyika
247
199 Protestant Missions and Rebellion in Angola 1969
248
B African Churches and Nation Building
249
Conciencism 1964
250
Verandah Boys Creed
251
204 Julius Nyerere on the Church in Africa 1970
252
Inevitable Change 1977
254
C African Theology
255
The Biblical Basis for African Theology
257
Black Consciousness 1973
258
Black Theology 1973
259
211 Kimbangus New Jerusalem 1951
260
D Church and Apartheid in South Africa
261
Internationalism Is Not Christian
262
Cottesloe Consultation Statement 1961
263
b Exclusion of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches 1982
264
c Response of the Dutch Reformed Church
265
e Rustenburg Declaration
266
E Conflicts and New Beginnings
267
Demands to Restrict Sharia 1978
268
Dialogue Efforts since 1987
269
216 Churches and Civil Society
270
a All Africa Conference of Churches Proceedings 1991
271
Anglican Archbishop Gitaris Account 19871997
272
d President Chiluba Declares Zambia a Christian Nation 1991
273
217 Independent Churches and Democratization
274
LATIN AMERICA
275
I LATIN AMERICA 14501600
277
On the Religion of the Tainos 1498
278
Moctezuma in Anticipation of Cortés 1519
279
Lament after the Conquest about 1523
280
Conquest and Evangelization 1590
281
B Legitimation and Criticism of the Conquest
282
Bull Inter caetera May 4 1493
283
The Encomienda December 20 1503
285
224 The Advent Sermon of Antonio Montesinos 1511
286
225 The Requerimiento and Criticism of It
287
a The Requerimiento 1513
288
Criticism of the Requerimiento ca 1526
289
226 Pope Paul III on the Human Dignity of the Indians 1537
290
227 Two Controversial Interpretations of the Compelle intrare
291
a Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda 1544
292
C Establishment of Colonial Church Structures
293
229 Exercise of Patronage by Philip II 1574
295
Evangelization of the Inca Empire End of the Sixteenth Century
297
Agreement on Peaceful Missionization 1537
298
Catholic and Calvinistic Activities
299
On the Land and People of Brazil 1549
300
234 Language and Missionary Work
302
The Indians Should Be Taught in Their Own Language 1583
303
Rehabilitation of the Aztec Culture 1577
306
F Failed Approaches to Indian Christianity
308
Life Story of a New Convert ca 1563
309
Debates about a College for Indians ca 1570
310
No Indian Priests 1596
311
II LATIN AMERICA 16001800
313
b Hospitals
314
The Cult of the Virgin of Guadalupe 1649
315
A Debate on the Erudition of Women 169091
317
The Answer to Sor Filotea 1691
318
244 Missionary Work in the Baroque Period
319
B Indian and Mestizo Voices
321
The Incas Looked for the True God 1609
322
Christianity as the Origin of All Evil Seventeenth Century
323
248 Indian Brotherhood of the Virgin of Copacabana 1613
325
249 Chronicle of the Indian F Guamán Poma de Ayala ca 1615
326
a The Conquest
327
c Ordinary Christian Indians
328
C The Reductions Settlements of the Jesuits and Their Purpose
329
What Are the Reductions of the Jesuits? 1630
330
Everyday Life in the Reductions 1697
331
Sunday in the Reductions 1771
332
253 Franciscans in California 1787
334
D Slavery
335
b On the Black Slaves Capacity for Faith
336
Negro Slaves in the French Antilles ca 1700
337
E Colonial Protestantism
338
258 The Moravian Mission in the Caribbean 1739
339
F Heralds of Independence
340
Uprising of Túpac Amaru II 17801781
341
a Indians Mestizos and Creoles against the Europeans 1780
342
Letter to the Spaniards in America 1792
344
III LATIN AMERICA 18001890
346
Priest in the Fight for Independence
347
a On the Hidalgo Manifestos to the Americans 1810
348
Simón Bolívar and the Religion 1815
349
Political Catechism 1814
350
On the Rights of the Indian 1825
351
B Rome and the New Countries
352
269 A Report on the State of the Church 1825
353
Concordat of September 26 1862
354
271 Surrounding Vatican I 18691870
356
C Popular Religion and the State of the Church and the Missions
357
On the Decadence of the Clergy in Quito 1805
358
Report on a Former Reduction 1825
359
Catholicism and the Religion of AfricanAmericans ca 1880
360
D Protestantism
361
b Legal Status of Protestants 1824
362
278 Private Initiatives for the Distribution of Bibles 1826
363
AngloSaxon Missionary Protestantism 1862
364
Native American Moravian Indian Communities 1849
365
Civil Status of Protestants 1843
366
IV LATIN AMERICA 18901945
367
c Missions among the Indians
368
a Development of Parish of Catholic Immigrants 1893
369
Problems with Popular Piety
370
B Confessional Pluralization
371
Beginnings of an InterProtestant Network
373
Umbanda 1939
374
German Immigrants and the Third Reich 1934
375
C Faces of Latin American Catholicism
376
a The Beginnings of Conselheiro during the Monarchy 1877
377
The Cristiada 19261929
378
b On the Causes of the Peoples Uprising of 19261929
379
Conflict between the Supporters of the Indigenous and the Supporters of the Hispanics
380
Reply to J C Mariátegui 1931
381
Black African Popular Piety 1941
382
D The Emergence of the Social Question
383
On the Social Condition and the Church in Latin America 1947
384
V LATIN AMERICA 19451990
386
297 The Formation of CELAM in 1955
387
Church and Revolution 1960
388
Catholics on the Side of the Military Dictatorship 1964
389
B The Second Vatican Council and Its Reception
390
302 Revolution and Violence
391
a The Way of Camilo Torres 1965
392
b From the Encyclical Populorum progressio 1967
393
303 Second General Conference of the Episcopate in Medellín 1968
394
b Liberating Education as an Answer to Our Needs
395
c Option for the Poor
396
304 Characteristics of Liberation Theology
397
Not Development but Social Revolution
398
d Bible Interpretation of the Base Community of Solentiname 1973
399
The Political Dimension of the Faith
400
305 Third General Conference of the Episcopate in Puebla 1979
401
b Affirmation of the Preferential Option for the Poor
402
C The Conflict on the Theology of Liberation
403
Cuba as a Reference Model
405
309 From the Encyclical Sollicitudo rei socialis 1987
407
D Developments of Protestantism
408
A Protestant Liberation Theologian
409
312 NeoPentecostal Movements since 1980
410
Vida Abundante 1989
411
E Awakening and Multiplicity
412
314 Recognition of Religious Pluralism 1985
413
316 Debates Surrounding the 500Year Celebration
414
a A Letter to Third World Theologians June 6 1986
415
c Message of John Paul II October 13 1992
416
317 Ecumenism and Liberation 1989
417
Acknowledgments
419
Index
423
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