Indonesia: Towards Democracy
This book traces the beginning of the process of nation-formation, the struggle for independence, the hopeful beginning of the new nation-state of Indonesia only to be followed by hard and difficult ways to remain true to the ideals of independence. In the process Indonesia with its sprawling archipelago and its multi-ethnic and multi-religious nation has to undergo various types of crisis and internal conflicts, but the ideals that have been nurtured since the beginning when a new nation began to be visualized remain intact. Some changes in the interpretation may have taken place and some deviations here and there can be noticed but the literal meaning of the ideals continues to be the guiding light. In short this is a history of a nation in the continuing effort to retain the ideals of its existence.
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1 The Formation of a Multiethnic Nation
2 War Revolution and the NationState
3 Democracy and Problems of Integration
4 National Identity in a Revolutionary State
5 National Values in the Pancasila Democracy
6 The Greedy State and Its Nemeses
1945 Constitution Aceh Affairs Agung Ali Sastroamidjojo already army Bandung became began cabinet central government colonial conflict continued Cornell University crisis cultural democratic Dutch East Timor economic election emerged established ethnic event fact forces formation former foundation GOLKAR Guided Democracy Hatta Iava Iavanese idea ideological intellectual internal Ithaca Jakarta Japanese Java leaders leadership Madurese major Malaka Masyumi meantime military Minangkabau modern Mohammad Hatta movement Muhammadiyah Muslims Nasution nation-state national revolution nationalist Netherlands Indies newly officially Order organization Pancasila Papua parliament people’s political parties President Sukarno Prime Minister Proclamation of Independence programme province radical rebellion regime region religious Republic of Indonesia Republican revolutionary RUSI Sarekat Islam simply Sinar Harapan Sjahrir social Soeharto South Sulawesi Southeast Asia speech sphere struggle Sukarno Sulawesi Sumatra Tan Malaka Taufik Abdullah tradition ulama University Press West Irian West Sumatra Yogyakarta