Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 1
Keat Gin Ooi
ABC-CLIO, Jan 1, 2004 - History - 1791 pages
This reference work explores the history of the region that consists of Myanmar (formerly Burma), Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia, the Phillippines and East Timor. It covers topics including archaeology and prehistory and politics and culture.
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Willem Wolters analysis and narration of the Philippine-American War is by far a classic pro-American view. Although it mentions some facts and figures, it fails to make a critical analysis of the war itself - its objectives and the real impact of this war in terms of the number of Filipino casualties. The fact of the matter is, more than 1,000,000 Filipinos were killed during this war. No atrocities against the Filipinos were mentioned but only a testament that America had "the upperhand" because they were "well trained" and Filipinos were not. There is no question about this statement, for America sent their troops to the Philippines not to wave white flags of peace but to wage war. And, yes, resistance came with a cost and what an inconvenience it was for America. As far as American war history is concerned, this was their FIRST biggest war outside the Americas and perhaps second only to Vietnam in terms of native casualties.So little of this war is written in the wider academic research because it was certainly not one of their glorious moments; Filipinos do not fall under the wider category of threat against American values or lifestyle in which their justification of war usually revolve around. Hence, an embarrassment to American history.
In the section about Kadazan vs Dusun, the author of the article had either 'purposely' or innocently erred in saying that Kadazan means "enemy" in the Liwan/Sokid/Tagaas/Lotud/Kimaragang/Sarayo/Tindal (classified under one sub-tribe of the Kadazan i.e. Sokid.
(There are various verses in the Koran and haddith that taught that non-muslims are worse than animals. They are non-humans and therefore classified as such, i.e. Orchards (Dusuns),etc and killing them are not sinful in the eyes of Allah. http://www.islam-watch.org/AbulKasem/Non-Muslims-Worse-than-Animals.htm)
(On the other hand, if the "principalities governing these tribes are aligned to the Prince of Persia (Satan) and Kadazan refers to the "sons or sakag do Kinoingan (YHWH), then the interpretation is correct - the Kadazan are indeed the enemies or opponents of Satan and his human allies because they are aligned to the Son of God, Boos do Kinoingan nadadi Kadazan)
The "Inaait" of the Bobohizans (Bobolian) are passed down from generation to generation. It takes a long and challenging process to train a novice into a 'matured' bobohizans who was expected to exercise leadership, wisdom and discipline in their vocation. The following is an excerpt which was taken from a preliminary dialogue between the Bobohizan, through his or her 'divato' or spirit guide and a 'principality, normally a bigger or higher demon. (It has to be understood that the Bobohizan's primary objective is to 'seek the divine intervention of Kinoingan (Creator God) but he had to pass through these 'demons' and had to appease them by bringing some kind of offerings to them, of course, this is indeed a deception)
Ina'it of the Bobohizan (Tangaa)
"Divato oi, kumukud oi,
Kodivataan dikozu, komukudan di muzu,
Iiih kano podo umangkai, kodivatan dikozu,
Komukudan dimuzu, umakai tokou,
Manakadai doid hibababou,
Mononsuvato id sombou.
Divato oi, kumukud oi,
Toodo tokou do madsakazan,
Toodo tokou do mogundanan,
Om sontimbang tokou no,
Sombat nokio, nombo nopo au otimbang
Nga timbangon do timbagat,
Paaton do tanghansod,
Do au no otimbang,
Au apaat nga oiti no tokou do hintaga,
Disakazan, diti hinsonod, diti tudanan.
Kanou bosizo tokou sakazan,
Koudo do tozohud,
Koudo do bongutano,
Ingkokondio ih binosi,
Bongutan ih ginaud.
Uha induvo bosi,
Kiva nga intohu gaud.
Aati to no do tozohud,
Uha induvo bosizo,
Vanga intohu gaud.
Iiih om nokosondikot to no oi Ondig,
Iiih om nakasa'amboi to no oi Andam.
Nokosondikot kito nodo nantadon,
Nakasahamboi kito nodo gazamon,
Hiiih sondikoton unsui,
Hiih sonhoboson kio.
Logon: "Tuuk oi Boisan, Bahazi,
isai ti monondikot,
Dozo iti manahambo?"
Tuuk oi Boisan, Bahazi,
Ada oku intukao,
Nobobou oku pom sandak,
Noguom oku pom dazang;
Ada oku ih intukao,
Iiih nobobou oku ih,
Noguom oku ih kio.
Logon: " Tuuk oi Boisan, Bahazi,
Koiho kodo monondikot.
Aanom ko monanhaboi,
tondu Tanga'a ko toi,
Tu kisinakai do baahon,
Kinudan do tuvakon,
Kisinakai do hinava,
Kinudan do dadai? "
Gina gina naku,
Om kisinakai do baahon,
Tuvakon, hinava, dadai,
Tondu Kadazan zou ih,
Tu kisinakai zou do tagung,
Kinudan do gimbahon,
Kisinakai do tandaa,
Kinudan do tomudung,
Kisinakai zou do ondika,
Kinudan do inandoi,
Kisinakai do sangadangon,
Kinudan do sontomungan,
Kisinakai do pamantai,
Kinudan do hobuon,
Kisinakai zou do koiing,
Kinudan do doisoos,
Kisinakai do suud,
Kinudan do sudai,
Kisinakai do tumau,
Kinudan do tisu,
Tumau do ginavo,
Iiisu do hinsonod."
(At this point, my grandma, who had been a Christian (RC) for a number of years, stopped
as she felt that the evil spirits i.e. divato, were trying to come back to her.)
Note: dictated by Odu Ginayam ( a student bobohizan in early 1900)
recorded by: Gun Ignatius Buji (grandson) in 1964.
Note: The author wish to
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