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Ammonites anticlinal appear ascending section band base Bhabeh Blini Blini group boundary carboniferous Cautley central gneiss Central Himalaya character clays conglomerates contortion crystalline schists Dagshai Damuda denudation deposits described Dhauladhar east elevation eocene eruptive rocks extension fact feature feet flaggy flanking flexure formation fossils Ganges geological gneiss gneissic axis gorge granite greenstone Herbert horizon India Indus Jumna Kasauli Krol Kumaun limestone Lower Himalaya lower Siwalik mass metamorphic rocks metamorphism middle miles mountains Mussooree Nahan Nahan group Naini Nepal north-west notice nummulitic observed occur older Palaeozoic pass peaks plains portion position quartzite ridge rock-series sandstones Satlaj schists seen shales Sikhim Silurian Simla Simla region Sirmur Siwalik hills Siwalik strata slates slaty snowy range Spiti Stolickza Stoliczka Strachey Strachey's stratigraphical strike Sub-Himalayan zone Subathu Subathu beds summit synclinal synclinal basin tertiary thickness Tibet triassic unconformity upheaval upper Siwalik valley whole
Page 4 - An abstract of his results was published in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London for November, 1851, and the map accompanying his paper includes about the same ground as that of Herbert.
Page 43 - Satlaj to the north, which here constitutes the boundary between the British territory and Tibet (see map), we find ourselves on a plain 120 miles in length and varying from 15 to 60 miles in breadth, that stretches away in a north-westerly direction. Its western portion is everywhere intersected by stupendous ravines, that of the Satlaj being nearly 3,000 feet deep.
Page 43 - Tertiary deposit. existence of a great Tertiary deposit at an elevation of from 14,000 to 16,000 feet above the sea, still preserving an almost perfectly horizontal surface. On crossing the watershed-ridge between the streams that flow to the south into the Ganges, and those that fall into the upper part of the...
Page 36 - Entering the region of the crystalline schists1 of the great line of peaks, we find the strike still remaining the same, with the dip pretty constantly to the NNE Along the lines on which the points of greatest elevation are found in this part of the range, we invariably see for a breadth of several miles veins of granite in great abundance penetrating the...
Page 38 - Chatetes is common. Next in order come dark-red grits, sometimes marly, containing only a few fragments of Encrinital stems. Above these, pale flesh-coloured quartzite, and finally a white quartzite, in neither of which I ever found any fossils, and which form the highest peaks of the ridges composed of the Palaeozoic rocks.
Page 37 - It is nfler reaching the top of these strata, which is rarely done at * less elevation than 14,000 feet above the sea, that we at length enter again a region of fossiliferous rocks, which extends as far as my examinations have been carried. And it is not a little wonderful to find at this immense elevation a regular succession of most of the more important formations, from the Silurian to the Tertiary Periods.
Page 36 - ... often cutting through them, but, perhaps, most frequently following the bedding of the strata, between which they seem to have been forced. The great peaks are, I think, in almost every case, composed of schistose rock, but the granite veins may be most clearly seen on the faces of the mountains to very great elevations.* Kamet, one of the highest, of the peaks in this region, seems, however, to be among the exceptions...
Page 37 - ... shown by the occurrence of a coarse conglomerate, the component parts of which are perfectly distinct only a few feet above the granite." " Above these are slaty beds, in all perhaps 9,000 feet in thickness, consisting of coarse slates, grits, and limestones, all more or less affected by slaty cleavage, and all devoid of fossil remains.
Page 43 - ... that run nearly parallel with the surface, and that hardly deviate from a horizontal position. The discovery of the fossilized remains of several of the larger Mammalia distinctly marks the tertiary age of this deposit. The existence of such fossil remains in the northern parts of these mountains had been long known, but we were altogether ignorant of the precise locality whence they came, and had no facts before us from which any conclusions could be formed as to their geological import. The...
Page 40 - ... Palaeozoic series. The mountain-ridge of Silurian age most carefully examined by me lies generally parallel to the line of strike, and along its north-east face runs a stream separating it from the Secondary rocks, which rise in an almost impassable precipice beyond. The section here exposed must be at least 5,000 or 6,000 feet in thickness, but the difficulties of the route prevented my extending my examination into the lower beds.